Abstract

Enhancement of the free-space diffraction efficiency of gratings made by titanium-ion implantation is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. Indeed, by insertion of a grating into a multilayer dielectric Fabry–Perot cavity, the diffraction efficiency can be increased to as much as 24 times that of a single grating. The sensitivity of the diffraction efficiency to the optogeometrical parameters of the grating or of the Fabry–Perot cavity is discussed. Moreover, a process for performance of a phase grating inside a Fabry–Perot cavity is described, and experimental results concerning efficiency measurements are compared with computed values for various grating periods.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. B. Veldkamp, T. J. McHugh, “Binary optics,” Sci. Am. (May, 1992), pp. 92–97.
  2. D. H. Raguin, G. M. Morris, “Structured surfaces mimic coating performance,” Laser Focus World (April, 1997), pp. 113–117.
  3. S. Astilean, P. Lalanne, P. Chavel, E. Cambril, H. Launois, “High-efficiency subwavelength diffractive element patterned in high-refractive-index material for 633 nm,” Opt. Lett. 23, 552–554 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).
  5. F. Flory, S. Tisserand, L. Brassé, L. Roux, “Integrated optics devices made by Ti implantation in SiO2 layers,” presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996.
  6. S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, I. Kovacs, “Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150–5153 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. N. Favennec, L’implantation ionique pour la microélectronique et l’optique (Masson, Paris, 1993).
  8. F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Escoubas, F. Flory, F. Lemarchand, A. During, L. Roux, “Enhanced diffraction efficiency of gratings in multilayers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 194–196 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Vincent, “Differential methods,” in Electromagnetic Theory of Grating, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 101–121.
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Lemarchand, A. Sentenac, H. Giovannini, “Increasing the angular tolerance of resonant grating filters with doubly periodic structures,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1149–1151 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Nevière, D. Maystre, P. Vincent, “Application du calcul des modes de propagation à l’etude théorique des anomalies des réseaux recouverts de diélectrique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 231–242 (1977).
  13. F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, Y. Zhou, “Development of laser holographic interference system for optical grating fabrication,” in Automatic Inspection and Novel Instrumentation, A. T. Ho, S. Rao, L. Cheng, eds., Proc. SPIE3185, 110–116 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1983), pp. 256–268.

2000 (1)

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

D. H. Raguin, G. M. Morris, “Structured surfaces mimic coating performance,” Laser Focus World (April, 1997), pp. 113–117.

1992 (1)

W. B. Veldkamp, T. J. McHugh, “Binary optics,” Sci. Am. (May, 1992), pp. 92–97.

1977 (1)

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, P. Vincent, “Application du calcul des modes de propagation à l’etude théorique des anomalies des réseaux recouverts de diélectrique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 231–242 (1977).

Adamik, M.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, I. Kovacs, “Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150–5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albrand, G.

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astilean, S.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1983), pp. 256–268.

Brassé, L.

F. Flory, S. Tisserand, L. Brassé, L. Roux, “Integrated optics devices made by Ti implantation in SiO2 layers,” presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996.

Cambril, E.

Chan, Y.-C.

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, Y. Zhou, “Development of laser holographic interference system for optical grating fabrication,” in Automatic Inspection and Novel Instrumentation, A. T. Ho, S. Rao, L. Cheng, eds., Proc. SPIE3185, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

During, A.

Escoubas, L.

L. Escoubas, F. Flory, F. Lemarchand, A. During, L. Roux, “Enhanced diffraction efficiency of gratings in multilayers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 194–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Favennec, P. N.

P. N. Favennec, L’implantation ionique pour la microélectronique et l’optique (Masson, Paris, 1993).

Flory, F.

L. Escoubas, F. Flory, F. Lemarchand, A. During, L. Roux, “Enhanced diffraction efficiency of gratings in multilayers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 194–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, I. Kovacs, “Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150–5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Flory, S. Tisserand, L. Brassé, L. Roux, “Integrated optics devices made by Ti implantation in SiO2 layers,” presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996.

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gatto, A.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, I. Kovacs, “Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150–5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giovannini, H.

Herzig, H. P.

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

Kovacs, I.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, I. Kovacs, “Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150–5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lam, Y.-L.

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, Y. Zhou, “Development of laser holographic interference system for optical grating fabrication,” in Automatic Inspection and Novel Instrumentation, A. T. Ho, S. Rao, L. Cheng, eds., Proc. SPIE3185, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Launois, H.

Lemarchand, F.

L. Escoubas, F. Flory, F. Lemarchand, A. During, L. Roux, “Enhanced diffraction efficiency of gratings in multilayers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 194–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Lemarchand, A. Sentenac, H. Giovannini, “Increasing the angular tolerance of resonant grating filters with doubly periodic structures,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1149–1151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, P. Vincent, “Application du calcul des modes de propagation à l’etude théorique des anomalies des réseaux recouverts de diélectrique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 231–242 (1977).

McHugh, T. J.

W. B. Veldkamp, T. J. McHugh, “Binary optics,” Sci. Am. (May, 1992), pp. 92–97.

Morris, G. M.

D. H. Raguin, G. M. Morris, “Structured surfaces mimic coating performance,” Laser Focus World (April, 1997), pp. 113–117.

Nevière, M.

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, P. Vincent, “Application du calcul des modes de propagation à l’etude théorique des anomalies des réseaux recouverts de diélectrique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 231–242 (1977).

Nicolas, E.

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raguin, D. H.

D. H. Raguin, G. M. Morris, “Structured surfaces mimic coating performance,” Laser Focus World (April, 1997), pp. 113–117.

Roux, L.

L. Escoubas, F. Flory, F. Lemarchand, A. During, L. Roux, “Enhanced diffraction efficiency of gratings in multilayers,” Opt. Lett. 25, 194–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, I. Kovacs, “Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150–5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Flory, S. Tisserand, L. Brassé, L. Roux, “Integrated optics devices made by Ti implantation in SiO2 layers,” presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996.

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sentenac, A.

Tisserand, S.

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, I. Kovacs, “Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150–5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Flory, S. Tisserand, L. Brassé, L. Roux, “Integrated optics devices made by Ti implantation in SiO2 layers,” presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996.

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

W. B. Veldkamp, T. J. McHugh, “Binary optics,” Sci. Am. (May, 1992), pp. 92–97.

Vincent, P.

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, P. Vincent, “Application du calcul des modes de propagation à l’etude théorique des anomalies des réseaux recouverts de diélectrique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 231–242 (1977).

P. Vincent, “Differential methods,” in Electromagnetic Theory of Grating, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 101–121.
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1983), pp. 256–268.

Xu, F.-L.

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, Y. Zhou, “Development of laser holographic interference system for optical grating fabrication,” in Automatic Inspection and Novel Instrumentation, A. T. Ho, S. Rao, L. Cheng, eds., Proc. SPIE3185, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, Y. Zhou, “Development of laser holographic interference system for optical grating fabrication,” in Automatic Inspection and Novel Instrumentation, A. T. Ho, S. Rao, L. Cheng, eds., Proc. SPIE3185, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Tisserand, F. Flory, A. Gatto, L. Roux, M. Adamik, I. Kovacs, “Titanium implantation in bulk and thin film amorphous silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 5150–5153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (Paris) (1)

M. Nevière, D. Maystre, P. Vincent, “Application du calcul des modes de propagation à l’etude théorique des anomalies des réseaux recouverts de diélectrique,” J. Opt. (Paris) 8, 231–242 (1977).

Laser Focus World (1)

D. H. Raguin, G. M. Morris, “Structured surfaces mimic coating performance,” Laser Focus World (April, 1997), pp. 113–117.

Opt. Lett. (3)

Sci. Am. (1)

W. B. Veldkamp, T. J. McHugh, “Binary optics,” Sci. Am. (May, 1992), pp. 92–97.

Other (7)

F.-L. Xu, Y.-L. Lam, Y.-C. Chan, Y. Zhou, “Development of laser holographic interference system for optical grating fabrication,” in Automatic Inspection and Novel Instrumentation, A. T. Ho, S. Rao, L. Cheng, eds., Proc. SPIE3185, 110–116 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1983), pp. 256–268.

P. Vincent, “Differential methods,” in Electromagnetic Theory of Grating, R. Petit, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980), pp. 101–121.
[CrossRef]

P. N. Favennec, L’implantation ionique pour la microélectronique et l’optique (Masson, Paris, 1993).

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, S. Tisserand, E. Nicolas, G. Albrand, F. Lemarchand, L. Roux, “Enhancement of the diffraction efficiency of titanium implanted gratings by associating them with optical interference coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 306–315 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Herzig, Micro-Optics Elements, Systems and Applications (Taylor & Francis, London, 1997).

F. Flory, S. Tisserand, L. Brassé, L. Roux, “Integrated optics devices made by Ti implantation in SiO2 layers,” presented at the 1996 OSA Annual Meeting, Rochester, N.Y., 20–25 October 1996.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

In-depth index profile of a titanium implanted silica layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating embedded in a Fabry–Perot cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus the thickness of the nonimplanted part of the spacer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Maximal diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus the number of dielectric layers p of the mirrors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus N max.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus σ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus m.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus a.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus dx.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diffraction efficiency of the +1 TE transmitted order versus θ.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Grating manufacturing.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Holographic setup and intensity distributions in the photoresist.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

SEM image of the chromium mask.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured and theoretical diffraction efficiencies of the +1 TE transmitted order versus dx.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Measured and theoretical diffraction efficiencies of the +1 TE transmitted order versus θ.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optogeometrical Parameters

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