Abstract

Accurate measurements of beam position and current are critical for the operation of the high-energy electron accelerators used for radiographic applications. Traditional short-pulse (e.g., 70 ns) machines utilize B-dot loops to monitor these parameters with great success. For long-pulse (e.g., 2 µs) accelerators, beam position and current measurements become more challenging and may require new technology. A novel electro-optic voltage probe has been developed for this application and provides the advantages of complete galvanic isolation, excellent low-frequency performance, and no time integration requirement. The design of a prototype sensor is presented along with preliminary accelerator test data.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, M. Deeter, T. E. Milner, D. Conrad, S. M. Etzel, “Optical power line voltage and current measurement systems,” (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987), Vol. 1.
  2. C. P. Yakymyshyn, M. A. Brubaker, P. M. Johnston, C. Reinbold, “Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 2–19 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Allison, D. C. Moir, “BBU gain measurements on the ITS-6 MeV, 4-kA Linac,” Proceedings of the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference, (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), pp. 1138–1140.
  4. P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, K. S. Lee, D. C. Conrad, G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, “Optical, thermo-optic, electro-optic, and photoelastic properties of (Bi4Ge3O12),” Appl. Opt. 35, 3562–3569 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  6. A. Y. Elezzabi, H. Houtman, J. Meyer, “Time-resolved impact ionization in ZnSe high-voltage switches,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 22, 1043–1047 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

A. Y. Elezzabi, H. Houtman, J. Meyer, “Time-resolved impact ionization in ZnSe high-voltage switches,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 22, 1043–1047 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Allison, P.

P. Allison, D. C. Moir, “BBU gain measurements on the ITS-6 MeV, 4-kA Linac,” Proceedings of the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference, (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), pp. 1138–1140.

Brubaker, M. A.

C. P. Yakymyshyn, M. A. Brubaker, P. M. Johnston, C. Reinbold, “Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 2–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, D.

G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, M. Deeter, T. E. Milner, D. Conrad, S. M. Etzel, “Optical power line voltage and current measurement systems,” (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987), Vol. 1.

Conrad, D. C.

Day, G. W.

P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, K. S. Lee, D. C. Conrad, G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, “Optical, thermo-optic, electro-optic, and photoelastic properties of (Bi4Ge3O12),” Appl. Opt. 35, 3562–3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, M. Deeter, T. E. Milner, D. Conrad, S. M. Etzel, “Optical power line voltage and current measurement systems,” (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987), Vol. 1.

Deeter, M.

G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, M. Deeter, T. E. Milner, D. Conrad, S. M. Etzel, “Optical power line voltage and current measurement systems,” (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987), Vol. 1.

Elezzabi, A. Y.

A. Y. Elezzabi, H. Houtman, J. Meyer, “Time-resolved impact ionization in ZnSe high-voltage switches,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 22, 1043–1047 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Etzel, S. M.

G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, M. Deeter, T. E. Milner, D. Conrad, S. M. Etzel, “Optical power line voltage and current measurement systems,” (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987), Vol. 1.

Hale, P. D.

P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, K. S. Lee, D. C. Conrad, G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, “Optical, thermo-optic, electro-optic, and photoelastic properties of (Bi4Ge3O12),” Appl. Opt. 35, 3562–3569 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, M. Deeter, T. E. Milner, D. Conrad, S. M. Etzel, “Optical power line voltage and current measurement systems,” (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987), Vol. 1.

Houtman, H.

A. Y. Elezzabi, H. Houtman, J. Meyer, “Time-resolved impact ionization in ZnSe high-voltage switches,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 22, 1043–1047 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, P. M.

C. P. Yakymyshyn, M. A. Brubaker, P. M. Johnston, C. Reinbold, “Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 2–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. S.

Meyer, J.

A. Y. Elezzabi, H. Houtman, J. Meyer, “Time-resolved impact ionization in ZnSe high-voltage switches,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 22, 1043–1047 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, M. Deeter, T. E. Milner, D. Conrad, S. M. Etzel, “Optical power line voltage and current measurement systems,” (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987), Vol. 1.

Moir, D. C.

P. Allison, D. C. Moir, “BBU gain measurements on the ITS-6 MeV, 4-kA Linac,” Proceedings of the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference, (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), pp. 1138–1140.

Reinbold, C.

C. P. Yakymyshyn, M. A. Brubaker, P. M. Johnston, C. Reinbold, “Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 2–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A. H.

Williams, P. A.

Yakymyshyn, C. P.

C. P. Yakymyshyn, M. A. Brubaker, P. M. Johnston, C. Reinbold, “Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 2–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science (1)

A. Y. Elezzabi, H. Houtman, J. Meyer, “Time-resolved impact ionization in ZnSe high-voltage switches,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 22, 1043–1047 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

G. W. Day, P. D. Hale, M. Deeter, T. E. Milner, D. Conrad, S. M. Etzel, “Optical power line voltage and current measurement systems,” (Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, Calif., 1987), Vol. 1.

C. P. Yakymyshyn, M. A. Brubaker, P. M. Johnston, C. Reinbold, “Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications,” in Sensors and Controls for Advanced Manufacturing, B. O. Nnaji, A. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE3201, 2–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Allison, D. C. Moir, “BBU gain measurements on the ITS-6 MeV, 4-kA Linac,” Proceedings of the 1997 Particle Accelerator Conference, (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), pp. 1138–1140.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of optical voltage probe geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of (a) optical sensor, (b) passively integrated B-dot loop, (c) screened capacitor plate data.

Equations (7)

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nx=no+1/2no3r41E,
ny=no-1/2no3r41E,
ϕ=2πλ no3r41oLE·dz.
Iout=Iin41+cosπ VVπ,
Vπ=λ2no3r41.
Vout=GPrec π VVπ+GPrec,
V=C1/C2Vbeam.

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