Abstract

A theory of the double-edge technique for lidar measurement of wind speed Doppler shifts was recently presented by Flesia and Korb [Appl. Opt. 38, 432 (1999)]. It is shown here that the technique proposed by Flesia and Korb to achieve equal responsivity to aerosol and Rayleigh backscatter signals was previously conceived and demonstrated by another group.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Menzies, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors: a comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from Earth orbit,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2546–2553 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Validation of wind profiles measured with incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1928–1939 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).
  7. P. B. Hays, “Circle to line interferometer optical system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1482–1489 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. J. McGill, M. Marzouk, V. S. Scott, J. D. Spinhirne, “Holographic circle-to-point converter with particular applications for lidar work,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2171–2175 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. I. The edge technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6480–6486 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. II. The fringe imaging technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6487–6493 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, C. Y. Weng, “Edge technique: theory and application to the lidar measurement of atmospheric wind,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4202–4213 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, “Edge technique Doppler lidar wind measurements with high vertical resolution,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5976–5983 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. Garnier, M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedelikovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere–troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh–Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2410–2421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh–Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2422–2431 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Flesia, C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. 38, 432–440 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999

1998

1997

1996

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedelikovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere–troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, C. Y. Weng, “Edge technique: theory and application to the lidar measurement of atmospheric wind,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4202–4213 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Garnier, M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

1981

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Abreu, V. J.

K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. E.

K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M. L.

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedelikovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere–troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnier, M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, K. F.

K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flesia, C.

Fricke, K.-H.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, A.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh–Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh–Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedelikovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere–troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Garnier, M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gentry, B. M.

Hauchecorne, A.

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh–Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedelikovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere–troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, “Circle to line interferometer optical system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1482–1489 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Hertzog, A.

Irgang, T. D.

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Validation of wind profiles measured with incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1928–1939 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, B. C.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Killeen, T. L.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

Korb, C. L.

Li, S. X.

Lloyd, N. D.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marzouk, M.

M. J. McGill, M. Marzouk, V. S. Scott, J. D. Spinhirne, “Holographic circle-to-point converter with particular applications for lidar work,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2171–2175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

McGill, M. J.

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGill, M. Marzouk, V. S. Scott, J. D. Spinhirne, “Holographic circle-to-point converter with particular applications for lidar work,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2171–2175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Validation of wind profiles measured with incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1928–1939 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McKay, J. A.

Menzies, R.

Nedelikovic, D.

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedelikovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere–troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nelke, G.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Porteneuve, J.

Rees, D.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, V. S.

M. J. McGill, M. Marzouk, V. S. Scott, J. D. Spinhirne, “Holographic circle-to-point converter with particular applications for lidar work,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2171–2175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, W. R.

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Validation of wind profiles measured with incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1928–1939 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Souprayen, C.

Spinhirne, J. D.

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGill, M. Marzouk, V. S. Scott, J. D. Spinhirne, “Holographic circle-to-point converter with particular applications for lidar work,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2171–2175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von Cossart, G.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

von Zahn, U.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weng, C. Y.

Appl. Opt.

R. Menzies, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors: a comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from Earth orbit,” Appl. Opt. 25, 2546–2553 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, I. S. McDermid, “Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensor: reevaluation of a 355-nm incoherent lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4133–4144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. McGill, W. R. Skinner, T. D. Irgang, “Validation of wind profiles measured with incoherent Doppler lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1928–1939 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, “Circle to line interferometer optical system,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1482–1489 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. I. The edge technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6480–6486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. McKay, “Modeling of direct detection Doppler wind lidar. II. The fringe imaging technique,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6487–6493 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, C. Y. Weng, “Edge technique: theory and application to the lidar measurement of atmospheric wind,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4202–4213 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, S. X. Li, “Edge technique Doppler lidar wind measurements with high vertical resolution,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5976–5983 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “Rayleigh–Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. I. Instrumental setup, validation, and first climatological results,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2410–2421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Souprayen, A. Garnier, A. Hertzog, “Rayleigh–Mie Doppler wind lidar for atmospheric measurements. II. Mie scattering effect, theory, and calibration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2422–2431 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Flesia, C. L. Korb, “Theory of the double-edge molecular technique for Doppler lidar wind measurement,” Appl. Opt. 38, 432–440 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

A. Garnier, M. L. Chanin, “Description of a Doppler Rayleigh LIDAR for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 35–40 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. L. Chanin, A. Garnier, A. Hauchecorne, J. Porteneuve, “A Doppler lidar for measuring winds in the middle atmosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 16, 1273–1276 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

D. Rees, G. Nelke, K.-H. Fricke, U. von Zahn, G. von Cossart, N. D. Lloyd, “The Doppler wind and temperature system of the Alomar lidar,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 58, 1827–1842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys.

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. Garnier, D. Nedelikovic, “Recent lidar developments to monitor stratosphere–troposphere exchange,” J. Atmos. Terrestr. Phys. 56, 1073–1081 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. F. Fischer, V. J. Abreu, W. R. Skinner, J. E. Barnes, M. J. McGill, T. D. Irgang, “Visible wavelength Doppler lidar for measurement of wind and aerosol profiles during day and night,” Opt. Eng. 34, 499–511 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGill, M. Marzouk, V. S. Scott, J. D. Spinhirne, “Holographic circle-to-point converter with particular applications for lidar work,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2171–2175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. McGill, J. D. Spinhirne, “Comparison of two direct-detection Doppler lidar techniques,” Opt. Eng. 37, 2675–2686 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Instrum.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, “The Fabry–Perot interferometer on Dynamics Explorer,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 395–416 (1981).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Responsivities of the edge technique channels [the two components of Eq. (3)] versus frequency offset of the laser frequency from the Fabry–Perot passband peak, in units of the FPI free spectral range, for the FPI parameters specified by CNRS.18 The operating offset selected by CNRS is shown and coincides with the FK responsivity crossover point, confirming the identity of the two solutions.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rz=NAz-NBzNAz+NBz,
βratio=1+NMieNRay,
1RAν-νAddν RAν-νA=1TAν-νAddν TAν-νA,
R=dNAdν-dNBdνΔνNA+NB.
NA=0.5TARNR+TAMNM,
R=dTRdν+γ dTMdνΔνTR+γTM,
β=1+NMNR=1+γ.
dTM/dνTR+γTM-dTR/dν+γdTM/dνTR+γTM2 TM=0.
1TMdTMdν=1TRdTRdν.

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