Abstract

In the fall of 1997 the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program conducted a study of water-vapor-abundance-measurement at its southern Great Plains site. The large number of instruments included four solar radiometers to measure the columnar water vapor (CWV) by measuring solar transmittance in the 0.94-µm water-vapor absorption band. At first, no attempt was made to standardize our procedures to the same radiative transfer model and its underlying water-vapor spectroscopy. In the second round of comparison we used the same line-by-line code (which includes recently corrected H2O spectroscopy) to retrieve CWV from all four solar radiometers, thus decreasing the mean CWV by 8–13%. The remaining spread of 8% is an indication of the other-than-model uncertainties involved in the retrieval.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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2000 (4)

T. Ingold, B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, P. Demoulin, N. Kämpfer, “Modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.72, 0.82 and 0.94-µm absorption bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 24,327–24,343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H216O line intensity corrections for HITRAN-96,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

1999 (6)

P. W. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, “Comparison of spectral irradiance standards used to calibrate shortwave radiometers and spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2432–2439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. C. M. Learner, W. Zhong, J. D. Haigh, D. Belmiloud, J. Clarke, “The contribution of unknown weak water vapor lines to the absorption of solar radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3609–3612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Vesperini, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric water vapor content from spaceborne POLDER measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1613–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Mätzler, N. Kämpfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. Bouffiès, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Dubuisson, “Atmospheric water vapor estimate by a differential absorption technique with the polarisation and directionality of the Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3831–3841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micron region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

J. J. Michalsky, J. C. Liljegren, L. C. Harrison, “A comparison of Sun photometer derivations of total column water vapor and ozone to standard measures of same at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,995–26,003 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “Comparison of sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500–4512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. II. Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,519–16,535 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

L. Harrison, J. Michalsky, J. Berndt, “Automated multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer: an instrument for optical depth and radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5118–5125 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Stokes, S. E. Schwartz, “The atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program: programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. J. Kaufman, B.-C. Gao, “Remote sensing of water vapor in the near IR from EOS/MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 871–884 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B.-C. Gao, A. F. H. Goetz, “Column atmospheric water vapor and vegetation liquid water retrievals from airborne imaging spectrometer data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3549–3564 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (2)

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 25, 647–653 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1912 (1)

F. E. Fowle, “The spectroscopic determination of aqueous vapor,” Astrophys. J. 35, 149–162 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Acharaya, P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Allen, D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Andreae, M. O.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Banta, V.

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, J. C.

J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, P. W. Kiedron, D. W. Slater, J. C. Barnard, “A differential technique to retrieve column water vapor using sun radiometry,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Beauharnois, M.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Belmiloud, D.

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

R. C. M. Learner, W. Zhong, J. D. Haigh, D. Belmiloud, J. Clarke, “The contribution of unknown weak water vapor lines to the absorption of solar radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3609–3612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ben-David, A.

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 25, 647–653 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Berk, A.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Bernath, P. F.

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Harrison, J. Michalsky, J. Berndt, “Automated multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer: an instrument for optical depth and radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5118–5125 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berndt, J. L.

Bernstein, L. S.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Bevilacqua, R. M.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
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S. Bouffiès, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Dubuisson, “Atmospheric water vapor estimate by a differential absorption technique with the polarisation and directionality of the Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3831–3841 (1997).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

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M. Vesperini, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric water vapor content from spaceborne POLDER measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1613–1619 (1999).
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S. Bouffiès, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Dubuisson, “Atmospheric water vapor estimate by a differential absorption technique with the polarisation and directionality of the Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3831–3841 (1997).
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J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H216O line intensity corrections for HITRAN-96,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Chiou, E. W.

W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
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W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, J.

R. C. M. Learner, W. Zhong, J. D. Haigh, D. Belmiloud, J. Clarke, “The contribution of unknown weak water vapor lines to the absorption of solar radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3609–3612 (1999).
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S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. II. Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,519–16,535 (1995).
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F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Colin, R.

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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Demoulin, P.

T. Ingold, B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, P. Demoulin, N. Kämpfer, “Modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.72, 0.82 and 0.94-µm absorption bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 24,327–24,343 (2000).
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B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micron region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

Durkee, P. A.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Flagan, R. C.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
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L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H216O line intensity corrections for HITRAN-96,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
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B.-C. Gao, A. F. H. Goetz, “Column atmospheric water vapor and vegetation liquid water retrievals from airborne imaging spectrometer data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3549–3564 (1990).
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B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
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B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
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R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
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B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
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B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
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J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
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S. A. Clough, M. J. Iacono, “Line-by-line calculations of atmospheric fluxes and cooling rates. II. Application to carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and the halocarbons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,519–16,535 (1995).
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T. Ingold, B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, P. Demoulin, N. Kämpfer, “Modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.72, 0.82 and 0.94-µm absorption bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 24,327–24,343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Mätzler, N. Kämpfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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[CrossRef]

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B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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T. Ingold, B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, P. Demoulin, N. Kämpfer, “Modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.72, 0.82 and 0.94-µm absorption bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 24,327–24,343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Mätzler, N. Kämpfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
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L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kiedron, P. W.

P. W. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, “Comparison of spectral irradiance standards used to calibrate shortwave radiometers and spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2432–2439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, P. W. Kiedron, D. W. Slater, J. C. Barnard, “A differential technique to retrieve column water vapor using sun radiometry,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Kinne, S. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
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H. E. Revercomb, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, D. C. Tobin, P. F. W. van Delst, B. A. Whitney, “Accomplishments of the water vapor IOPs: an overview,” presented at the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, 23–27 March 1998, Tucson, Ariz.).

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J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
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J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
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Larsen, J. C.

W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

R. C. M. Learner, W. Zhong, J. D. Haigh, D. Belmiloud, J. Clarke, “The contribution of unknown weak water vapor lines to the absorption of solar radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3609–3612 (1999).
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J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
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J. J. Michalsky, J. C. Liljegren, L. C. Harrison, “A comparison of Sun photometer derivations of total column water vapor and ozone to standard measures of same at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,995–26,003 (1995).
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Livingston, J.

B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lumpe, J. D.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
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Markham, B. L.

R. N. Halthore, T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, B. L. Markham, “Sun photometric measurements of atmospheric water vapor column abundance in the 940-nm band,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 4343–4352 (1997).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, T.

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mätzler, C.

T. Ingold, B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, P. Demoulin, N. Kämpfer, “Modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.72, 0.82 and 0.94-µm absorption bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 24,327–24,343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Mätzler, N. Kämpfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micron region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McMaster, L. M.

W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J.

B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Harrison, J. Michalsky, J. Berndt, “Automated multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer: an instrument for optical depth and radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5118–5125 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michalsky, J. J.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, “Comparison of spectral irradiance standards used to calibrate shortwave radiometers and spectroradiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2432–2439 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Michalsky, J. C. Liljegren, L. C. Harrison, “A comparison of Sun photometer derivations of total column water vapor and ozone to standard measures of same at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 25,995–26,003 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, P. W. Kiedron, D. W. Slater, J. C. Barnard, “A differential technique to retrieve column water vapor using sun radiometry,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Min, Q.

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, P. W. Kiedron, D. W. Slater, J. C. Barnard, “A differential technique to retrieve column water vapor using sun radiometry,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Mina, C.

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, D. A.

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

Noone, K. J.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, J. J.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S.

W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Öström, E.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peter, R.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micron region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pilewski, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pilewskie, P. A.

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 25, 647–653 (1987).
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Polyansky, O. L.

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pruvost, P.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Puschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ramananaherosa, R.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. E.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 25, 647–653 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

H. E. Revercomb, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, D. C. Tobin, P. F. W. van Delst, B. A. Whitney, “Accomplishments of the water vapor IOPs: an overview,” presented at the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, 23–27 March 1998, Tucson, Ariz.).

Rind, D.

W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, D. C.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothmann, L. S.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Rusch, D. W.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.

B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Puschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewski, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra: Mauna Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to lidar data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 22,969–22,985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Savin, V. A.

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schermaul, R.

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

Schmid, B.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Ingold, B. Schmid, C. Mätzler, P. Demoulin, N. Kämpfer, “Modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.72, 0.82 and 0.94-µm absorption bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 24,327–24,343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Mätzler, N. Kämpfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micron region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, C. Wehrli, “Comparison of sun photometer calibration by use of the Langley technique and the standard lamp,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4500–4512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, S. E.

G. M. Stokes, S. E. Schwartz, “The atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program: programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scott-Fleming, I. C.

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 25, 647–653 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sekler, J.

B. Schmid, P. R. Spyak, S. F. Biggar, C. Wehrli, J. Sekler, T. Ingold, C. Mätzler, N. Kämpfer, “Evaluation of the applicability of solar and lamp radiometric calibrations of a precision Sun photometer operating between 300 and 1025 nm,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3923–3941 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micron region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Selby, J. E. A.

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

J. D. Lumpe, R. M. Bevilacqua, K. W. Hoppel, S. S. Krigman, D. L. Kriebel, C. E. Randall, D. W. Rusch, C. Brogniez, R. Ramananaherosa, E. P. Shettle, J. J. Olivero, J. Lenoble, P. Pruvost, “POAM II retrieval algorithm and error analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 23,593–23,614 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kneizys, L. W. Abreu, G. P. Anderson, J. H. Chetwynd, E. P. Shettle, A. Berk, L. S. Bernstein, D. C. Robertson, P. Acharaya, L. S. Rothmann, J. E. A. Selby, W. O. Gallery, S. A. Clough, “The Modtran 2/3 report and lowtran 7 model,” (Phillips Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1996).

Slater, D. W.

J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, P. W. Kiedron, D. W. Slater, J. C. Barnard, “A differential technique to retrieve column water vapor using sun radiometry,” J. Geophys. Res. (to be published).

Slutsker, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

Spyak, P. R.

Stokes, G. M.

G. M. Stokes, S. E. Schwartz, “The atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program: programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

M. Vesperini, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric water vapor content from spaceborne POLDER measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1613–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bouffiès, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Dubuisson, “Atmospheric water vapor estimate by a differential absorption technique with the polarisation and directionality of the Earth reflectances (POLDER) instrument,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3831–3841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

W. P. Chu, E. W. Chiou, J. C. Larsen, L. W. Thomason, D. Rind, J. J. Buglia, S. Oltmans, M. P. McCormick, L. M. McMaster, “Algorithms and sensitivity analyses for Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. II. Water vapor retrieval,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 4857–4866 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K. J.

B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micron region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D. C.

H. E. Revercomb, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, D. C. Tobin, P. F. W. van Delst, B. A. Whitney, “Accomplishments of the water vapor IOPs: an overview,” presented at the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, 23–27 March 1998, Tucson, Ariz.).

Van Ark, W.

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van Delst, P. F. W.

H. E. Revercomb, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, D. C. Tobin, P. F. W. van Delst, B. A. Whitney, “Accomplishments of the water vapor IOPs: an overview,” presented at the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, 23–27 March 1998, Tucson, Ariz.).

Vandaele, A.-C.

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. P. Giver, C. Chackerian, P. Varanasi, “Visible and near-infrared H216O line intensity corrections for HITRAN-96,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 66, 101–105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vesperini, M.

M. Vesperini, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric water vapor content from spaceborne POLDER measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1613–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wehrli, C.

Welton, E. J.

B. Schmid, J. M. Livingston, P. B. Russell, P. A. Durkee, H. H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, S. Gassó, D. A. Hegg, E. Öström, K. J. Noone, E. J. Welton, K. J. Voss, H. R. Gordon, P. Formenti, M. O. Andreae, “Clear sky closure studies of lower tropospheric aerosol and water vapor during ACE 2 using airborne sunphotometer, airborne in-situ, space-borne, and ground-based measurements,” Tellus B 52, 568–593 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, B. A.

H. E. Revercomb, W. F. Feltz, R. O. Knuteson, D. C. Tobin, P. F. W. van Delst, B. A. Whitney, “Accomplishments of the water vapor IOPs: an overview,” presented at the Eighth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting, 23–27 March 1998, Tucson, Ariz.).

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

Yung, Y. L.

R. M. Goody, Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation: Theoretical Basis, 2nd ed. (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1989).

Zhong, W.

R. C. M. Learner, W. Zhong, J. D. Haigh, D. Belmiloud, J. Clarke, “The contribution of unknown weak water vapor lines to the absorption of solar radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3609–3612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zobov, N. F.

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Astrophys. J. (1)

F. E. Fowle, “The spectroscopic determination of aqueous vapor,” Astrophys. J. 35, 149–162 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

G. M. Stokes, S. E. Schwartz, “The atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program: programmatic background and design of the cloud and radiation test bed,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 75, 1201–1221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

R. C. M. Learner, W. Zhong, J. D. Haigh, D. Belmiloud, J. Clarke, “The contribution of unknown weak water vapor lines to the absorption of solar radiation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 3609–3612 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Harrison, M. Beauharnois, J. Berndt, P. Kiedron, J. J. Michalsky, Q. Min, “The rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) at SGP,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1715–1718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmid, J. Michalsky, R. Halthore, M. Beauharnois, L. Harrison, J. Livingston, P. Russell, B. Holben, T. Eck, A. Smirnov, “Comparison of aerosol optical depth from four solar radiometers during the Fall 1997 ARM intensive observation period,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2725–2728 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Belmiloud, R. Schermaul, K. M. Smith, N. F. Zobov, J. W. Brault, R. C. M. Learner, D. A. Newnham, J. Tennyson, “New studies of the visible and near-infrared absorption by water vapour and some problems with the HITRAN database,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 22, 3703–3706 (2000).

IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

J. A. Reagan, P. A. Pilewskie, I. C. Scott-Fleming, B. M. Herman, A. Ben-David, “Extrapolation of Earth-based solar irradiance measurements to exoatmospheric levels for broad-band and selected absorption-band observations,” IEEE Geosci. Rem. Sens. 25, 647–653 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (2)

Y. J. Kaufman, B.-C. Gao, “Remote sensing of water vapor in the near IR from EOS/MODIS,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 30, 871–884 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Vesperini, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric water vapor content from spaceborne POLDER measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1613–1619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

T. Matsumoto, P. B. Russell, C. Mina, W. Van Ark, V. Banta, “Airborne tracking sunphotometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 4, 336–339 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Carleer, A. Jenouvrier, A.-C. Vandaele, P. F. Bernath, M. F. Mérienne, R. Colin, N. F. Zobov, O. L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson, V. A. Savin, “The near infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet overtone spectrum of water,” J. Chem. Phys. 111, 2444–2450 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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B. Schmid, K. J. Thome, P. Demoulin, R. Peter, C. Mätzler, J. Sekler, “Comparison of modeled and empirical approaches for retrieving columnar water vapor from solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94 micron region,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9345–9358 (1996).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer (2)

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Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Time series of columnar water vapor from different instruments and methods. Top, initial comparison for which no attempts have been made to standardize our procedure to one radiative transfer model. Bottom: All method A and method B retrievals use the same radiative transfer model (lblrtm 5.10).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1, but only two hours are shown to show small-scale variations better.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CWV comparison with the AATS-6. Left, initial comparison, for which no attempts have been made to standardize our procedure to one radiative transfer model. Right, retrievals were made with the same radiative transfer model (lblrtm 5.10). rmse, root mean square error with respect to the best-fit line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CWV comparison with the AATS-6. Left, initial comparison, for which modtran 3.5 was used for the AATS-6. Right, lblrtm 5.10 was used for the AATS-6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Statistics for CWV comparison with the AATS-6. Top, initial comparison, for which no attempts have been made to standardize our procedure to one radiative transfer model. Bottom, all method A and method B retrievals used the same radiative transfer model (lblrtm 5.10).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Central Wavelengths (λ) and Bandwidths (Δλ, FWHM) of Filtered Instruments

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of CWV from Various Instruments and Methods with the AATS-6 Instrumenta

Tables Icon

Table 3 Same as Table 2 but with the Same Radiative Transfer Model Used for All Method A and Method B Retrievals

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Vλ=V0λd-2 exp-mτλ,
ln Vλ=lnV0λd-2-mτλ.
τλ=τRλ+τ3λ+τ2λ+τaλ,
Vλ=V0λd-2 exp-mτRλ+τaλ+τ3λTwλ¯.
Twλ¯=Δλ E0λSλexp-mτwλdλΔλ E0λSλdλ,
Twλ¯=exp-amub,
ln Vλ+mτaλ+τRλ+τ3λ=lnV0λd-2-amub.
u=1m1alnV0λd-2Vλ-mτRλ+τaλ+τ3λ1/b.
VλinVλout=E0λinELλoutVLλinE0λoutELλinVLλout Twλ¯×exp-mτRλin+τaλin-τRλout-τaλout.
Vwλ=VλexpmτRλ+τaλ+τ3λ=V0λd-2Twλ¯.
Vwλd2=V0λexp-amub-βmu.

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