Abstract

Extreme-ultraviolet lithography requires expensive multilayer-coated Zerodur or ULE optics with extremely tight figure and finish specifications. Therefore it is desirable to develop methods to recover these optics if they are coated with a nonoptimum multilayer films or in the event that the coating deteriorates over time owing to long-term exposure to radiation, corrosion, or surface contamination. We evaluate recoating, reactive-ion etching, and wet-chemical techniques for the recovery of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films upon Zerodur and ULE test optics. The recoating technique was successfully employed in the recovery of Mo/Si-coated optics but has the drawback of limited applicability. A chlorine-based reactive-ion etch process was successfully used to recover Mo/Si-coated optics, and a particularly large process window was observed when ULE optics were employed; this is an advantageous for large, curved optics. Dilute HCl wet-chemical techniques were developed and successfully demonstrated for the recovery of Mo/Be-coated optics as well as for Mo/Si-coated optics when Mo/Be release layers were employed; however, there are questions about the extendability of the HCl process to large optics and multiple coat and strip cycles. The technique of using carbon barrier layers to protect the optic during removal of Mo/Si in HF:HNO3 also showed promise.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Hector, Advanced Products and Research Development Laboratory, Motorola, Inc., Austin, Texas 94550 (personal communication, 1999).
  4. J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6952–6960 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, J. E. Griffith, “Surface finish requirements for soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2025–2031 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 72–80 (1999).
  12. P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, M. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1617–1625 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Bach, Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. T. Gulati, “Mechanical properties of SiO2 vs. SiO2-TiO2 bulk glasses and fibers,” in Optical Waveguide Materials, M. M. Broer, G. H. Siegel, R. T. Kersten, H. Kawazoe, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), Vol. 244, pp. 67–84.
  15. D. P. Gaines, N. M. Ceglio, S. P. Vernon, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Repair of high performance multilayer coatings,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 228–238 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Early, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, “Repair of soft x-ray optical elements by stripping and redeposition of Mo/Si reflective coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2926–2929 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, “Substrate recovery of Mo–Si multilayer coated optics,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. H. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 176–181.
  18. S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, “Recovery of EUV lithography substrates,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. T. Atwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 222–226.
  19. S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).
  23. ES-1 Cr etch, Cyanek, Inc., 3058 Osgood Court, Fremont, Calif. 94538.

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Early, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, “Repair of soft x-ray optical elements by stripping and redeposition of Mo/Si reflective coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2926–2929 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bach, H.

H. Bach, Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, M. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1617–1625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S. L.

D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, “Substrate recovery of Mo–Si multilayer coated optics,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. H. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 176–181.

S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, “Recovery of EUV lithography substrates,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. T. Atwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 222–226.

Barbee, T. W.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

Behymer, R. D.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. P. Gaines, N. M. Ceglio, S. P. Vernon, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Repair of high performance multilayer coatings,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 228–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

Early, K.

K. Early, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, “Repair of soft x-ray optical elements by stripping and redeposition of Mo/Si reflective coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2926–2929 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Folta, J. A.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franck, K. D.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

Gaines, D. P.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Gaines, N. M. Ceglio, S. P. Vernon, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Repair of high performance multilayer coatings,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 228–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grabner, R. F.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Griffith, J. E.

Gulati, S. T.

S. T. Gulati, “Mechanical properties of SiO2 vs. SiO2-TiO2 bulk glasses and fibers,” in Optical Waveguide Materials, M. M. Broer, G. H. Siegel, R. T. Kersten, H. Kawazoe, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), Vol. 244, pp. 67–84.

Gullikson, E. M.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 72–80 (1999).

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

Gwyn, C. W.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hector, S.

S. Hector, Advanced Products and Research Development Laboratory, Motorola, Inc., Austin, Texas 94550 (personal communication, 1999).

Hudyma, R. M.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koike, M.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

Krumrey, M.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Gaines, N. M. Ceglio, S. P. Vernon, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Repair of high performance multilayer coatings,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 228–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, P. B.

P. B. Mirkarimi, S. Bajt, M. Wall, “Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer thin films on Zerodur substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 1617–1625 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Montcalm, C.

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muller, P.

D. P. Gaines, N. M. Ceglio, S. P. Vernon, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Repair of high performance multilayer coatings,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 228–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, R. S.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D.

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, “Substrate recovery of Mo–Si multilayer coated optics,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. H. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 176–181.

Steele, W. F.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

Stulen, R.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R. H.

R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tackaberry, R. E.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

Taylor, J. S.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tennant, D. M.

K. Early, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, “Repair of soft x-ray optical elements by stripping and redeposition of Mo/Si reflective coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2926–2929 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

Vernon, S. P.

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Multilayer mirror technology for soft-x-ray projection lithography,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6952–6960 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, “Recovery of EUV lithography substrates,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. T. Atwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 222–226.

D. P. Gaines, N. M. Ceglio, S. P. Vernon, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Repair of high performance multilayer coatings,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 228–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wall, M.

Wall, M. A.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Waskiewicz, W. K.

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, J. E. Griffith, “Surface finish requirements for soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2025–2031 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Early, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, “Repair of soft x-ray optical elements by stripping and redeposition of Mo/Si reflective coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2926–2929 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weber, F. J.

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wedowski, M.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, J. E. Griffith, “Surface finish requirements for soft-x-ray mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2025–2031 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Early, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, “Repair of soft x-ray optical elements by stripping and redeposition of Mo/Si reflective coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2926–2929 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wood, O. R.

K. Early, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, “Repair of soft x-ray optical elements by stripping and redeposition of Mo/Si reflective coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2926–2929 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. H. Stulen, D. W. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

E. Spiller, D. Stearns, M. Krumrey, “Multilayer x-ray mirrors: interfacial roughness, scattering, and image quality,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 107–118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, D. P. Gaines, D. W. Sweeney, E. M. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering in a multilayer-coated imaging system,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1003–1028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

D. G. Stearns, R. S. Rosen, S. P. Vernon, “Fabrication of high-reflectance Mo–Si multilayer mirrors by planar-magnetron sputtering,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2662–2669 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

K. Early, D. L. Windt, W. K. Waskiewicz, O. R. Wood, D. M. Tennant, “Repair of soft x-ray optical elements by stripping and redeposition of Mo/Si reflective coatings,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 2926–2929 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Gwyn, R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, D. Attwood, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 16, 3142–3149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. B. Mirkarimi, “Stress, reflectance, and temporal stability of sputter-deposited Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” Opt. Eng. 38, 1246–1259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

S. Hector, Advanced Products and Research Development Laboratory, Motorola, Inc., Austin, Texas 94550 (personal communication, 1999).

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, D. W. Sweeney, R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 580–590 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Folta, S. Bajt, T. W. Barbee, R. F. Grabner, P. B. Mirkarimi, T. Nguyen, M. A. Schmidt, E. Spiller, C. C. Walton, M. Wedowski, C. Montcalm, “Advances in multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 702–709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Montcalm, S. Bajt, P. B. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, F. J. Weber, J. A. Folta, “Multilayer reflective coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 42–51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Bach, Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Gulati, “Mechanical properties of SiO2 vs. SiO2-TiO2 bulk glasses and fibers,” in Optical Waveguide Materials, M. M. Broer, G. H. Siegel, R. T. Kersten, H. Kawazoe, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), Vol. 244, pp. 67–84.

D. P. Gaines, N. M. Ceglio, S. P. Vernon, M. Krumrey, P. Muller, “Repair of high performance multilayer coatings,” in Multilayer Optics for Advanced X-Ray Applications, N. M. Ceglio, ed., Proc. SPIE1547, 228–238 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Stearns, S. L. Baker, “Substrate recovery of Mo–Si multilayer coated optics,” in Soft X-Ray Projection Lithography, A. H. Hawryluk, R. H. Stulen, eds., Vol. 18 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 176–181.

S. P. Vernon, S. L. Baker, “Recovery of EUV lithography substrates,” in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, D. T. Atwood, F. Zernike, eds., Vol. 23 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 222–226.

S. Bajt, R. D. Behymer, P. B. Mirkarimi, C. Montcalm, M. A. Wall, M. Wedowski, J. A. Folta, “Experimental investigation of beryllium-based multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” in EUV, X-Ray, and Neutron Optics and Sources, C. A. MacDonald, K. A. Goldberg, J. R. Maldando, H. H. Chen-Mayer, S. P. Vernon, eds., Proc. SPIE3767, 259–270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Underwood, E. M. Gullikson, M. Koike, P. J. Batson, P. E. Denham, K. D. Franck, R. E. Tackaberry, W. F. Steele, “Calibration and standards beamline 6.3.2 at the advanced light source,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation, Rev. Sci. Instrum.67 (1996) (available on CD-ROM and at the following URL: http://www-cxro.lbl.gov/metrology/als6.3.2/pubs.html ).

ES-1 Cr etch, Cyanek, Inc., 3058 Osgood Court, Fremont, Calif. 94538.

E. M. Gullikson, “Scattering from normal incidence EUV optics,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladirmirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 72–80 (1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram illustrating the recoating process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction spectra of a Mo/Si multilayer with 53 bilayer pairs deposited upon a Mo/Si multilayer (ML) with 40 bilayer pairs. The sample had been exposed to the atmosphere between depositions of the two multilayer films. cps, counts per second.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance versus wavelength of a Mo/Si multilayer (ML) with 53 bilayer pairs deposited upon a Mo/Si multilayer with 40 bilayer pairs and a control multilayer, i.e., a Mo/Si multilayer with 40 bilayer pairs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance versus wavelength of a Mo/Si multilayer film upon a ULE subtrate before removal in a chlorine reactive ion etch and after removal and recoating of the Mo/Si multilayer film. The small difference in the wavelength of the reflectance peaks is due to a small difference in the layer thickness deposited in each deposition and is not a result of the recovery process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Reflectance versus wavelength of a Mo/Be multilayer film upon a Zerodur substrate before removal in a 10% HCl wet-etch process and after removal and recoating of the Mo/Be multilayer film. The small difference in the wavelength of the reflectance peaks is due to a small difference in the layer thicknesses deposited in each deposition and is not a result of the recovery process.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance across Mo/Be-coated Zerodur and ULE after the samples were etched in a 10% HCl wet-etch process and recoated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reflectance versus wavelength of a Mo/Si multilayer film upon a Mo/Be release layer upon a Zerodur substrate before release of the Mo/Be layer and subsequent removal of the Mo/Si multilayer film in a 10% HCl wet-etch process and after removal and recoating with a Mo/Si multilayer film. The small difference in the wavelength of the reflectance peaks is due to a small difference in the layer thickness deposited in each deposition and is not a result of the recovery process.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Increase in the Surface Roughness of Zerodur and ULE Substrates after Removal of Mo/Si Multilayer Coatings in a Chlorine Reactive-Ion Etch Process as a Function of Plasma Power

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Table 2 Increase in Surface Roughness of Zerodur and ULE Substrates after Exposure to a Chlorine Reactive-Ion Etch Process for 10 Min as a Function of Plasma Power

Tables Icon

Table 3 Surface Roughness of Zerodur and a-Si-Coated Zerodur Substrates before and after Removal of Mo/Be Multilayer Coatings in a Dilute HCl Etch Process

Tables Icon

Table 4 Results of Removing Mo/Si Multilayers in Dilute HCl by Mo/Be Release Layers

Tables Icon

Table 5 Summary of Techniques Evaluated in This Study for Recovery of Multilayer Coated Zerodur and ULE Optics, Along with Strengths and Weaknesses for Each Technique

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