Abstract

Two methods for estimating the visual effects of light scattered from a laser glare source were compared: (1) a veiling luminance (VL) model that convolves a radiometric scan of the corneal light distribution with a point-spread function to calculate the retinal distribution and (2) psychophysically determined equivalent background luminance (EBL). For six subjects, detection thresholds for a 12-arc-min-diameter test spot were measured at 24 points in the glare field (4 quadrants × 6 eccentricities between 0.25 and 8 deg). Measured Weber fractions were used to calculate EBL’s for each test point. Output of the VL model matched the EBL data well, but underestimated the EBL at the smallest (0.25-deg) eccentricity and overestimated it at eccentricities from 1 to 4 deg. This model can be a useful predictor of visual decrements in a variety of glare situations.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. Weiss, “Feds to Las Vegas: no more razzle dazzle,” Photonics Spectra 30(1), 50–52 (1996).
  2. J. A. D’Andrea, J. C. Knepton, “Effects of laser glare and aircraft windscreen on visual search performance under low ambient lighting,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1989).
  3. M. D. Reddix, T. L. DeVietti, J. C. Knepton, J. A. D’Andrea, “The effect of three levels of laser glare on the speed and accuracy of target location performance when viewing a briefly presented visual array,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1990).
  4. P. W. Cobb, “The influence of illumination of the eye on visual acuity,” Am. J. Physiol. 29, 76–99 (1911).
  5. J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–52 (1984).
  6. W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “Equivalent adaptation levels in localized retinal areas,” in Report of a Joint Discussion on Vision (Physiological Society, London, 1933), pp. 194–211.
  7. C. Haig, “The course of rod adaptation as influenced by the intensity and duration of preadaptation to light,” J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735–751 (1941).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. J. Vos, M. A. Bouman, “Contribution of the retina to entoptic scatter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 95–100 (1964).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. R. Menendez, P. A. Smith, “Model for predicting the effects of laser exposures and eye protection on vision,” in Laser Safety, Eyesafe Laser Systems, and Laser Eye Protection, P. K. Bryan, D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE1207, 21–33 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. A. Toet, J. K. IJspeert, H. Vos, J. Walraven, “Computing the retinal image profile,” (TNO Human Factors Research Institute, Soesterberg, Netherlands, 1995).
  13. J. K. IJspeert, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, H. Spekreijse, “An improved mathematical description of the foveal visual point spread function with parameters for age, pupil size, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 33, 15–20 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. J. Vos, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “On the course of the disability glare function and its attribution to components of ocular scatter,” in CIE Collection in Colour and Vision, 1997, CIE 124/2-1997 (International Commission on Illumination, Vienna, 1997).
  15. A. van Meeteren, “Calculations on the optical modulation transfer function of the human eye for white light,” Opt. Acta 21, 395–412 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 1131–1136 (1967).
  17. R. P. Hemenger, “Intraocular light scatter in normal visual loss with age,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1972–1974 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Liang, G. Westheimer, “Optical performances of human eyes derived from double-pass measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1411–1416 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. H. Carter, “The effects of aging on selected visual functions: color vision, glare sensitivity, field of vision, and accommodation,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Alan R. Liss, New York, 1982), pp. 121–130.
  20. N. H. Pulling, E. Wolf, S. P. Sturgis, D. R. Vaillancourt, J. J. Dolliver, “Headlight glare resistance and driver age,” Hum. Factors 22, 103–112 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  21. R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Westheimer, J. Liang, “Influence of ocular light scatter on the eye’s optical performance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1417–1424 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Wolf, “Glare and age,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 604, 502–514 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. d. Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. d. Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).
  25. S. Wolfram, Mathematica: A System for Doing Mathematics by Computer (Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, Calif., 1991).
  26. A. W. Christie, P. J. Fischer, “The effects of glare from street lighting lanterns on the vision of drivers of different age,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 31, 93–108 (1966).
  27. C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. W. Hahn, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. I. Bleaches and backgrounds,” Vision Res. 35, 1585–1594 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. A. Weiss, “Feds to Las Vegas: no more razzle dazzle,” Photonics Spectra 30(1), 50–52 (1996).

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. K. IJspeert, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, H. Spekreijse, “An improved mathematical description of the foveal visual point spread function with parameters for age, pupil size, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 33, 15–20 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. d. Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. d. Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

R. P. Hemenger, “Intraocular light scatter in normal visual loss with age,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1972–1974 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–52 (1984).

1980 (1)

N. H. Pulling, E. Wolf, S. P. Sturgis, D. R. Vaillancourt, J. J. Dolliver, “Headlight glare resistance and driver age,” Hum. Factors 22, 103–112 (1980).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

A. van Meeteren, “Calculations on the optical modulation transfer function of the human eye for white light,” Opt. Acta 21, 395–412 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 1131–1136 (1967).

1966 (1)

A. W. Christie, P. J. Fischer, “The effects of glare from street lighting lanterns on the vision of drivers of different age,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 31, 93–108 (1966).

1964 (1)

1960 (1)

E. Wolf, “Glare and age,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 604, 502–514 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

C. Haig, “The course of rod adaptation as influenced by the intensity and duration of preadaptation to light,” J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735–751 (1941).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1911 (1)

P. W. Cobb, “The influence of illumination of the eye on visual acuity,” Am. J. Physiol. 29, 76–99 (1911).

Allen, M. J.

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 1131–1136 (1967).

Allen, R. G.

J. A. Labo, A. R. Menendez, R. G. Allen, B. P. Edmonds, M. D. Turner, “Outdoor measures of laser veiling glare effects in the visual field. A preliminary study, USAFSAM Tech. PaperUSAFSAM-TP-90-9 (U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, 1990).

Bouman, M. A.

Carter, J. H.

J. H. Carter, “The effects of aging on selected visual functions: color vision, glare sensitivity, field of vision, and accommodation,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Alan R. Liss, New York, 1982), pp. 121–130.

Christie, A. W.

A. W. Christie, P. J. Fischer, “The effects of glare from street lighting lanterns on the vision of drivers of different age,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 31, 93–108 (1966).

Cicerone, C. M.

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobb, P. W.

P. W. Cobb, “The influence of illumination of the eye on visual acuity,” Am. J. Physiol. 29, 76–99 (1911).

Crawford, B. H.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “Equivalent adaptation levels in localized retinal areas,” in Report of a Joint Discussion on Vision (Physiological Society, London, 1933), pp. 194–211.

D’Andrea, J. A.

M. D. Reddix, T. L. DeVietti, J. C. Knepton, J. A. D’Andrea, “The effect of three levels of laser glare on the speed and accuracy of target location performance when viewing a briefly presented visual array,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1990).

J. A. D’Andrea, J. C. Knepton, “Effects of laser glare and aircraft windscreen on visual search performance under low ambient lighting,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1989).

DeVietti, T. L.

M. D. Reddix, T. L. DeVietti, J. C. Knepton, J. A. D’Andrea, “The effect of three levels of laser glare on the speed and accuracy of target location performance when viewing a briefly presented visual array,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1990).

Dolliver, J. J.

N. H. Pulling, E. Wolf, S. P. Sturgis, D. R. Vaillancourt, J. J. Dolliver, “Headlight glare resistance and driver age,” Hum. Factors 22, 103–112 (1980).
[PubMed]

Edmonds, B. P.

J. A. Labo, A. R. Menendez, R. G. Allen, B. P. Edmonds, M. D. Turner, “Outdoor measures of laser veiling glare effects in the visual field. A preliminary study, USAFSAM Tech. PaperUSAFSAM-TP-90-9 (U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, 1990).

Elliott, D. B.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P. J.

A. W. Christie, P. J. Fischer, “The effects of glare from street lighting lanterns on the vision of drivers of different age,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 31, 93–108 (1966).

Geisler, W. S.

L. W. Hahn, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. I. Bleaches and backgrounds,” Vision Res. 35, 1585–1594 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, L. W.

L. W. Hahn, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. I. Bleaches and backgrounds,” Vision Res. 35, 1585–1594 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haig, C.

C. Haig, “The course of rod adaptation as influenced by the intensity and duration of preadaptation to light,” J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735–751 (1941).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayhoe, M. M.

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemenger, R. P.

IJspeert, J. K.

J. K. IJspeert, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, H. Spekreijse, “An improved mathematical description of the foveal visual point spread function with parameters for age, pupil size, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 33, 15–20 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. d. Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. d. Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).

A. Toet, J. K. IJspeert, H. Vos, J. Walraven, “Computing the retinal image profile,” (TNO Human Factors Research Institute, Soesterberg, Netherlands, 1995).

Jong, P. T. V. M. d.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. d. Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. d. Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).

Knepton, J. C.

M. D. Reddix, T. L. DeVietti, J. C. Knepton, J. A. D’Andrea, “The effect of three levels of laser glare on the speed and accuracy of target location performance when viewing a briefly presented visual array,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1990).

J. A. D’Andrea, J. C. Knepton, “Effects of laser glare and aircraft windscreen on visual search performance under low ambient lighting,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1989).

Labo, J. A.

J. A. Labo, A. R. Menendez, R. G. Allen, B. P. Edmonds, M. D. Turner, “Outdoor measures of laser veiling glare effects in the visual field. A preliminary study, USAFSAM Tech. PaperUSAFSAM-TP-90-9 (U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, 1990).

Liang, J.

MacLeod, D. I.

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menendez, A. R.

J. A. Labo, A. R. Menendez, R. G. Allen, B. P. Edmonds, M. D. Turner, “Outdoor measures of laser veiling glare effects in the visual field. A preliminary study, USAFSAM Tech. PaperUSAFSAM-TP-90-9 (U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, 1990).

A. R. Menendez, P. A. Smith, “Model for predicting the effects of laser exposures and eye protection on vision,” in Laser Safety, Eyesafe Laser Systems, and Laser Eye Protection, P. K. Bryan, D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE1207, 21–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pulling, N. H.

N. H. Pulling, E. Wolf, S. P. Sturgis, D. R. Vaillancourt, J. J. Dolliver, “Headlight glare resistance and driver age,” Hum. Factors 22, 103–112 (1980).
[PubMed]

Reddix, M. D.

M. D. Reddix, T. L. DeVietti, J. C. Knepton, J. A. D’Andrea, “The effect of three levels of laser glare on the speed and accuracy of target location performance when viewing a briefly presented visual array,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1990).

Smith, P. A.

A. R. Menendez, P. A. Smith, “Model for predicting the effects of laser exposures and eye protection on vision,” in Laser Safety, Eyesafe Laser Systems, and Laser Eye Protection, P. K. Bryan, D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE1207, 21–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Spekreijse, H.

J. K. IJspeert, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, H. Spekreijse, “An improved mathematical description of the foveal visual point spread function with parameters for age, pupil size, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 33, 15–20 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steen, R.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “Equivalent adaptation levels in localized retinal areas,” in Report of a Joint Discussion on Vision (Physiological Society, London, 1933), pp. 194–211.

Sturgis, S. P.

N. H. Pulling, E. Wolf, S. P. Sturgis, D. R. Vaillancourt, J. J. Dolliver, “Headlight glare resistance and driver age,” Hum. Factors 22, 103–112 (1980).
[PubMed]

Toet, A.

A. Toet, J. K. IJspeert, H. Vos, J. Walraven, “Computing the retinal image profile,” (TNO Human Factors Research Institute, Soesterberg, Netherlands, 1995).

Turner, M. D.

J. A. Labo, A. R. Menendez, R. G. Allen, B. P. Edmonds, M. D. Turner, “Outdoor measures of laser veiling glare effects in the visual field. A preliminary study, USAFSAM Tech. PaperUSAFSAM-TP-90-9 (U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, 1990).

Vaillancourt, D. R.

N. H. Pulling, E. Wolf, S. P. Sturgis, D. R. Vaillancourt, J. J. Dolliver, “Headlight glare resistance and driver age,” Hum. Factors 22, 103–112 (1980).
[PubMed]

van den Berg, T. J. T. P.

J. K. IJspeert, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, H. Spekreijse, “An improved mathematical description of the foveal visual point spread function with parameters for age, pupil size, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 33, 15–20 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. d. Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. d. Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).

J. J. Vos, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “On the course of the disability glare function and its attribution to components of ocular scatter,” in CIE Collection in Colour and Vision, 1997, CIE 124/2-1997 (International Commission on Illumination, Vienna, 1997).

van Meeteren, A.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. van Meeteren, “Calculations on the optical modulation transfer function of the human eye for white light,” Opt. Acta 21, 395–412 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vos, H.

A. Toet, J. K. IJspeert, H. Vos, J. Walraven, “Computing the retinal image profile,” (TNO Human Factors Research Institute, Soesterberg, Netherlands, 1995).

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–52 (1984).

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 1131–1136 (1967).

J. J. Vos, M. A. Bouman, “Contribution of the retina to entoptic scatter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 95–100 (1964).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “On the course of the disability glare function and its attribution to components of ocular scatter,” in CIE Collection in Colour and Vision, 1997, CIE 124/2-1997 (International Commission on Illumination, Vienna, 1997).

Waard, P. W. T. d.

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. d. Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. d. Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).

Walraven, J.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Toet, J. K. IJspeert, H. Vos, J. Walraven, “Computing the retinal image profile,” (TNO Human Factors Research Institute, Soesterberg, Netherlands, 1995).

Weiss, S. A.

S. A. Weiss, “Feds to Las Vegas: no more razzle dazzle,” Photonics Spectra 30(1), 50–52 (1996).

Westheimer, G.

Whitaker, D.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wild, J. M.

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

N. H. Pulling, E. Wolf, S. P. Sturgis, D. R. Vaillancourt, J. J. Dolliver, “Headlight glare resistance and driver age,” Hum. Factors 22, 103–112 (1980).
[PubMed]

E. Wolf, “Glare and age,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 604, 502–514 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Wolfram, S.

S. Wolfram, Mathematica: A System for Doing Mathematics by Computer (Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, Calif., 1991).

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. (1)

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular scattered light and visual performance as a function of age,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 44, 1131–1136 (1967).

Am. J. Physiol. (1)

P. W. Cobb, “The influence of illumination of the eye on visual acuity,” Am. J. Physiol. 29, 76–99 (1911).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

E. Wolf, “Glare and age,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 604, 502–514 (1960).
[CrossRef]

CIE J. (1)

J. J. Vos, “Disability glare—a state of the art report,” CIE J. 3, 39–52 (1984).

Hum. Factors (1)

N. H. Pulling, E. Wolf, S. P. Sturgis, D. R. Vaillancourt, J. J. Dolliver, “Headlight glare resistance and driver age,” Hum. Factors 22, 103–112 (1980).
[PubMed]

J. Gen. Physiol. (1)

C. Haig, “The course of rod adaptation as influenced by the intensity and duration of preadaptation to light,” J. Gen. Physiol. 24, 735–751 (1941).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Acta (1)

A. van Meeteren, “Calculations on the optical modulation transfer function of the human eye for white light,” Opt. Acta 21, 395–412 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

R. Steen, D. Whitaker, D. B. Elliott, J. M. Wild, “Age-related effects of glare on luminance and color contrast sensitivity,” Optom. Vision Sci. 71, 792–796 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Photonics Spectra (1)

S. A. Weiss, “Feds to Las Vegas: no more razzle dazzle,” Photonics Spectra 30(1), 50–52 (1996).

Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

A. W. Christie, P. J. Fischer, “The effects of glare from street lighting lanterns on the vision of drivers of different age,” Trans. Illum. Eng. Soc. 31, 93–108 (1966).

Vision Res. (5)

C. M. Cicerone, M. M. Hayhoe, D. I. MacLeod, “The spread of adaptation in human foveal and parafoveal cone vision,” Vision Res. 30, 1603–1615 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Hahn, W. S. Geisler, “Adaptation mechanisms in spatial vision. I. Bleaches and backgrounds,” Vision Res. 35, 1585–1594 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light profiles of the foveal image of a point source,” Vision Res. 16, 215–219 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. IJspeert, P. W. T. d. Waard, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, P. T. V. M. d. Jong, “The intraocular straylight function in 129 healthy volunteers: dependence on angle, age, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 30, 699–707 (1990).

J. K. IJspeert, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, H. Spekreijse, “An improved mathematical description of the foveal visual point spread function with parameters for age, pupil size, and pigmentation,” Vision Res. 33, 15–20 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

J. J. Vos, T. J. T. P. van den Berg, “On the course of the disability glare function and its attribution to components of ocular scatter,” in CIE Collection in Colour and Vision, 1997, CIE 124/2-1997 (International Commission on Illumination, Vienna, 1997).

J. H. Carter, “The effects of aging on selected visual functions: color vision, glare sensitivity, field of vision, and accommodation,” in Aging and Human Visual Function, R. Sekuler, D. Kline, K. Dismukes, eds. (Alan R. Liss, New York, 1982), pp. 121–130.

S. Wolfram, Mathematica: A System for Doing Mathematics by Computer (Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, Calif., 1991).

A. R. Menendez, P. A. Smith, “Model for predicting the effects of laser exposures and eye protection on vision,” in Laser Safety, Eyesafe Laser Systems, and Laser Eye Protection, P. K. Bryan, D. H. Sliney, eds., Proc. SPIE1207, 21–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Labo, A. R. Menendez, R. G. Allen, B. P. Edmonds, M. D. Turner, “Outdoor measures of laser veiling glare effects in the visual field. A preliminary study, USAFSAM Tech. PaperUSAFSAM-TP-90-9 (U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, 1990).

A. Toet, J. K. IJspeert, H. Vos, J. Walraven, “Computing the retinal image profile,” (TNO Human Factors Research Institute, Soesterberg, Netherlands, 1995).

J. A. D’Andrea, J. C. Knepton, “Effects of laser glare and aircraft windscreen on visual search performance under low ambient lighting,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1989).

M. D. Reddix, T. L. DeVietti, J. C. Knepton, J. A. D’Andrea, “The effect of three levels of laser glare on the speed and accuracy of target location performance when viewing a briefly presented visual array,” (Naval Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, Fla., 1990).

W. S. Stiles, B. H. Crawford, “Equivalent adaptation levels in localized retinal areas,” in Report of a Joint Discussion on Vision (Physiological Society, London, 1933), pp. 194–211.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagrams of laser and projection systems: (a) increment threshold configuration, (b) glare configuration, (a) and (b) components common to both configurations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Method for calculating EBL from two sets of threshold data. A threshold in the glare field (left side) is equated to an increment threshold on a homogeneous background (right side) to obtain the background luminance L that produces the same elevation in threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mean (plus or minus the standard error of the mean) ratios of model VL to measured EBL. (a) Eccentricity effect: VL to EBL ratio as a function of glare eccentricity. (b) Quadrant by eccentricity effect: VL to EBL ratio plotted as a function of glare eccentricity for all four quadrants. The quadrant means are shown by the individual separate symbols at the far right-hand side of the figure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Individual subjects: horizontal meridian. The individual subjects’ EBL is compared with the TNO model output for the same subject. Positive eccentricity values indicate test-spot location to the right of glare source.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Individual subjects: vertical meridian. The individual subjects’ EBL is compared with the TNO model VL output for the same subject. Positive eccentricity values indicate test-spot location above glare source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mean EBL’s and VL’s by quadrant, with VL/EBL ratio, and SRI scan values: (a) left quadrant, (b) right quadrant, (c) upper quadrant, and (d) lower quadrant.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Test of Fit between Psychophysical Observations and the SRI–TNO Predictionsa,b

Equations (10)

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Leq/Egl=PSFθ=anteriorθ+epitheliumθ+wallθ,
anteriorθ=age decrement-coreθ+age increment-skirtθ,
coreθ=9.2×1061+θ/0.004621.5+1.5×1051+θ/0.045021.5,
skirtθ=3.9×1021+θ/0.12+2.7×10-8θ2,
age decrement=1-0.8age704,
age increment=1+1.50age704,
epitheliumθ=p0.60+age7042.2×1031+θ/0.121.5+1.41+θ/0.121.5,
wallθ=p3.7×10-5×105-θcos0.48θ-5cos0.65θ-5cos0.84θ-5.
02ΠPSFΩdΩ=1.
02Πdϕ 0Π/2dθ sin θ PSFθ=1.

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