Abstract

We present results from a major experimental effort to understand the behavior of spatial filter pinholes and to identify and demonstrate a pinhole that will meet the requirements of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We find that pinhole performance depends significantly on geometry and material. Cone pinholes are found to stay open longer and to cause less backreflection than pinholes of more conventional geometry. We show that a ±150-µrad stainless-steel cone pinhole will pass a full-energy NIF ignition pulse with required margins for misalignment and for smoothing by spectral dispersion. On the basis of a model fitted to experimental results, a ±125-µrad stainless-steel cone pinhole is also projected to meet these requirements.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. W. Simmons, J. S. Guch, F. Rainer, J. E. Murray, “A high energy spatial filter for removal of small scale beam instabilities in high power solid state lasers,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1975).
  2. J. T. Hunt, J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, P. A. Renard, “Suppression of self-focusing through low-pass spatial filtering and relay imaging,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2053–2057 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. S. Pearlman, J. P. Anthes, “Closure of pinholes under intense laser radiation,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2328–2331 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. M. Auerbach, N. C. Holmes, J. T. Hunt, G. J. Linford, “Closure phenomena in pinholes irradiated by Nd laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2495–2499 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. A. Dimakov, S. I. Zavgorodneva, L. V. Koval’chuk, A. Yu. Rodionov, “Investigation of the threshold of formation of a plasma screening radiation in a spatial filter,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 803–805 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. M. Celliers, K. G. Estabrook, R. J. Wallace, J. E. Murray, L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, B. M. Van Wonterghem, K. R. Manes, “Spatial filter pinhole for high-energy pulsed lasers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2371–2378 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. A. Kurnit, S. A. Letzring, R. P. Johnson, “High-damage-threshold pinhole for glass fusion laser applications,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 896–900 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Rothenberg, J. M. Auerbach, B. D. Moran, J. E. Murray, T. L. Weiland, P. J. Wegner, “Implementation of smoothing by spectral dispersion on Beamlet and NIF,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 970–979 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Murray, D. Milam, C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, F. Bonneau, “Spatial filter issues,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 496–503 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Cf. papers in ICF Annual Report, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1995).
  12. D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. NG3 and NG4 are products of Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., Duryea, Pa.
  14. C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, J. M. Auerbach, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, “Modeling of laser knife-edge and pinhole experiments,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 524–535 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1998

1989

S. A. Dimakov, S. I. Zavgorodneva, L. V. Koval’chuk, A. Yu. Rodionov, “Investigation of the threshold of formation of a plasma screening radiation in a spatial filter,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 803–805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

1977

Afeyan, B. B.

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anthes, J. P.

Auerbach, J. M.

J. M. Auerbach, N. C. Holmes, J. T. Hunt, G. J. Linford, “Closure phenomena in pinholes irradiated by Nd laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2495–2499 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, J. M. Auerbach, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, “Modeling of laser knife-edge and pinhole experiments,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 524–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. M. Auerbach, B. D. Moran, J. E. Murray, T. L. Weiland, P. J. Wegner, “Implementation of smoothing by spectral dispersion on Beamlet and NIF,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 970–979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bikmatov, R. G.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boley, C. D.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, J. M. Auerbach, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, “Modeling of laser knife-edge and pinhole experiments,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 524–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Murray, D. Milam, C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, F. Bonneau, “Spatial filter issues,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 496–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bonneau, F.

J. E. Murray, D. Milam, C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, F. Bonneau, “Spatial filter issues,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 496–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burdonsky, I. N.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Celliers, P. M.

Chernyak, V. M.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

Dimakov, S. A.

S. A. Dimakov, S. I. Zavgorodneva, L. V. Koval’chuk, A. Yu. Rodionov, “Investigation of the threshold of formation of a plasma screening radiation in a spatial filter,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 803–805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Estabrook, K. G.

P. M. Celliers, K. G. Estabrook, R. J. Wallace, J. E. Murray, L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, B. M. Van Wonterghem, K. R. Manes, “Spatial filter pinhole for high-energy pulsed lasers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2371–2378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Murray, D. Milam, C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, F. Bonneau, “Spatial filter issues,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 496–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, J. M. Auerbach, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, “Modeling of laser knife-edge and pinhole experiments,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 524–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, A. V.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, J. M. Auerbach, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, “Modeling of laser knife-edge and pinhole experiments,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 524–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glaze, J. A.

Goltsov, A. Y.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guch, J. S.

W. W. Simmons, J. S. Guch, F. Rainer, J. E. Murray, “A high energy spatial filter for removal of small scale beam instabilities in high power solid state lasers,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1975).

Holmes, N. C.

Hunt, J. T.

Johnson, R. P.

N. A. Kurnit, S. A. Letzring, R. P. Johnson, “High-damage-threshold pinhole for glass fusion laser applications,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 896–900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirkwood, R. K.

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kondrashov, V. N.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koptyaev, S. N.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koval’chuk, L. V.

S. A. Dimakov, S. I. Zavgorodneva, L. V. Koval’chuk, A. Yu. Rodionov, “Investigation of the threshold of formation of a plasma screening radiation in a spatial filter,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 803–805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kovalsky, N. G.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurnit, N. A.

N. A. Kurnit, S. A. Letzring, R. P. Johnson, “High-damage-threshold pinhole for glass fusion laser applications,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 896–900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, V. N.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Letzring, S. A.

N. A. Kurnit, S. A. Letzring, R. P. Johnson, “High-damage-threshold pinhole for glass fusion laser applications,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 896–900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Linford, G. J.

MacGowan, B. J.

Manes, K. R.

Milam, D.

J. E. Murray, D. Milam, C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, F. Bonneau, “Spatial filter issues,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 496–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B. D.

J. E. Rothenberg, J. M. Auerbach, B. D. Moran, J. E. Murray, T. L. Weiland, P. J. Wegner, “Implementation of smoothing by spectral dispersion on Beamlet and NIF,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 970–979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. E.

P. M. Celliers, K. G. Estabrook, R. J. Wallace, J. E. Murray, L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, B. M. Van Wonterghem, K. R. Manes, “Spatial filter pinhole for high-energy pulsed lasers,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2371–2378 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. M. Auerbach, B. D. Moran, J. E. Murray, T. L. Weiland, P. J. Wegner, “Implementation of smoothing by spectral dispersion on Beamlet and NIF,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 970–979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Murray, D. Milam, C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, F. Bonneau, “Spatial filter issues,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 496–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Simmons, J. S. Guch, F. Rainer, J. E. Murray, “A high energy spatial filter for removal of small scale beam instabilities in high power solid state lasers,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1975).

Nielson, N. D.

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pearlman, J. S.

Pergament, M. I.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petryakov, V. M.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

W. W. Simmons, J. S. Guch, F. Rainer, J. E. Murray, “A high energy spatial filter for removal of small scale beam instabilities in high power solid state lasers,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1975).

Renard, P. A.

Rodionov, A. Yu.

S. A. Dimakov, S. I. Zavgorodneva, L. V. Koval’chuk, A. Yu. Rodionov, “Investigation of the threshold of formation of a plasma screening radiation in a spatial filter,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 803–805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

J. E. Rothenberg, J. M. Auerbach, B. D. Moran, J. E. Murray, T. L. Weiland, P. J. Wegner, “Implementation of smoothing by spectral dispersion on Beamlet and NIF,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 970–979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, J. M. Auerbach, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, “Modeling of laser knife-edge and pinhole experiments,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 524–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sell, W. D.

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, W. W.

J. T. Hunt, J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, P. A. Renard, “Suppression of self-focusing through low-pass spatial filtering and relay imaging,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2053–2057 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Simmons, J. S. Guch, F. Rainer, J. E. Murray, “A high energy spatial filter for removal of small scale beam instabilities in high power solid state lasers,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1975).

Smirnov, R. V.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, V. I.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

Wallace, R. J.

Wegner, P. J.

J. E. Rothenberg, J. M. Auerbach, B. D. Moran, J. E. Murray, T. L. Weiland, P. J. Wegner, “Implementation of smoothing by spectral dispersion on Beamlet and NIF,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 970–979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weiland, T. L.

J. E. Rothenberg, J. M. Auerbach, B. D. Moran, J. E. Murray, T. L. Weiland, P. J. Wegner, “Implementation of smoothing by spectral dispersion on Beamlet and NIF,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 970–979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakharenkov, Y. A.

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zavgorodneva, S. I.

S. A. Dimakov, S. I. Zavgorodneva, L. V. Koval’chuk, A. Yu. Rodionov, “Investigation of the threshold of formation of a plasma screening radiation in a spatial filter,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 803–805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhuzhukalo, E. V.

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Sov. J. Quantum Electron.

S. A. Dimakov, S. I. Zavgorodneva, L. V. Koval’chuk, A. Yu. Rodionov, “Investigation of the threshold of formation of a plasma screening radiation in a spatial filter,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 803–805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. W. Simmons, J. S. Guch, F. Rainer, J. E. Murray, “A high energy spatial filter for removal of small scale beam instabilities in high power solid state lasers,” (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1975).

R. G. Bikmatov, C. D. Boley, I. N. Burdonsky, V. M. Chernyak, A. V. Fedorov, A. Y. Goltsov, V. N. Kondrashov, S. N. Koptyaev, N. G. Kovalsky, V. N. Kuznetsov, D. Milam, J. E. Murray, M. I. Pergament, V. M. Petryakov, R. V. Smirnov, V. I. Sokolov, E. V. Zhuzhukalo, “Pinhole closure in spatial filters of large scale ICF laser systems,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 510–523 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Kurnit, S. A. Letzring, R. P. Johnson, “High-damage-threshold pinhole for glass fusion laser applications,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 896–900 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Rothenberg, J. M. Auerbach, B. D. Moran, J. E. Murray, T. L. Weiland, P. J. Wegner, “Implementation of smoothing by spectral dispersion on Beamlet and NIF,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 970–979 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Murray, D. Milam, C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, F. Bonneau, “Spatial filter issues,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 496–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cf. papers in ICF Annual Report, (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, Calif., 1995).

D. Milam, J. E. Murray, K. G. Estabrook, C. D. Boley, W. D. Sell, N. D. Nielson, R. K. Kirkwood, Y. A. Zakharenkov, B. B. Afeyan, “Pinhole closure measurements,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 504–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

NG3 and NG4 are products of Schott Glass Technologies, Inc., Duryea, Pa.

C. D. Boley, K. G. Estabrook, J. M. Auerbach, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, “Modeling of laser knife-edge and pinhole experiments,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE3492, 524–535 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (29)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the pinhole region in a spatial filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The three types of pinhole tested on the Beamlet laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of a cone pinhole.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single beam line of the NIF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beamlet pulse shapes used to simulate NIF ignition pulses at the TSF (dashed curve) and the CSF (solid curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near-field images at beam powers below and above threshold for pinhole closure.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Typical near-field streak-camera results showing definition of closure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schlieren image of a ±150-µrad pinhole with and without guidelines superimposed to determine alignment.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured far-field intensity through the horizontal diffraction lobes of the Beamlet laser (solid curve) and a smoothed fit (dashed curve). The intensity is normalized to a beam power of 1 GW.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of the interferometer installed on the Beamlet laser and typical streak-camera output data.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Inverse of closure time versus average pulse power for the ±100-µrad SS cone pinhole, showing a constant value of E c = 2.76 kJ for all nine shots.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Closure energies for ±100-µrad pinholes and square temporal pulses.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Streaked interferogram showing the phase shift in a ±150-µrad SS cone pinhole during a 15.5-kJ, 10:1 ignition pulse with ±7.5 µrad of SSD; (at the right) phase shift at the end of that pulse compared with the phase shift at closure in a ±100-µrad SS cone pinhole.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Two-dimensional interferometer fringes several nanoseconds after closure in a ±100-µrad Ta cone pinhole.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Measured backreflected energies for three pinhole types.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Streaked interferograms for C and Ta at 130 GW/cm2. Time runs from top to bottom.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Trajectories of 2π-phase shift for five materials.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Variation of c 1 with atomic mass at 130 GW/cm2.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Variation of c 1 with intensity for SS.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Phase shift versus distance for SS at near-normal incidence and a peak intensity of 500 GW/cm2.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Phase shift versus distance at 7 ns for 85° angle of incidence and intensity of 250 GW/cm2.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Left, streak image showing an on-axis blockage for a washer pinhole at 18 GW/cm2; right, similar image showing no on-axis blockage for a four-leaf pinhole at 30 GW/cm2.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Data and model predictions for a ±100-µrad, four-leaf, square-oriented Ta pinhole and diamond-oriented pinhole.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Data and model predictions for a ±100-µrad, four-leaf, diamond-oriented SS pinhole.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Data and model predictions for a ±100-µrad, SS cone pinhole.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

Data and model predictions for a ±100-µrad, Ta cone pinhole.

Fig. 27
Fig. 27

Schematic view of the pinhole focal plane with parameters defined for the model.

Fig. 28
Fig. 28

Measured c 0 and c 1 for SS and Ta, and fits to the data used in the calculations.

Fig. 29
Fig. 29

Model predictions for SS cone pinholes and 21:1 contrast ignition pulses. The parameters are misalignments in microradians.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Coefficients for the Fitted Speeds c 0 and c 1 for SS and Taa

Equations (12)

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α>αmin=tan-12F#-1.
L<Lmax=dout/α+αmin.
din=dout+2αL.
α=1.3αmin=25 mrad,
L=0.7Lmax=29 mm.
τ1τ2=x1c2x2c1.
c2c1=I2I1=P2A1P1A2=P2P1F1#F2#2,
d1d2=δ1F1#D1δ2F2#D2,
τ1τ2=D1P2D2P1F1#F2#3.
Δϕ=-2πλ  1-ne/nc-1dl,
Ec1Ec2=D1D2F1#F2#3,
τ=rpin-rmis-βrbγcnIrpin-rmis,

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