Abstract

A compact image-capturing system called TOMBO (an acronym for thin observation module by bound optics) is presented in which the compound-eye imaging system is utilized to achieve a thin optical configuration. The captured multiple images are processed to retrieve the image of the target object. For image retrieval, two kinds of processing method are considered: image sampling and backprojection. Computer simulations and preliminary experiments were executed on an evaluation system to verify the principles of the system and to clarify the issues related to its implementation.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Ogata, J. Ishida, T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Sanders, C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Hamanaka, H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. A. Horridge, “Apposition eyes of large diurnal insects as organs adapted to seeing,” Proc. R. Soc. London 207, 287–309 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Hechit, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1998), Chap. 3.
  6. K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.
  7. J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Strang, Linear Algebra and Its Application (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1976), Chap. 3.
  9. T. S. Huang, P. M. Narendra, “Image restoration by singular value decomposition,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2213–2216 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

K. Hamanaka, H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. S. Sanders, C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

G. A. Horridge, “Apposition eyes of large diurnal insects as organs adapted to seeing,” Proc. R. Soc. London 207, 287–309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Halford, C. E.

J. S. Sanders, C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, K.

K. Hamanaka, H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hechit, E.

E. Hechit, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1998), Chap. 3.

Horridge, G. A.

G. A. Horridge, “Apposition eyes of large diurnal insects as organs adapted to seeing,” Proc. R. Soc. London 207, 287–309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. S.

Ichioka, Y.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.

Ishida, J.

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, K.

K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kondou, N.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koshi, H.

K. Hamanaka, H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, T.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miyatake, S.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.

Miyazaki, D.

K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, T.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Narendra, P. M.

Ogata, S.

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, J. S.

J. S. Sanders, C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, T.

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Strang, G.

G. Strang, Linear Algebra and Its Application (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1976), Chap. 3.

Tanida, J.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

S. Ogata, J. Ishida, T. Sasano, “Optical sensor array in an artificial compound eye,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3649–3655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanders, C. E. Halford, “Design and analysis of apposition compound eye optical sensors,” Opt. Eng. 34, 222–235 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Hamanaka, H. Koshi, “An artificial compound eye using a microlens array and its application to scale invariant processing,” Opt. Rev. 3, 264–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

G. A. Horridge, “Apposition eyes of large diurnal insects as organs adapted to seeing,” Proc. R. Soc. London 207, 287–309 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

E. Hechit, Optics, 3rd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1998), Chap. 3.

K. Yamada, J. Tanida, W. Yu, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Fabrication of diffractive microlens array for opto-electronic hybrid information system,” in Proceedings of Diffractive Optics ’99, Vol. 22 of European Optical Society Topical Meetings Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1999), pp. 52–53.

J. Tanida, T. Kumagai, K. Yamada, S. Miyatake, K. Ishida, T. Morimoto, N. Kondou, D. Miyazaki, Y. Ichioka, “Thin observation module by bound optics (TOMBO): an optoelectronic image capturing system,” in Optics in Computing 2000, R. A. Lessard, T. Galstian, eds., Proc. SPIE4089, 1030–1036 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Strang, Linear Algebra and Its Application (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1976), Chap. 3.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Compound-eye imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Erect image retrieved by sampling of multiple images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TOMBO architecture: (a) system structure and (b) optical system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal-separation layer: (a) optical system and (b) scanning electron microscope picture of a fabricated separation layer. PD, photodiode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarizing filters for elimination of cross talk.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Field of view of the TOMBO: (a) normal form and (b) wide-view configuration with deflective elements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of the experimental TOMBO system.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Example images captured by the experimental TOMBO system (a) without and (b) with a separation layer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Image retrieval by the image-sampling method: (a) erect, (b) demagnified, (c) stretched, and (d) rotated images.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Relationship between object and detected signals for μ = 3 and ν = 3: (a) geometrical relation and (b) typical form of the system equation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simulation of image retrieval by the backprojection method: (a) input image, (b) detected images, (c) image of a unit, and (d) retrieved image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Image retrieval by the backprojection method with multiple images captured by the experimental TOMBO system: (a) image of a unit and (b) retrieved image.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Example Combinations of Characteristic Parameters for N = 739 × 575 and s = 11 µm × 11 µm

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N=μν,
s=d/ν.
x=a-cd2c,
g=Hf.
H=H2H1,
H=VWUT,
W=w1w20wr000.
H+=VW+UT,
W+=w1-1w2-10wr-1000.
f=H+g.

Metrics