Abstract

A simple upconversion scheme utilizing 40-fs pulses is shown to permit high-contrast imaging of objects obscured by a highly scattering medium when no ballistic component is evident in the scattered light and imaging is performed with any portion of the scattered light pulse. We present a time-gated, inherently low-pass spatially filtered imaging method that minimizes signal-averaging requirements and greatly facilitates imaging under severe scattering (turbid) conditions.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chronocoherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Leith, C. Chen, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, J. Rudd, P.-C. Sun, J. Valdmanis, G. Vossler, “Imaging through scattering media with holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1148–1153 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. O’Leary, D. A. Boas, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Experimental images of heterogeneous turbid media by frequency-domain diffusing-photon tomography,” Opt. Lett. 20, 426–428 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991) ;L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, “Kerr–Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18, 241–243 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in highly scattering media using femtosecond second-harmonic-generation cross-correlation time gating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1068–1070 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, E. Arons, K. Clay, “Comparison of various holographic techniques for imaging through biological tissue,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 272–277 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Arons, D. Dilworth, “Analysis of Fourier synthesis holography for imaging through scattering materials,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1841–1847 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C.-P. Huang, H. C. Kapteyn, J. W. McIntosh, M. M. Murnane, “Generation of transform-limited 32-fs pulses from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 139–141 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed., Optical Science Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Vol. 64, pp. 103–106.
  13. Specifications can be obtained at supplier’s URL: http://geology.uiggm.nsc.ru/uiggm/monokrys/produkt/iodat_e.htm .
  14. E. N. Leith, B. G. Hoover, S. M. Grannell, K. D. Mills, H. S. Chen, D. S. Dilworth, “Realization of time gating by use of spatial filtering,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1370–1376 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (4)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991) ;L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, “Kerr–Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18, 241–243 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, J. Valdmanis, “Two-dimensional imaging through diffusing media using 150-fs gated electronic holography techniques,” Opt. Lett. 16, 487–489 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in highly scattering media using femtosecond second-harmonic-generation cross-correlation time gating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1068–1070 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chronocoherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramson, N. H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chronocoherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, C. L.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

K. M. Yoo, Q. Xing, R. R. Alfano, “Imaging objects hidden in highly scattering media using femtosecond second-harmonic-generation cross-correlation time gating,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1068–1070 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991) ;L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, “Kerr–Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18, 241–243 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arons, E.

E. Arons, D. Dilworth, “Analysis of Fourier synthesis holography for imaging through scattering materials,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1841–1847 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, E. Arons, K. Clay, “Comparison of various holographic techniques for imaging through biological tissue,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 272–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bashkansky, M.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bjelkhagen, H.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chronocoherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Chance, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

E. Leith, C. Chen, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, J. Rudd, P.-C. Sun, J. Valdmanis, G. Vossler, “Imaging through scattering media with holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1148–1153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, E. Arons, K. Clay, “Comparison of various holographic techniques for imaging through biological tissue,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 272–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

Chen, Y.

Clay, K.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, E. Arons, K. Clay, “Comparison of various holographic techniques for imaging through biological tissue,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 272–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dilworth, D.

Dilworth, D. S.

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed., Optical Science Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Vol. 64, pp. 103–106.

Duncan, M.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grannell, S. M.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed., Optical Science Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Vol. 64, pp. 103–106.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991) ;L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, “Kerr–Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18, 241–243 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoover, B. G.

Huang, C.-P.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991) ;L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, “Kerr–Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18, 241–243 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, J.

Mahon, R.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, J. W.

Mills, K. D.

Moon, J. A.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed., Optical Science Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Vol. 64, pp. 103–106.

O’Leary, M. A.

Prewitt, J. M. S.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintjes, J.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serafin, J.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chronocoherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, M.

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, E. Arons, K. Clay, “Comparison of various holographic techniques for imaging through biological tissue,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 272–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Spears, K. G.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chronocoherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, P.-C.

E. Leith, C. Chen, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, J. Lopez, J. Rudd, P.-C. Sun, J. Valdmanis, G. Vossler, “Imaging through scattering media with holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1148–1153 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, E. Arons, K. Clay, “Comparison of various holographic techniques for imaging through biological tissue,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 272–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tankerskley, L. L.

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J.

Vossler, G.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991) ;L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, “Kerr–Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18, 241–243 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, Q.

Yodh, A. G.

Yoo, K. M.

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991) ;L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, “Kerr–Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18, 241–243 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, X.

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chronocoherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. G. Spears, J. Serafin, N. H. Abramson, X. Zhu, H. Bjelkhagen, “Chronocoherent imaging for medicine,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1210–1214 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Reintjes, M. Bashkansky, M. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankerskley, J. A. Moon, C. L. Adler, J. M. S. Prewitt, “Time-gated imaging with nonlinear optical Raman interactions,” Opt. Photon. News 4, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-D imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991) ;L. Wang, P. P. Ho, X. Liang, H. Dai, R. R. Alfano, “Kerr–Fourier imaging of hidden objects in thick turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 18, 241–243 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991); M. R. Hee, J. A. Izzat, J. M. Jacobson, J. G. Fujimoto, E. A. Swanson, “Femtosecond transillumination optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 950–952 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Dilworth, E. Leith, J. Lopez, M. Shih, P.-C. Sun, E. Arons, K. Clay, “Comparison of various holographic techniques for imaging through biological tissue,” in Holographic Imaging and Materials, T. H. Jeong, ed., Proc. SPIE2043, 272–277 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, 2nd ed., Optical Science Series (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), Vol. 64, pp. 103–106.

Specifications can be obtained at supplier’s URL: http://geology.uiggm.nsc.ru/uiggm/monokrys/produkt/iodat_e.htm .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Apparatus for imaging through highly scattering media with time-gated, sum-frequency generation in a noncollinear, cross-correlation geometry. Double-headed arrows indicate lenses; IF, interference filter; CCD, charge-coupled device camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal-averaged, second-harmonic generation cross-correlation trace (dotted curve) of the incident pulses in the absence of any diffuser together with the least-squares fit to a sech2 pulse shape (solid curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Apparatus used to verify that the forward-scattering diffuser contains no ballistic component.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the Fourier-transform plane (a) with no diffuser present, (b) with the diffuser system in place. In the central part of (b) that corresponds to spatial frequencies near dc, note the absence of any narrow forward-scattering peak, indicating the absence of the ballistic component. This distribution is broadly peaked in the forward direction. Disregard its slight off-axis displacement, which is due to a wedge in the diffuser system. (c) and (d) Intensity plots of (a) and (b), respectively, for one row of pixels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Resolution target, consisting of 1-mm squares and lines, to be imaged. The diffuser completely obscures this target. (b) Image recorded with the sum-frequency optical system in Fig. 1. (The uncorrelated background field was subtracted out.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagram tracing rays of the vignetting of the image in Fig. 5(b). (a) If the shallow parallel rays satisfy the phase-matching condition of the nonlinear crystal, then (b) steeper parallel rays, originating from a more extreme point on the object, will not.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n02λ=3.4132+0.0476/λ2-0.0338-0.0077*λ2, ne2λ=2.9211+0.0346/λ2-0.0320-0.0042*λ2.
Ufxux=ax * expiϕx,
Ufxrectfx/Δfs=ax * expiϕxrectfx/Δfs,
-1Ufxrectfx/Δfs=-1ax * expiϕx×rectfx/Δfs=ux * sincΔfsx.
τ=cΔk-1=ck0nθΔθ-1
τ=cnθ2πΔf-1

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