A great variety of optical instruments has been developed for use in biology. The microscope and its many special types are part of them. In this article, a survey is given of the history, development, current status, and future outlook of general microscopy, microspectroscopy, interference microscopy, and electron and x-ray microscopy.

© 1965 Optical Society of America

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image formation in coherent light. 1, light source; 2, condenser; 3, object; 4, objective lens; 5, image; A, B, Fourier transforms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The principle of reconstruction. Diffraction pattern and reconstruction of (from top to bottom) a point object, two points, and an irregular object.