Abstract

The acoustically steered and rotated (ASTRO) true-time-delay (TTD) generator, capable of two-dimensional (2D) multiple beam generation without causing extraneous beams, is described. It is based on wavelength-division multiplexing to encode and decode various linear chirp time delays with wavelengths. An array of equally spaced light stripes with linear chirp time delays among them is formed and is subsequently rotated to a desired angle by use of our nonmechanical acousto-optic dove prism, believed to be novel. Our architecture reduces hardware complexity significantly by avoiding redundancy in conventional TTD generators. Experimental results to prove the concept of 2D multiple beam generation are shown. Also, an extension of the system for bidirectional communications is proposed. Various technical issues for practical applications are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  8. L. L. Lembo, T. L. Holcomb, M. G. Wickham, P. H. Wisseman, J. C. Brock, “Low-loss fiber optic time-delay element for phased-array antennas,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 13–23 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Two-dimensional fiber optic control of a wideband array transmitter,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 246–256 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. No approval or endorsement of any commercial product by the National Institute of Standards and Technology is intended or implied. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this report to facilitate understanding. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.
  24. E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “Transverse grating assisted acousto-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1322–1324 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Nonmechanical image rotation with an acousto-optic dove prism,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1195–1197 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (3)

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True time-delay fiber-optic control of an ultra-wideband array transmitter/receiver with multi-beam capability,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Adaptive RF notch filtering using photorefractive 2-beam coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 314–317 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical time delay units for phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1440–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, “A novel 2D programmable photonic time-delay device for millimeter-wave signal processing applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 1463–1465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stillwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

N. A. Riza, “Transmit/receive time-delay beam-forming optical architecture for phased-array antennas,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4594–4595 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Ng, G. L. Tangonan, A. A. Walston, I. L. Newberg, J. J. Lee, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, “Prototype binary fiber optic delay line,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1193–1202 (1989).

Babbitt, W. R.

Ball, G. A.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, N.

W. W. Ng, G. L. Tangonan, A. A. Walston, I. L. Newberg, J. J. Lee, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brock, J. C.

L. L. Lembo, T. L. Holcomb, M. G. Wickham, P. H. Wisseman, J. C. Brock, “Low-loss fiber optic time-delay element for phased-array antennas,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Nonmechanical image rotation with an acousto-optic dove prism,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1195–1197 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Adaptive RF notch filtering using photorefractive 2-beam coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 314–317 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, H. R. Fetterman, B. Jalali, “Dual-band (1.55/1.3-um) operation of the recirculating photonic filter true-time delay,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VIII, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE3160, 27–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Choe, J. Y.

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “Transverse grating assisted acousto-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1322–1324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Nonmechanical image rotation with an acousto-optic dove prism,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1195–1197 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “2D multiple beam steering with acoustically steered and rotated (ASTRO) true-time delay generator,” in Photonic Processing Technology and Applications II, A. R. Pirich, M. A. Parker, eds. Proc. SPIE3384, 46–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “Acoustically steered and rotated (ASTRO) optoelectronic 2D true-time-delay generation,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits II, S. Wang, Y. S. Park, eds., Proc. SPIE3290, 364–371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. G.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stillwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, H. R. Fetterman, B. Jalali, “Dual-band (1.55/1.3-um) operation of the recirculating photonic filter true-time delay,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VIII, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE3160, 27–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. K.

A. P. Goutzoulis, D. K. Davies, J. M. Zomp, “Prototype binary fiber optic delay line,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1193–1202 (1989).

Dexter, J. L.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stillwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True time-delay fiber-optic control of an ultra-wideband array transmitter/receiver with multi-beam capability,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stillwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Two-dimensional fiber optic control of a wideband array transmitter,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 246–256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, H. R. Fetterman, B. Jalali, “Dual-band (1.55/1.3-um) operation of the recirculating photonic filter true-time delay,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VIII, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE3160, 27–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frankel, M. Y.

M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “True time-delay fiber-optic control of an ultra-wideband array transmitter/receiver with multi-beam capability,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2387–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stillwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Two-dimensional fiber optic control of a wideband array transmitter,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 246–256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stillwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Goutzoulis, A. P.

Griffiths, L. J.

K. H. Wagner, S. Kraut, L. J. Griffiths, S. Weaver, R. T. Weverka, A. W. Sarto, “Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 287–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, T. L.

L. L. Lembo, T. L. Holcomb, M. G. Wickham, P. H. Wisseman, J. C. Brock, “Low-loss fiber optic time-delay element for phased-array antennas,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J. H.

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Nonmechanical image rotation with an acousto-optic dove prism,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1195–1197 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Adaptive RF notch filtering using photorefractive 2-beam coupling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 314–317 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, H. R. Fetterman, B. Jalali, “Dual-band (1.55/1.3-um) operation of the recirculating photonic filter true-time delay,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VIII, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE3160, 27–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kraut, S.

K. H. Wagner, S. Kraut, L. J. Griffiths, S. Weaver, R. T. Weverka, A. W. Sarto, “Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 287–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

W. W. Ng, G. L. Tangonan, A. A. Walston, I. L. Newberg, J. J. Lee, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lembo, L. L.

L. L. Lembo, T. L. Holcomb, M. G. Wickham, P. H. Wisseman, J. C. Brock, “Low-loss fiber optic time-delay element for phased-array antennas,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, “A novel 2D programmable photonic time-delay device for millimeter-wave signal processing applications,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 1463–1465 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, P. J.

P. J. Matthews, M. Y. Frankel, R. D. Esman, “Two-dimensional fiber optic control of a wideband array transmitter,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 246–256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Merkel, K. D.

Morey, W. W.

G. A. Ball, W. H. Glenn, W. W. Morey, “Programmable fiber optic delay line,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 741–743 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Newberg, I. L.

W. W. Ng, G. L. Tangonan, A. A. Walston, I. L. Newberg, J. J. Lee, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. W.

W. W. Ng, G. L. Tangonan, A. A. Walston, I. L. Newberg, J. J. Lee, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Oh, T. K.

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “Transverse grating assisted acousto-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1322–1324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Nonmechanical image rotation with an acousto-optic dove prism,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1195–1197 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “2D multiple beam steering with acoustically steered and rotated (ASTRO) true-time delay generator,” in Photonic Processing Technology and Applications II, A. R. Pirich, M. A. Parker, eds. Proc. SPIE3384, 46–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “Acoustically steered and rotated (ASTRO) optoelectronic 2D true-time-delay generation,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits II, S. Wang, Y. S. Park, eds., Proc. SPIE3290, 364–371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paek, E. G.

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “Transverse grating assisted acousto-optic tunable filter,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1322–1324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, J. H. Hong, T. Y. Chang, “Nonmechanical image rotation with an acousto-optic dove prism,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1195–1197 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “2D multiple beam steering with acoustically steered and rotated (ASTRO) true-time delay generator,” in Photonic Processing Technology and Applications II, A. R. Pirich, M. A. Parker, eds. Proc. SPIE3384, 46–54 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Paek, J. Y. Choe, T. K. Oh, “Acoustically steered and rotated (ASTRO) optoelectronic 2D true-time-delay generation,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits II, S. Wang, Y. S. Park, eds., Proc. SPIE3290, 364–371 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parent, M. G.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stillwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

N. A. Riza, “Liquid crystal-based optical time delay units for phased array antennas,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1440–1447 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Riza, “Transmit/receive time-delay beam-forming optical architecture for phased-array antennas,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4594–4595 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarto, A. W.

K. H. Wagner, S. Kraut, L. J. Griffiths, S. Weaver, R. T. Weverka, A. W. Sarto, “Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 287–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

Stillwell, D.

R. D. Esman, M. Y. Frankel, J. L. Dexter, L. Goldberg, M. G. Parent, D. Stillwell, D. G. Cooper, “Fiber-optic prism true time-delay antenna feed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 1347–1349 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tangonan, G. L.

W. W. Ng, G. L. Tangonan, A. A. Walston, I. L. Newberg, J. J. Lee, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tong, D. T. K.

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, P. D.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, H. R. Fetterman, B. Jalali, “Dual-band (1.55/1.3-um) operation of the recirculating photonic filter true-time delay,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VIII, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE3160, 27–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsap, B.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, H. R. Fetterman, B. Jalali, “Dual-band (1.55/1.3-um) operation of the recirculating photonic filter true-time delay,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VIII, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE3160, 27–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, K. H.

K. H. Wagner, S. Kraut, L. J. Griffiths, S. Weaver, R. T. Weverka, A. W. Sarto, “Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 287–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walston, A. A.

W. W. Ng, G. L. Tangonan, A. A. Walston, I. L. Newberg, J. J. Lee, N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124–1131 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, S.

K. H. Wagner, S. Kraut, L. J. Griffiths, S. Weaver, R. T. Weverka, A. W. Sarto, “Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 287–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weverka, R. T.

K. H. Wagner, S. Kraut, L. J. Griffiths, S. Weaver, R. T. Weverka, A. W. Sarto, “Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing,” in Radar Processing, Technology, and Applications, W. J. Miceli, ed., Proc. SPIE2845, 287–300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wickham, M. G.

L. L. Lembo, T. L. Holcomb, M. G. Wickham, P. H. Wisseman, J. C. Brock, “Low-loss fiber optic time-delay element for phased-array antennas,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wisseman, P. H.

L. L. Lembo, T. L. Holcomb, M. G. Wickham, P. H. Wisseman, J. C. Brock, “Low-loss fiber optic time-delay element for phased-array antennas,” in Optoelectronic Signal Processing for Phased-Array Antennas IV, B. M. Hendrickson, ed., Proc. SPIE2155, 13–23 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “A novel multiwavelength optically controlled phased array antenna with a programmable dispersion matrix,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 812–814 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong, M. C. Wu, “Bragg fiber grating for optically controlled phased array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1532–1533 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

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No approval or endorsement of any commercial product by the National Institute of Standards and Technology is intended or implied. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this report to facilitate understanding. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

S. Yegnanarayanan, P. D. Trinh, F. Coppinger, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, H. R. Fetterman, B. Jalali, “Dual-band (1.55/1.3-um) operation of the recirculating photonic filter true-time delay,” in Optical Technology for Microwave Applications VIII, A. P. Goutzoulis, ed., Proc. SPIE3160, 27–34 (1997).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TTD generation problem.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Basic concepts of the ASTRO architecture. PDA, photodiode array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overview of the ASTRO architecture. MOD, optical modulator; PD, photodiode; LC, cylindrical lens; LS, spherical lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2D multiple beam generation in a cascaded architecture—sources of extraneous beams.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Removal of extraneous beams in the ASTRO architecture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bidirectional ASTRO system. BB, broadband, MOD, optical modulator; PD, photodiode; LC, cylindrical lens; LS, spherical lens.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Modulation of light from a broadband source at 2.5 GHz. EO, electro-optic.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Sixteen FBG’s in a single fiber.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectrum of the 16 FBG’s.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Errors in Bragg wavelengths of the fabricated 16 FBG’s.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Transverse grating assisted AOS (TGA-AOS) (a) and its spectral passband.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a)Photo of 1D decoder, (b) a magnified view of fiber bundles mounted on an array of 16 silicon V grooves.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Measured time delays versus original design; (b)–(d) time delays measured by an oscilloscope.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Photo of 1D-to-2D converter.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental results for nonmechanical image rotation.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

1D multiple beam generation.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

2D multiple beam generation without extraneous beams (the bars oriented along 1 o’clock are red, and the bars along 11 o’clock are green)

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Sources of Light Loss

Equations (2)

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λ(i)|f(i)|=c (c, constant),
tan θ(i)=fy(i)fx(i),

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