Abstract

A polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope, which combines a polarized optical heterodyne Mach–Zehnder interferometer and a differential amplifier to scan the topographic image of a surface, is proposed. In the experiment the differential amplifier, which acts as a PM–AM converter in the experiment, converting phase modulation (PM) into amplitude modulation (AM). Then a novel, to our knowledge, phase demodulator was proposed and implemented for the differential-phase laser scanning microscope. An optical grating (1800 lp/mm) was imaged. The lateral and the depth resolutions of the imaging system were 0.5 µm and 1 nm, respectively. The detection accuracy, which was limited by the reflectivity variation of the test surface, is discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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1987

1985

1981

1979

Akinson, P.

P. Akinson, J. P. Woodcock, Doppler Ultrasound and Its Use in Clinical Measurement (Academic, London, 1982), Chaps. 2 and 3, pp. 72–115.

Bernett, J. M.

Bhushan, B.

Burning, J. H.

J. H. Burning, “Fringe scanning interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Marlacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 409–437.

Chou, C.

Dancy, J. H.

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Gu, M.

Huang, Y. C.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

Kuboa, T.

Lin, S. C.

Nara, M.

Offside, M. J.

See, C. W.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Shyu, J. C.

Somekh, M. G.

Sommargnes, G. E.

G. E. Sommargnes, “Optical heterodyne profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 616–618 (1981).

Vaez Iravani, M.

Wickramos, H. K.

Woodcock, J. P.

P. Akinson, J. P. Woodcock, Doppler Ultrasound and Its Use in Clinical Measurement (Academic, London, 1982), Chaps. 2 and 3, pp. 72–115.

Wyant, J. C.

Yoshiuo, T.

Yuan, C. K.

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. H. Burning, “Fringe scanning interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Marlacara, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 409–437.

P. Akinson, J. P. Woodcock, Doppler Ultrasound and Its Use in Clinical Measurement (Academic, London, 1982), Chaps. 2 and 3, pp. 72–115.

Operation Manual of the Nanoscope 3100M (Digital Instruments–Veeco, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: λ/2, half-wave plate; AOM1 and AOM2, acousto-optic modulators; BS1, BS2, and BS3, beam splitters; PBS1 and PBS2, polarized beam splitters; T, test surface; R, reference surface; M1, M2, mirrors; D P , D S , detectors; BPF1 and BPF2, band-pass filters; DM, amplitude demodulator; DA, differential amplifier; PC, computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sine-wave response of |I out| (solid curve) when the test mirror was scanned (squares) by a piezoelectric-transducer-controlled stage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results of a holographic grating (1800 lp/mm): (a) two-dimensional scanned topographic image, (b) one-dimensional scanned profile by this method, (c) one-dimensional scanned profile with the Digital Instruments Nanoscope 3100M.

Equations (7)

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IP1+P2Δωt=2AP1AP2 cosΔωt+ΔϕP,
IS1+S2Δωt=2AS1AS2 cosΔωt+ΔϕS,
IP1+P2Δωt=2k cosΔωt+½ΔϕP-ΔϕS,
IS1+S2Δωt=2k cosΔωt-½ΔϕP-ΔϕS.
IoutΔωt=γIP1+P2Δωt-IS1+S2Δωt=|4γk sinΔϕ/2|sinΔωt,
IoutΔωt|2γkΔϕ|sinΔωt.
Δϕ=2 sin-1|Iout|4γk=2 sin-1|Iout|2|Iout|1.

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