Abstract

We report on a technique for determining the change in the refractive index of photosensitive glass. We have demonstrated our interferometer-based technique on fiber preform and bulk glass samples, achieving an optical-path-difference (OPD) repeatability of 0.2 nm. For the bulk glass sample we measured an OPD of 15.2 ± 3.0 nm, corresponding to an index change of 2.1 ± 0.7 × 10-5. Our technique was found to be insensitive to the effects of photodarkening and material compaction.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Ultraviolet absorption studies on photosensitive germanosilicate preforms and fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762–764 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 385–387 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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1999 (1)

1997 (3)

J. Canning, A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, “Correlation between photodarkening and index change during 193 nm irradiation of germanosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1348–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309–4341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, “Deep-ultraviolet damage to fused silica,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3275–3279 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Ultraviolet absorption studies on photosensitive germanosilicate preforms and fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762–764 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Ultraviolet absorption studies on photosensitive germanosilicate preforms and fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762–764 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Ultraviolet absorption studies on photosensitive germanosilicate preforms and fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762–764 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, G. R.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 87.

Borrelli, N. F.

Canning, J.

J. Canning, A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, “Correlation between photodarkening and index change during 193 nm irradiation of germanosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1348–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. L. G.

J. Canning, A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, “Correlation between photodarkening and index change during 193 nm irradiation of germanosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1348–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Ultraviolet absorption studies on photosensitive germanosilicate preforms and fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762–764 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flournoy, P. A.

Fukano, T.

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Ultraviolet absorption studies on photosensitive germanosilicate preforms and fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762–764 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McClure, R. W.

Mizrahi, V.

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Modavis, R. A.

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oldham, W. G.

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, “Deep-ultraviolet damage to fused silica,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3275–3279 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309–4341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. G.

J. Canning, A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, “Correlation between photodarkening and index change during 193 nm irradiation of germanosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1348–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schenker, R.

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, “Deep-ultraviolet damage to fused silica,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3275–3279 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schermerhorn, P.

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, “Deep-ultraviolet damage to fused silica,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3275–3279 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Ultraviolet absorption studies on photosensitive germanosilicate preforms and fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762–764 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 87.

Wyntjes, G.

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, I.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, S. B. Poole, “Photolytic index changes in optical fibers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 23, 381–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. L. Williams, S. T. Davey, R. Kashyap, J. R. Armitage, B. J. Ainslie, “Ultraviolet absorption studies on photosensitive germanosilicate preforms and fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 762–764 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, T. Erdogan, “248 nm induced vacuum UV spectral changes in optical fibre preform cores: support for a colour centre model of photosensitivity,” Electron. Lett. 28, 385–387 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, E. Delevaque, “Densification involved in the UV-based photosensitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329–1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, A. L. G. Carter, M. G. Sceats, “Correlation between photodarkening and index change during 193 nm irradiation of germanosilicate and phosphosilicate fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1348–1356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. Schenker, P. Schermerhorn, W. G. Oldham, “Deep-ultraviolet damage to fused silica,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 12, 3275–3279 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309–4341 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 87.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Interferometric measurement system: LD, laser diode; ISO, optical isolator; L1 and L2, lenses; SF, spatial filter; BS1 and BS2, beam splitters; M1 and M2, return mirrors; M3, steering mirror; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; PD1 and PD2, photodiodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mappings of OPD’s for (a) the bulk glass and (b) the preform as recorded with the interferometer. The OPD of the bulk glass was determined by use of all the waveform peaks, whereas the preform OPD used the central five peaks.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bulk glass OPD mapping after DSP has reduced the noise components caused primarily by motion of the translation stage.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Example Uncertainty Budget for OPD Determination

Equations (2)

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ϕ=2π 2OPDλLD
Δn=n2-1n2+26nΔtt.

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