Abstract

We present a method for compensating laser attenuation in optically dense sprays, in particular for use in combustion engine research. Images of the fuel sprays are produced by planar laser imaging, where Mie scattered light from a cross section of the spray is imaged onto a CCD camera. The compensation scheme is based on the Beer–Lambert law, which is used here to sum up the loss of light along the path of the laser in the image, and to compensate iteratively, pixel by pixel, for this loss.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1988).
  2. H. Sjöberg, G. Manneberg, A. Cronhjort, “Long-working-distance microscope used for diesel injection spray imaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3591–3596 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. L. Siebers, “Liquid-phase fuel penetration in diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 980809 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), pp. 71–92.
  4. J. T. Hodges, T. A. Baritaud, T. A. Heinze, “Planar liquid and gas fuel and droplet size visualization in a DI diesel engine,” SAE Paper 910726 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 1284–1302.
  5. J.-Y. Koo, J. K. Martin, “Comparisons of measured drop sizes and velocities in a transient fuel spray with stability criteria and computed PDF’s,” SAE Paper 910179 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 175–188.
  6. A. R. Glover, S. M. Skippon, R. D. Boyle, “Interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing: a method for droplet-size measurement in sparse spray systems,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8409–8421 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Kamimoto, H. Yokota, H. Kobayashi, “A new technique for the measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in unsteady dense sprays,” SAE Paper 890316 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989), pp. 397–408.
  8. M. S. El-Beshbeeshy, J. T. Hodges, M. L. Corradini, “Image analysis of diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 921628 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992), pp. 1634–1647.
  9. A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Analysis of Diesel sprays through two-dimensional laser light scattering,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1973–1981.
  10. C. Presser, A. K. Gupta, H. G. Semerjian, “Application of laser diagnostic techniques for the examination of liquid fuel spray structure,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 90, 75–102 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).
  12. F. Ossler, S. Agrup, M. Alden, “Three-dimensional flow visualization with picosecond Mie scattering and streaking-camera detection,” Appl. Optics 34, 537–540 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  14. E. D. Hirleman, “Nonintrusive laser-based particle diagnostics,” in Combustion Diagnostics by Non Intrusive Methods, T. D. McCay, J. A. Roux, eds., Vol. 92 of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1984), pp. 177–207.
  15. M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–418 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Sjöberg, G. Manneberg, A. Cronhjort, “Long-working-distance microscope used for diesel injection spray imaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3591–3596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. R. Glover, S. M. Skippon, R. D. Boyle, “Interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing: a method for droplet-size measurement in sparse spray systems,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8409–8421 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ossler, S. Agrup, M. Alden, “Three-dimensional flow visualization with picosecond Mie scattering and streaking-camera detection,” Appl. Optics 34, 537–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. Presser, A. K. Gupta, H. G. Semerjian, “Application of laser diagnostic techniques for the examination of liquid fuel spray structure,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 90, 75–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Agrup, S.

F. Ossler, S. Agrup, M. Alden, “Three-dimensional flow visualization with picosecond Mie scattering and streaking-camera detection,” Appl. Optics 34, 537–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alden, M.

F. Ossler, S. Agrup, M. Alden, “Three-dimensional flow visualization with picosecond Mie scattering and streaking-camera detection,” Appl. Optics 34, 537–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baritaud, T. A.

J. T. Hodges, T. A. Baritaud, T. A. Heinze, “Planar liquid and gas fuel and droplet size visualization in a DI diesel engine,” SAE Paper 910726 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 1284–1302.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Boyle, R. D.

Cavaliere, A.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Analysis of Diesel sprays through two-dimensional laser light scattering,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1973–1981.

Corradini, M. L.

M. S. El-Beshbeeshy, J. T. Hodges, M. L. Corradini, “Image analysis of diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 921628 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992), pp. 1634–1647.

Cronhjort, A.

H. Sjöberg, G. Manneberg, A. Cronhjort, “Long-working-distance microscope used for diesel injection spray imaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3591–3596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Alessio, A.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Analysis of Diesel sprays through two-dimensional laser light scattering,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1973–1981.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

El-Beshbeeshy, M. S.

M. S. El-Beshbeeshy, J. T. Hodges, M. L. Corradini, “Image analysis of diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 921628 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992), pp. 1634–1647.

Georgiev, N.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glover, A. R.

Gupta, A. K.

C. Presser, A. K. Gupta, H. G. Semerjian, “Application of laser diagnostic techniques for the examination of liquid fuel spray structure,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 90, 75–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heinze, T. A.

J. T. Hodges, T. A. Baritaud, T. A. Heinze, “Planar liquid and gas fuel and droplet size visualization in a DI diesel engine,” SAE Paper 910726 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 1284–1302.

Heywood, J. B.

J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1988).

Hirleman, E. D.

E. D. Hirleman, “Nonintrusive laser-based particle diagnostics,” in Combustion Diagnostics by Non Intrusive Methods, T. D. McCay, J. A. Roux, eds., Vol. 92 of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1984), pp. 177–207.

Hodges, J. T.

J. T. Hodges, T. A. Baritaud, T. A. Heinze, “Planar liquid and gas fuel and droplet size visualization in a DI diesel engine,” SAE Paper 910726 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 1284–1302.

M. S. El-Beshbeeshy, J. T. Hodges, M. L. Corradini, “Image analysis of diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 921628 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992), pp. 1634–1647.

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Kamimoto, T.

T. Kamimoto, H. Yokota, H. Kobayashi, “A new technique for the measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in unsteady dense sprays,” SAE Paper 890316 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989), pp. 397–408.

Kobayashi, H.

T. Kamimoto, H. Yokota, H. Kobayashi, “A new technique for the measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in unsteady dense sprays,” SAE Paper 890316 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989), pp. 397–408.

Koo, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Koo, J. K. Martin, “Comparisons of measured drop sizes and velocities in a transient fuel spray with stability criteria and computed PDF’s,” SAE Paper 910179 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 175–188.

Kröll, S.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Manneberg, G.

H. Sjöberg, G. Manneberg, A. Cronhjort, “Long-working-distance microscope used for diesel injection spray imaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3591–3596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. K.

J.-Y. Koo, J. K. Martin, “Comparisons of measured drop sizes and velocities in a transient fuel spray with stability criteria and computed PDF’s,” SAE Paper 910179 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 175–188.

Martinsson, L.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Noviello, C.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Analysis of Diesel sprays through two-dimensional laser light scattering,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1973–1981.

Ossler, F.

F. Ossler, S. Agrup, M. Alden, “Three-dimensional flow visualization with picosecond Mie scattering and streaking-camera detection,” Appl. Optics 34, 537–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Presser, C.

C. Presser, A. K. Gupta, H. G. Semerjian, “Application of laser diagnostic techniques for the examination of liquid fuel spray structure,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 90, 75–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ragucci, R.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Analysis of Diesel sprays through two-dimensional laser light scattering,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1973–1981.

Semerjian, H. G.

C. Presser, A. K. Gupta, H. G. Semerjian, “Application of laser diagnostic techniques for the examination of liquid fuel spray structure,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 90, 75–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Siebers, D. L.

D. L. Siebers, “Liquid-phase fuel penetration in diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 980809 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), pp. 71–92.

Sjöberg, H.

H. Sjöberg, G. Manneberg, A. Cronhjort, “Long-working-distance microscope used for diesel injection spray imaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3591–3596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skippon, S. M.

Versluis, M.

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, H.

T. Kamimoto, H. Yokota, H. Kobayashi, “A new technique for the measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in unsteady dense sprays,” SAE Paper 890316 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989), pp. 397–408.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Optics (1)

F. Ossler, S. Agrup, M. Alden, “Three-dimensional flow visualization with picosecond Mie scattering and streaking-camera detection,” Appl. Optics 34, 537–540 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Versluis, N. Georgiev, L. Martinsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, “2-D absolute OH concentration profiles in atmospheric flames using planar LIF in a bi-directional laser beam configuration,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 411–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. Commun. (1)

C. Presser, A. K. Gupta, H. G. Semerjian, “Application of laser diagnostic techniques for the examination of liquid fuel spray structure,” Chem. Eng. Commun. 90, 75–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Sjöberg, G. Manneberg, A. Cronhjort, “Long-working-distance microscope used for diesel injection spray imaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 3591–3596 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

D. L. Siebers, “Liquid-phase fuel penetration in diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 980809 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1998), pp. 71–92.

J. T. Hodges, T. A. Baritaud, T. A. Heinze, “Planar liquid and gas fuel and droplet size visualization in a DI diesel engine,” SAE Paper 910726 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 1284–1302.

J.-Y. Koo, J. K. Martin, “Comparisons of measured drop sizes and velocities in a transient fuel spray with stability criteria and computed PDF’s,” SAE Paper 910179 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1991), pp. 175–188.

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

T. Kamimoto, H. Yokota, H. Kobayashi, “A new technique for the measurement of Sauter mean diameter of droplets in unsteady dense sprays,” SAE Paper 890316 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1989), pp. 397–408.

M. S. El-Beshbeeshy, J. T. Hodges, M. L. Corradini, “Image analysis of diesel sprays,” SAE Paper 921628 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1992), pp. 1634–1647.

A. Cavaliere, R. Ragucci, A. D’Alessio, C. Noviello, “Analysis of Diesel sprays through two-dimensional laser light scattering,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 1973–1981.

J. B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1988).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

E. D. Hirleman, “Nonintrusive laser-based particle diagnostics,” in Combustion Diagnostics by Non Intrusive Methods, T. D. McCay, J. A. Roux, eds., Vol. 92 of Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1984), pp. 177–207.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view of the experimental setup with the beam optics included.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Compensating a synthetic image reflecting a single exponential decay: (a) original image, (b) image after compensation, (c) horizontal profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Compensating an experimental test image of latex microspheres in solution: (a) original image, (b) image after compensation, (c) horizontal profiles. Each pixel represents 2.5 µm × 2.5 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Compensating a synthetic image with three different optical densities: (a) original image, (b) image after compensation, (c) horizontal profiles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Original spray image representing a 3.3 mm × 0.83 mm area (each pixel represents 2.5 µm × 2.5 µm). The arrows mark the locations of sample horizontal profiles shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average horizontal profile for the spray image shown in Fig. 6 before (thick curve) and after (thin curve) compensation. Each pixel represents 2.5 µm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Original average profile shown in Fig. 7 with the left-hand side mirrored horizontally. The bars show the average value for the left- and the right-hand sides. Each pixel represents 2.5 µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Average profile after compensation with the left-hand side mirrored horizontally. The bars show the average value for the left- and the right-hand sides. Each pixel represents 2.5 µm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spray image shown in Fig. 6 after compensation (each pixel represents 2.5 µm × 2.5 µm). The arrows mark the locations of sample horizontal profiles shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Example profiles through the spray image before (thick curve) and after (thin curve) compensation. The number in the upper right-hand corner of each subplot refers to the profile position (in pixels) in the original and the compensated images as indicated in Figs. 6 and 10. Each pixel represents 2.5 µm.

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ(x)=A0xρxdx+C,
dI=-IAdσ,
I=Cexp-σA,
Ix=Cexp-0xρ(x)dx+-CA.
Ix=I0 exp-0xρxdx,
σtotal=0180σθdθ,
σ90°=const σtotal.
sx=C0ρxIx,
sx=C0ρxI0 exp-0xρxdx.
ddxexp-0xρxdx=-sxs0/ρ0.
exp-0xρxdx=-ρ0s00xsxdx+C1.
-0xρxdx=ln1-ρ0s00xsxdx,
ρx=sxs0/ρ0-0xsxdx.
sx=C0ρxIx=s0ρ0ρxexp-0xρxdx
sxexp0xρxdx=s0ρ0ρx,
snewx=s0ρ0ρx,
snewx=sxexpρ0s00xsnewxdx.
Sinew=Siold expK j=0j-i-1Sjnew,

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