Abstract

The transmittance characteristics in the extreme ultraviolet of unbacked films are discussed; data are presented for films of Al, In, Bi, Ge, Si, and certain organic materials. Generally, the metals begin to transmit shortward of their critical wavelengths, determined by the electron eigenloss, and reach maximum transparency at the nearest x-ray edge; to shorter wavelengths regions of transparency exist between the other x-ray edges. Their use in order-sorting, and for eliminating long-wavelength stray light, is illustrated with laboratory spectra and solar spectra obtained from rockets.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. R. Laird, Phys. Rev. 29, 41 (1927).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. M. O'Bryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 739 (1932).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. H. Tomboulian, D. E. Bedo, Rev. Sci. Instr. 26, 747 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 38, 98 (1918).
  5. R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 44, 53 (1933).
  6. D. Pines, Revs. Modern Phys. 28, 184 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. M. O'Bryan, Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 328 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. R. Laird, Phys. Rev. 15, 543 (1920).
  9. L. R. Canfield, G. Hass, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 61 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. H. Tomboulian, E. M. Pell, Phys. Rev. 83, 1196 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Astoin, B. Vodar, J. Phys. Radium 14, 424 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. C. Walker, O. P. Rustgi, G. L. Weissler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 471 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. P. Rustgi, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 55, 630 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 154 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. R. Hunter, unpublished data.
  16. E. T. Byram, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 251 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. E. Carpenter, J. A. Curcio, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 675 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. E. Sandstrom, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 30.
  20. S. G. Tilford, private communication.
  21. R. L. Blake, J. F. Meekins, A. E. Unzicker, private communication.
  22. Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. Radium 13, 113 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. A. R. Samson, R. B. Cairns, Appl. Opt. 4, 915 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Phys. Rev. 130, 152 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  25. O. P. Rustgi, W. C. Walker, G. L. Weissler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 1357 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Tech. Rept. No. 4 Grant DA-ORD-37, ARO Project No. 2810-P [this report also includes the material on Mg mentioned in (24)].
  27. R. P. Madden, K. Codling, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, unpublished data.
  28. W. C. Walker, J. Chem. Phys. Solids 24, 1667 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, K. G. Widing, Astron. J. 69, 133 (1964). (Abstract.)
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147 (1964). (Abstract.)
  31. R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 137, 3 (1963).
    [CrossRef]

1965 (3)

1964 (3)

W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, K. G. Widing, Astron. J. 69, 133 (1964). (Abstract.)
[CrossRef]

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147 (1964). (Abstract.)

W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 154 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (3)

H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Phys. Rev. 130, 152 (1963).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Walker, J. Chem. Phys. Solids 24, 1667 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 137, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

1959 (1)

1956 (3)

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Byram, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 251 (1956).
[CrossRef]

D. Pines, Revs. Modern Phys. 28, 184 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

D. H. Tomboulian, D. E. Bedo, Rev. Sci. Instr. 26, 747 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

N. Astoin, B. Vodar, J. Phys. Radium 14, 424 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. Radium 13, 113 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

D. H. Tomboulian, E. M. Pell, Phys. Rev. 83, 1196 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

F. E. Carpenter, J. A. Curcio, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 675 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

H. M. O'Bryan, Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 328 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 44, 53 (1933).

1932 (1)

1927 (1)

E. R. Laird, Phys. Rev. 29, 41 (1927).
[CrossRef]

1920 (1)

E. R. Laird, Phys. Rev. 15, 543 (1920).

1918 (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 38, 98 (1918).

Angel, D. W.

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, unpublished data.

Astoin, N.

N. Astoin, B. Vodar, J. Phys. Radium 14, 424 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Austin, W. E.

W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, K. G. Widing, Astron. J. 69, 133 (1964). (Abstract.)
[CrossRef]

Bedo, D. E.

D. H. Tomboulian, D. E. Bedo, Rev. Sci. Instr. 26, 747 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Blake, R. L.

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 137, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Blake, J. F. Meekins, A. E. Unzicker, private communication.

Byram, E. T.

E. T. Byram, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 251 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, R. B.

Canfield, L. R.

Carpenter, F. E.

F. E. Carpenter, J. A. Curcio, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 675 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Cauchois, Y.

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. Radium 13, 113 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Chubb, T. A.

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 137, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Byram, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 251 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Codling, K.

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, unpublished data.

Curcio, J. A.

F. E. Carpenter, J. A. Curcio, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 675 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, H.

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 137, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Byram, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 251 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, D. L.

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147 (1964). (Abstract.)

Hass, G.

Hunter, W. R.

W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 154 (1964).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, unpublished data.

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, unpublished data.

Kroger, H.

H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Phys. Rev. 130, 152 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Tech. Rept. No. 4 Grant DA-ORD-37, ARO Project No. 2810-P [this report also includes the material on Mg mentioned in (24)].

Laird, E. R.

E. R. Laird, Phys. Rev. 29, 41 (1927).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Laird, Phys. Rev. 15, 543 (1920).

Madden, R. P.

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, unpublished data.

Meekins, J. F.

R. L. Blake, J. F. Meekins, A. E. Unzicker, private communication.

O'Bryan, H. M.

H. M. O'Bryan, Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 328 (1935).
[CrossRef]

H. M. O'Bryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 739 (1932).
[CrossRef]

Pell, E. M.

D. H. Tomboulian, E. M. Pell, Phys. Rev. 83, 1196 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Pines, D.

D. Pines, Revs. Modern Phys. 28, 184 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, J. D.

W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, K. G. Widing, Astron. J. 69, 133 (1964). (Abstract.)
[CrossRef]

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147 (1964). (Abstract.)

Rustgi, O. P.

Samson, J. A. R.

Sandstrom, A. E.

A. E. Sandstrom, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 30.

Tilford, S. G.

S. G. Tilford, private communication.

Tomboulian, D. H.

H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Phys. Rev. 130, 152 (1963).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Tomboulian, D. E. Bedo, Rev. Sci. Instr. 26, 747 (1955).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Tomboulian, E. M. Pell, Phys. Rev. 83, 1196 (1951).
[CrossRef]

H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Tech. Rept. No. 4 Grant DA-ORD-37, ARO Project No. 2810-P [this report also includes the material on Mg mentioned in (24)].

Tousey, R.

W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, K. G. Widing, Astron. J. 69, 133 (1964). (Abstract.)
[CrossRef]

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147 (1964). (Abstract.)

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, R. Tousey, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 46, 1009 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Unzicker, A. E.

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 137, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Blake, J. F. Meekins, A. E. Unzicker, private communication.

Vodar, B.

N. Astoin, B. Vodar, J. Phys. Radium 14, 424 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Walker, W. C.

Weissler, G. L.

Widing, K. G.

W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, K. G. Widing, Astron. J. 69, 133 (1964). (Abstract.)
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 44, 53 (1933).

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 38, 98 (1918).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astron. J. (2)

W. E. Austin, J. D. Purcell, R. Tousey, K. G. Widing, Astron. J. 69, 133 (1964). (Abstract.)
[CrossRef]

J. D. Purcell, D. L. Garrett, R. Tousey, Astron. J. 69, 147 (1964). (Abstract.)

Astrophys. J. (1)

R. L. Blake, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, A. E. Unzicker, Astrophys. J. 137, 3 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. Solids (1)

W. C. Walker, J. Chem. Phys. Solids 24, 1667 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

E. T. Byram, T. A. Chubb, H. Friedman, J. Geophys. Res. 61, 251 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (6)

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. Phys. (Paris) 25, 154 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Radium (2)

Y. Cauchois, J. Phys. Radium 13, 113 (1952).
[CrossRef]

N. Astoin, B. Vodar, J. Phys. Radium 14, 424 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, Phil. Mag. 38, 98 (1918).

Phys. Rev. (5)

R. W. Wood, Phys. Rev. 44, 53 (1933).

E. R. Laird, Phys. Rev. 15, 543 (1920).

D. H. Tomboulian, E. M. Pell, Phys. Rev. 83, 1196 (1951).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Laird, Phys. Rev. 29, 41 (1927).
[CrossRef]

H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Phys. Rev. 130, 152 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (3)

F. E. Carpenter, J. A. Curcio, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 675 (1950).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Tomboulian, D. E. Bedo, Rev. Sci. Instr. 26, 747 (1955).
[CrossRef]

H. M. O'Bryan, Rev. Sci. Instr. 6, 328 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Revs. Modern Phys. (1)

D. Pines, Revs. Modern Phys. 28, 184 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

W. R. Hunter, unpublished data.

A. E. Sandstrom, in Handbuch der Physik, S. Flügge, ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1957), Vol. 30.

S. G. Tilford, private communication.

R. L. Blake, J. F. Meekins, A. E. Unzicker, private communication.

H. Kroger, D. H. Tomboulian, Tech. Rept. No. 4 Grant DA-ORD-37, ARO Project No. 2810-P [this report also includes the material on Mg mentioned in (24)].

R. P. Madden, K. Codling, W. R. Hunter, D. W. Angel, unpublished data.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The transmittance of a Parlodion (nitrocellulose) film 270 Å thick (solid curve); and of a celluloid film 100 Å thick as measured by O'Bryan.2

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transmittance of an unbacked film of aluminum, 800 Å thick. Included for comparison are curves for aluminum calculated from the optical constants, for the cases of no oxide, and 40 Å oxide on both surfaces.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured transmittance of indium films, and curves calculated (dashed lines) from the optical constants.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured transmittance of unbacked bismuth films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured transmittance of unbacked films of germanium.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The measured transmittance of unbacked silicon films and a curve calculated from the optical constants.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A summary diagram of the transmission properties of several materials, most of which can be prepared as thin films. X-ray edges are shown as steps; the arrow heads show critical wavelengths as calculated by Pines6; dotted sections indicate ranges where there are no data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Extreme ultraviolet spectroheliograms, photographed with a normal-incidence spectrograph on 10 May 1963. The disk images are aligned with an ordinary solar spectrum.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) The x-ray image of the sun obtained on 19 April 1960 with a pinhole camera. The image was smeared in azimuth by back-and-forth rotation of the camera about the earth-sun axis during exposure. (b) Transmission characteristics of the thin film used to cover the x-ray camera aperture. Transmission has been calculated from the atomic absorption coefficients of the material making up the filter.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The soft x-ray spectrum of the sun, photographed by the U. S. Naval Research Laboratory on 20 September 1963,with a 2400-line/mm grating.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The spectrum of a vacuum spark with and without a germanium filter. Exposure times in minutes are, from top to bottom: 1, 9, 3, 1, 9, 3, 12, 3, ¾.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The spectrum of a vacuum spark with and without a silicon filter. Exposure times in minutes, from top to bottom: 6, ¾, 6, 1, 6, 1.

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