Abstract

A highly sensitive method is presented for noninvasive defect analysis on thin structures with a Q-switched double-pulsed ruby laser with frequency doubling (347 nm). In our research we feature an all-optical arrangement, where a focused laser pulse derived from the same ruby laser (694 nm) acts as a built-in synchronous excitation source for digital holographic interferometry. The recordings are made with a CCD camera for capturing two holograms (two states of the specimen) corresponding to the two UV laser pulses with a short time separation (10–50 µs). Subtraction of the phase distribution in two digital holograms gives a fringe phase map that shows the change in deformation of the specimen between the recordings. The advantage of the proposed method is two fold. First, the use of a shorter wavelength results in a higher sensitivity. Second, owing to the induced synchronous built-in optical excitation, the specimen is not subjected to any external physical excitation devices. Experimental results are presented on identification and evaluation of defects in thin metal sheets.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  2. K.-E. Pieponen, T. Asakura, “Holographic inspection of metal objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 17, 51–54 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K.-E. Fällström, “A non-destructive method to detect defects in plates,” NDT & E Int. 24, 67–76 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. M. White, “Generation of elastic waves by transient surface heating,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3559–3567 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-A. Crostack, E. H. Meyer, U. Radke, “Zerstörungsfreie Werkstoff- und Bauteilprüfung mittels laserinduziertem Ultraschall and holographischer Schallfeldabbildung,” Holographisch-interferometrische Messtechnik, Laser-95 (VDI Technologiezentrum, Düsseldorf, 1995), pp. 21.06–22.06.
  6. K.-E. Fällström, N.-E. Molin, K. Olofsson, S. Schedin, A. Wåhlin, “Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 13, 293–307 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Dändliker, R. Thalmann, J.-F. Willemin, “Fringe interpolation by two-reference beam holographic interferometry: reducing sensitivity to hologram misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301–306 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Gren, S. Schedin, X. Li, “Tomographic reconstruction of transient acoustic fields recorded by pulsed TV holography,” Appl. Opt. 37, 834–840 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holographic interferometry with 694- and 347-nm wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 39, 246–249 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, F. M. Santoyo, “All-fibre pulsed digital holography,” Opt. Commun. 165, 183–188 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, F. M. Santoyo, “All-fibre pulsed digital holography,” Opt. Commun. 165, 183–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-E. Fällström, N.-E. Molin, K. Olofsson, S. Schedin, A. Wåhlin, “Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 13, 293–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K.-E. Pieponen, T. Asakura, “Holographic inspection of metal objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 17, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K.-E. Fällström, “A non-destructive method to detect defects in plates,” NDT & E Int. 24, 67–76 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. Dändliker, R. Thalmann, J.-F. Willemin, “Fringe interpolation by two-reference beam holographic interferometry: reducing sensitivity to hologram misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

R. M. White, “Generation of elastic waves by transient surface heating,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3559–3567 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Asakura, T.

K.-E. Pieponen, T. Asakura, “Holographic inspection of metal objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 17, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crostack, H.-A.

H.-A. Crostack, E. H. Meyer, U. Radke, “Zerstörungsfreie Werkstoff- und Bauteilprüfung mittels laserinduziertem Ultraschall and holographischer Schallfeldabbildung,” Holographisch-interferometrische Messtechnik, Laser-95 (VDI Technologiezentrum, Düsseldorf, 1995), pp. 21.06–22.06.

Dändliker, R.

R. Dändliker, R. Thalmann, J.-F. Willemin, “Fringe interpolation by two-reference beam holographic interferometry: reducing sensitivity to hologram misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fällström, K.-E.

K.-E. Fällström, N.-E. Molin, K. Olofsson, S. Schedin, A. Wåhlin, “Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 13, 293–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-E. Fällström, “A non-destructive method to detect defects in plates,” NDT & E Int. 24, 67–76 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gren, P.

Gusev, M. E.

Li, X.

Meyer, E. H.

H.-A. Crostack, E. H. Meyer, U. Radke, “Zerstörungsfreie Werkstoff- und Bauteilprüfung mittels laserinduziertem Ultraschall and holographischer Schallfeldabbildung,” Holographisch-interferometrische Messtechnik, Laser-95 (VDI Technologiezentrum, Düsseldorf, 1995), pp. 21.06–22.06.

Molin, N.-E.

K.-E. Fällström, N.-E. Molin, K. Olofsson, S. Schedin, A. Wåhlin, “Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 13, 293–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olofsson, K.

K.-E. Fällström, N.-E. Molin, K. Olofsson, S. Schedin, A. Wåhlin, “Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 13, 293–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holographic interferometry with 694- and 347-nm wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 39, 246–249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, F. M. Santoyo, “All-fibre pulsed digital holography,” Opt. Commun. 165, 183–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pieponen, K.-E.

K.-E. Pieponen, T. Asakura, “Holographic inspection of metal objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 17, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Radke, U.

H.-A. Crostack, E. H. Meyer, U. Radke, “Zerstörungsfreie Werkstoff- und Bauteilprüfung mittels laserinduziertem Ultraschall and holographischer Schallfeldabbildung,” Holographisch-interferometrische Messtechnik, Laser-95 (VDI Technologiezentrum, Düsseldorf, 1995), pp. 21.06–22.06.

Santoyo, F. M.

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, F. M. Santoyo, “All-fibre pulsed digital holography,” Opt. Commun. 165, 183–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schedin, S.

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, F. M. Santoyo, “All-fibre pulsed digital holography,” Opt. Commun. 165, 183–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Gren, S. Schedin, X. Li, “Tomographic reconstruction of transient acoustic fields recorded by pulsed TV holography,” Appl. Opt. 37, 834–840 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K.-E. Fällström, N.-E. Molin, K. Olofsson, S. Schedin, A. Wåhlin, “Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 13, 293–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thalmann, R.

R. Dändliker, R. Thalmann, J.-F. Willemin, “Fringe interpolation by two-reference beam holographic interferometry: reducing sensitivity to hologram misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holographic interferometry with 694- and 347-nm wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 39, 246–249 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, F. M. Santoyo, “All-fibre pulsed digital holography,” Opt. Commun. 165, 183–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Wåhlin, A.

K.-E. Fällström, N.-E. Molin, K. Olofsson, S. Schedin, A. Wåhlin, “Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 13, 293–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, R. M.

R. M. White, “Generation of elastic waves by transient surface heating,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3559–3567 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Willemin, J.-F.

R. Dändliker, R. Thalmann, J.-F. Willemin, “Fringe interpolation by two-reference beam holographic interferometry: reducing sensitivity to hologram misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y.

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. M. White, “Generation of elastic waves by transient surface heating,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3559–3567 (1963).
[CrossRef]

NDT & E Int. (1)

K.-E. Fällström, “A non-destructive method to detect defects in plates,” NDT & E Int. 24, 67–76 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nondestr. Test. Eval. (1)

K.-E. Fällström, N.-E. Molin, K. Olofsson, S. Schedin, A. Wåhlin, “Mechanical and thermal effects in a steel plate impacted by a focused laser pulse,” Nondestr. Test. Eval. 13, 293–307 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

R. Dändliker, R. Thalmann, J.-F. Willemin, “Fringe interpolation by two-reference beam holographic interferometry: reducing sensitivity to hologram misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301–306 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, F. M. Santoyo, “All-fibre pulsed digital holography,” Opt. Commun. 165, 183–188 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K.-E. Pieponen, T. Asakura, “Holographic inspection of metal objects,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 17, 51–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, New York, 1979).

H.-A. Crostack, E. H. Meyer, U. Radke, “Zerstörungsfreie Werkstoff- und Bauteilprüfung mittels laserinduziertem Ultraschall and holographischer Schallfeldabbildung,” Holographisch-interferometrische Messtechnik, Laser-95 (VDI Technologiezentrum, Düsseldorf, 1995), pp. 21.06–22.06.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. L, lens; M, mirror; AP, aperture; PC, personal computer; OB, object beam; EB, red ruby beam; WBS, wedged beam splitter; NL, negative lens; P, prism; RB, reference beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase maps showing propagation of flexural waves along a thin metal sheet. (a) 10 µs, (b) 20 µs, (c) 50; µs after laser pulse excitation. Area field of view is 10 mm × 10 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Unwrapped phase map of Fig. 2(b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Defect detection of a small hole (upper disturbance) and a dent (lower disturbance).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detection of debonding between a layer of adhesive tape and metal sheet.

Equations (1)

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IxH, yH=|RxH, yH|2+|UxH, yH|2+RxH, yHU*xH, yH+R*xH, yHUxH, yH,

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