Abstract

We present a simple method for measuring the Mueller matrix associated with a scattering medium. Without involving moving parts, four input states of polarization are generated sequentially, and for each of them all four Stokes vector parameters are simultaneously measured for the complete determination of the Mueller matrix. Two liquid-crystal variable retarders are used for controlling the input state of polarization, whereas the measurement of the state of polarization involves phase modulation with a single-pass photoelastic modulator, and Fourier analysis in two polarization channels. The setup is controlled by a computer, allowing for real-time measurement of the Mueller matrix. The method is tested on standard elements such as polarizers and quarter-wave plates, as well as on inhomogeneous particulate systems.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  2. C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (Wiley, New York, 1998).
  3. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1966).
  4. H. Mueller, “The foundations of optics (abstract),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661 (1948).
  5. E. Collett, “Measurement of the four Stokes polarization parameters with a single circular polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 52, 77–80 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ambirajan, D. C. Look, “Experimental investigation of the multiple scattering of a polarized laser beam,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 153–163 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Cariou, B. L. Jeune, J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, “Polarization effects of seawater and underwater targets,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1689–1695 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. M. McClain, W. Jeng, B. Pati, Y. Shi, D. Tian, “Measurement of the Mueller scattering matrix by use of optical beats from a Zeeman laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1230–1241 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. A. Azzam, “Photopolarimetric measurement of the Mueller matrix by Fourier analysis of a single detected signal,” Opt. Lett. 2, 148–150 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. H. Goldstein, “Infrared laser polarimeter,” U.S. patent5,247,176 (21September1993).
  12. R. M. A. Azzam, “Polarimeter,” U.S. patent4,306,809 (22December1981).
  13. Z. Sekera, “Light scattering in the atmosphere and the polarization of sky light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 484–490 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, “Backscattering Mueller matrices from bead-blasted aluminum surfaces,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 434–443 (1997).
  15. G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta 29, 685–689 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. M. A. Azzam, “Photodetector arrangement for measuring the state of polarization of light,” U.S. patent4,681,450 (21July1987).
  18. A. M. El-Saba, R. M. A. Azzam, M. A. G. Abushagur, “Performance optimization and light-beam-deviation analysis of the parallel-slab division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2829–2836 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Krishnan, P. C. Nordine, “Mueller matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter: a study of depolarization effects,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4184–4192 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Krishnan, P. C. Nordine, “Fast ellipsometry and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” in Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T. Yoshizawa, H. Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE2173, 152–156 (1996).
  21. J. E. Bille, “Ellipsometer,” U.S. patent5,822,035 (13October1998).
  22. S. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, “An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new modulation technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761–767 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. W. Bell, “Mueller matrix: an experimental and analytical tool for magneto-optics,” Opt. Eng. 28, 114–119 (1989).
  25. G. C. Salzman, C. T. Gregg, W. K. Grace, R. D. Hiebert, “Biological particle identification apparatus,” U.S. patent4,884,886 (5December1989).
  26. R. Anderson, “Measurement of Mueller matrices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 11–13 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, “Two modulator generalized ellipsometer for complete Mueller matrix measurement,” U.S. patent5,956,147 (21September1999).
  28. B. DeVolk, F. Allen, C. D. Newman, R. J. Frastz, “Particle identifying apparatus,” U.S. patent4,953,980 (4September1990).
  29. R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of polarized light interactions via the Mueller matrix,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1323–1332 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Complete high-frequency measurement of Mueller matrices based on a new coupled-phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2671–2680 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  31. E. Compain, B. Drevillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. E. Bouree, “Complete Mueller matrix measurement with a single high frequency modulation,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 47–52 (1998).
  32. E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “High-frequency modulation of the four states of polarization of light with a single phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1574–1580 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  33. E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Broadband division-of-amplitude polarimeter based on uncoated prisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5938–5944 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. B. Kaplan, E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Phase-modulated Mueller ellipsometry characterization of scattering by latex sphere suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 39, 629–636 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Z. Zhuang, S. W. Suh, J. S. Patel, “Polarization controller using nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 24, 694–696 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  36. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, 1997).
  37. J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. M. Mujat, A. Dogariu, “Real-time Mueller matrix measurement for particulate systems,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 390–400 (2000).
  39. D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1998 (5)

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. E. Bouree, “Complete Mueller matrix measurement with a single high frequency modulation,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 47–52 (1998).

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “High-frequency modulation of the four states of polarization of light with a single phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1574–1580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ambirajan, D. C. Look, “Experimental investigation of the multiple scattering of a polarized laser beam,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 153–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Broadband division-of-amplitude polarimeter based on uncoated prisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5938–5944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Complete high-frequency measurement of Mueller matrices based on a new coupled-phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2671–2680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Collett, “Measurement of the four Stokes polarization parameters with a single circular polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 52, 77–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1992 (2)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

B. W. Bell, “Mueller matrix: an experimental and analytical tool for magneto-optics,” Opt. Eng. 28, 114–119 (1989).

1985 (1)

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta 29, 685–689 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

1973 (1)

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

S. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, “An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new modulation technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761–767 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

1948 (1)

H. Mueller, “The foundations of optics (abstract),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661 (1948).

Abushagur, M. A. G.

Allen, F.

B. DeVolk, F. Allen, C. D. Newman, R. J. Frastz, “Particle identifying apparatus,” U.S. patent4,953,980 (4September1990).

Ambirajan, A.

A. Ambirajan, D. C. Look, “Experimental investigation of the multiple scattering of a polarized laser beam,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 153–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R.

Azzam, R. M. A.

A. M. El-Saba, R. M. A. Azzam, M. A. G. Abushagur, “Performance optimization and light-beam-deviation analysis of the parallel-slab division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2829–2836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta 29, 685–689 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. M. A. Azzam, “Photopolarimetric measurement of the Mueller matrix by Fourier analysis of a single detected signal,” Opt. Lett. 2, 148–150 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. A. Azzam, “Photodetector arrangement for measuring the state of polarization of light,” U.S. patent4,681,450 (21July1987).

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, 1997).

R. M. A. Azzam, “Polarimeter,” U.S. patent4,306,809 (22December1981).

Bailey, W. M.

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam, 1997).

Bell, B. W.

B. W. Bell, “Mueller matrix: an experimental and analytical tool for magneto-optics,” Opt. Eng. 28, 114–119 (1989).

Bickel, W. S.

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bicout, D.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bille, J. E.

J. E. Bille, “Ellipsometer,” U.S. patent5,822,035 (13October1998).

Bonner, R. F.

Bottiger, J. R.

Bouree, J. E.

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. E. Bouree, “Complete Mueller matrix measurement with a single high frequency modulation,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 47–52 (1998).

Brosseau, C.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (Wiley, New York, 1998).

Cariou, J.

Collett, E.

E. Collett, “Measurement of the four Stokes polarization parameters with a single circular polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 52, 77–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Compain, E.

B. Kaplan, E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Phase-modulated Mueller ellipsometry characterization of scattering by latex sphere suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 39, 629–636 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “High-frequency modulation of the four states of polarization of light with a single phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1574–1580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Broadband division-of-amplitude polarimeter based on uncoated prisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5938–5944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. E. Bouree, “Complete Mueller matrix measurement with a single high frequency modulation,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 47–52 (1998).

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Complete high-frequency measurement of Mueller matrices based on a new coupled-phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2671–2680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeVolk, B.

B. DeVolk, F. Allen, C. D. Newman, R. J. Frastz, “Particle identifying apparatus,” U.S. patent4,953,980 (4September1990).

Dogariu, A.

M. Mujat, A. Dogariu, “Real-time Mueller matrix measurement for particulate systems,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 390–400 (2000).

Drevillon, B.

B. Kaplan, E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Phase-modulated Mueller ellipsometry characterization of scattering by latex sphere suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 39, 629–636 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “High-frequency modulation of the four states of polarization of light with a single phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1574–1580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. E. Bouree, “Complete Mueller matrix measurement with a single high frequency modulation,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 47–52 (1998).

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Broadband division-of-amplitude polarimeter based on uncoated prisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5938–5944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Complete high-frequency measurement of Mueller matrices based on a new coupled-phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2671–2680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

El-Saba, A. M.

Frastz, R. J.

B. DeVolk, F. Allen, C. D. Newman, R. J. Frastz, “Particle identifying apparatus,” U.S. patent4,953,980 (4September1990).

Fry, E. S.

Gandjakhche, A. H.

Goldstein, D. H.

D. H. Goldstein, “Infrared laser polarimeter,” U.S. patent5,247,176 (21September1993).

Grace, W. K.

G. C. Salzman, C. T. Gregg, W. K. Grace, R. D. Hiebert, “Biological particle identification apparatus,” U.S. patent4,884,886 (5December1989).

Gregg, C. T.

G. C. Salzman, C. T. Gregg, W. K. Grace, R. D. Hiebert, “Biological particle identification apparatus,” U.S. patent4,884,886 (5December1989).

Guern, Y.

Hiebert, R. D.

G. C. Salzman, C. T. Gregg, W. K. Grace, R. D. Hiebert, “Biological particle identification apparatus,” U.S. patent4,884,886 (5December1989).

Huc, J.

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. E. Bouree, “Complete Mueller matrix measurement with a single high frequency modulation,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 47–52 (1998).

Huffman, D. R.

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jakeman, E.

Jasperson, S.

S. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, “An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new modulation technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761–767 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, “Two modulator generalized ellipsometer for complete Mueller matrix measurement,” U.S. patent5,956,147 (21September1999).

Jeng, W.

Jeune, B. L.

Jordan, D. L.

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, “Backscattering Mueller matrices from bead-blasted aluminum surfaces,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 434–443 (1997).

Kaplan, B.

Krishnan, S.

S. Krishnan, P. C. Nordine, “Mueller matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter: a study of depolarization effects,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4184–4192 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Krishnan, P. C. Nordine, “Fast ellipsometry and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” in Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T. Yoshizawa, H. Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE2173, 152–156 (1996).

Lewis, G. D.

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, “Backscattering Mueller matrices from bead-blasted aluminum surfaces,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, D. H. Goldstein, R. A. Chipman, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 434–443 (1997).

Look, D. C.

A. Ambirajan, D. C. Look, “Experimental investigation of the multiple scattering of a polarized laser beam,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 153–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lotrian, J.

Martinez, A. S.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McClain, W. M.

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, “Two modulator generalized ellipsometer for complete Mueller matrix measurement,” U.S. patent5,956,147 (21September1999).

Mueller, H.

H. Mueller, “The foundations of optics (abstract),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661 (1948).

Mujat, M.

M. Mujat, A. Dogariu, “Real-time Mueller matrix measurement for particulate systems,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. W. Kamerman, U. N. Singh, C. Werner, V. V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 390–400 (2000).

Newman, C. D.

B. DeVolk, F. Allen, C. D. Newman, R. J. Frastz, “Particle identifying apparatus,” U.S. patent4,953,980 (4September1990).

Nordine, P. C.

S. Krishnan, P. C. Nordine, “Mueller matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter: a study of depolarization effects,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4184–4192 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Krishnan, P. C. Nordine, “Fast ellipsometry and Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” in Polarization Analysis and Applications to Device Technology, T. Yoshizawa, H. Yokota, eds., Proc. SPIE2173, 152–156 (1996).

Parey, J. Y.

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. E. Bouree, “Complete Mueller matrix measurement with a single high frequency modulation,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 47–52 (1998).

Patel, J. S.

Pati, B.

Salzman, G. C.

G. C. Salzman, C. T. Gregg, W. K. Grace, R. D. Hiebert, “Biological particle identification apparatus,” U.S. patent4,884,886 (5December1989).

Schmitt, J. M.

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnatterly, S. E.

S. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, “An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new modulation technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761–767 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sekera, Z.

Shi, Y.

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1966).

Suh, S. W.

Thompson, R. C.

Tian, D.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Zhuang, Z.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

W. S. Bickel, W. M. Bailey, “Stokes vectors, Mueller matrices, and polarized scattered light,” Am. J. Phys. 53, 468–478 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (10)

J. Cariou, B. L. Jeune, J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, “Polarization effects of seawater and underwater targets,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1689–1695 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, A. H. Gandjakhche, R. F. Bonner, “Use of polarized light to discriminate short-path photons in a multiply scattering medium,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6535–6546 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Anderson, “Measurement of Mueller matrices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 11–13 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. McClain, W. Jeng, B. Pati, Y. Shi, D. Tian, “Measurement of the Mueller scattering matrix by use of optical beats from a Zeeman laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1230–1241 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Krishnan, P. C. Nordine, “Mueller matrix ellipsometry using the division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter: a study of depolarization effects,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4184–4192 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Broadband division-of-amplitude polarimeter based on uncoated prisms,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5938–5944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Lewis, D. L. Jordan, E. Jakeman, “Backscatter linear and circular polarization analysis of roughened aluminum,” Appl. Opt. 37, 5985–5992 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Kaplan, E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Phase-modulated Mueller ellipsometry characterization of scattering by latex sphere suspensions,” Appl. Opt. 39, 629–636 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Thompson, J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of polarized light interactions via the Mueller matrix,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1323–1332 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. El-Saba, R. M. A. Azzam, M. A. G. Abushagur, “Performance optimization and light-beam-deviation analysis of the parallel-slab division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2829–2836 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Z. Sekera, “Light scattering in the atmosphere and the polarization of sky light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 484–490 (1957).
[CrossRef]

H. Mueller, “The foundations of optics (abstract),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 661 (1948).

J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer (1)

A. Ambirajan, D. C. Look, “Experimental investigation of the multiple scattering of a polarized laser beam,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 12, 153–163 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all four Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta 29, 685–689 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Collett, “Measurement of the four Stokes polarization parameters with a single circular polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 52, 77–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. W. Bell, “Mueller matrix: an experimental and analytical tool for magneto-optics,” Opt. Eng. 28, 114–119 (1989).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. Bicout, C. Brosseau, A. S. Martinez, J. M. Schmitt, “Depolarization of multiply scattered waves by spherical diffusers: influence of the size parameter,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 1767–1770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “High-frequency modulation of the four states of polarization of light with a single phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1574–1580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Jasperson, S. E. Schnatterly, “An improved method for high reflectivity ellipsometry based on a new modulation technique,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40, 761–767 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. Compain, B. Drevillon, “Complete high-frequency measurement of Mueller matrices based on a new coupled-phase modulator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2671–2680 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

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