Abstract

The standard SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm, designed for open ocean water, has been extended for use over turbid coastal and inland waters. Failure of the standard algorithm over turbid waters can be attributed to invalid assumptions of zero water-leaving radiance for the near-infrared bands at 765 and 865 nm. In the present study these assumptions are replaced by the assumptions of spatial homogeneity of the 765:865-nm ratios for aerosol reflectance and for water-leaving reflectance. These two ratios are imposed as calibration parameters after inspection of the Rayleigh-corrected reflectance scatterplot. The performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated for imagery of Belgian coastal waters and yields physically realistic water-leaving radiance spectra. A preliminary comparison with in situ radiance spectra for the Dutch Lake Markermeer shows significant improvement over the standard atmospheric correction algorithm. An analysis is made of the sensitivity of results to the choice of calibration parameters, and perspectives for application of the method to other sensors are briefly discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999 (3)

1998 (1)

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 9, 10–16 (1998).

1997 (3)

S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J. M. Froidefond, J. J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhone River plume,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 31, 15–20 (1997).

A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, L. M. Goddijn, T. J. M. Malthus, “The relation between inherent optical properties and reflectance spectra in turbid inland waters,” Remote Sens. Rev. 15, 59–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (4)

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “Proposal for the measurement of backward and total scattering by mineral particles suspended in water,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8345–8353 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ding, H. R. Gordon, “Analysis of the influence of O2 A band absorption on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8363–8374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. J. A. Althuis, S. Shimwell, “Modelling of remote sensing reflectance spectra for suspended matter concentration detection in coastal waters,” Adv. Remote Sens. 4, 53–59 (1995).

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (5)

1993 (1)

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared portions of the spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 188–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. M. Andre, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery, revisited,” Oceanol. Acta 14, 3–22 (1991).

B. A. Eckstein, J. J. Simpson, “Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 2359–2377 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Aarup, S. Groom, P. M. Holligan, “The processing and interpretation of North Sea CZCS imagery,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 25, 3–9 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

R. P. Stumpf, J. R. Pennock, “Calibration of a general optical equation for remote sensing of suspended sediments in a moderately turbid estuary,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14,363–14,371 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Prangsma, J. N. Roozekrans, “Using NOAA AVHRR imagery in assessing water quality parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 811–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta 7, 33–50 (1987).

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “An evaluation of the problems of chlorophyll retrieval from ocean colour, for case 2 waters,” Adv. Space Res. 7, 27–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. J. Castano, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm: multiple scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2111–2122 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

F. M. Guan, J. Pelaez, R. H. Stewart, “The atmospheric correction and measurement of chlorophyll concentration using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 273–285 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Estimation of water quality parameters from irradiance reflectance using optical models,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn 41, 399–406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. Viollier, B. Sturm, “CZCS data analysis in turbid coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4977–4985 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

1980 (1)

M. Viollier, D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (2)

R. A. Neville, J. F. R. Gower, “Passive remote sensing of phytoplankton via chlorophyll a fluorescence,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3487–3493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Aarup, T.

T. Aarup, S. Groom, P. M. Holligan, “The processing and interpretation of North Sea CZCS imagery,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 25, 3–9 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

J. Aiken, G. Moore, “MERIS algorithm theoretical basis document: case 2 (S) bright pixel atmospheric correction,” (Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK, 1997).

Alberotanza, L.

G. Zibordi, V. Barale, G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, D. v. d. Linde, L. Alberotanza, P. Cova, C. Ramasco, “Coastal atmosphere and sea time-series project (CoASTS),” in Third International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995), Vol. II, pp. 96–100.

Alberts, J. J.

J. F. Schalles, A. T. Sheil, J. F. Tycast, J. J. Alberts, Y. Z. Yacobi, “Detection of chlorophyll, seston and dissolved organic matter in the estuarine mixing zone of Georgia coastal plain rivers,” in 5th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1998), Vol. II, pp. 315–324.

Althuis, I. J. A.

I. J. A. Althuis, S. Shimwell, “Modelling of remote sensing reflectance spectra for suspended matter concentration detection in coastal waters,” Adv. Remote Sens. 4, 53–59 (1995).

I. J. A. Althuis, J. Vogelzang, M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, W. W. C. Gieskes, R. E. Warnock, J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, W. Zevenboom, “On the colour of case II waters: Particulate matter North Sea,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996).

Andre, J. M.

J. M. Andre, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery, revisited,” Oceanol. Acta 14, 3–22 (1991).

Arnone, R. A.

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377–2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Extending Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates of the diffuse attenuation coefficient into Case II waters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 342–356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV Conference, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998. Ocean Optics XIV CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1998).

Arrigo, K.

C. R. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. E. Esaias, M. Darzi, F. S. Patt, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, C. W. Brown, R. A. Barnes, L. Kumar, “SeaWiFS algorithms, Part 1,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS),” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–255.
[CrossRef]

Baith, K. S.

G. Fu, K. S. Baith, C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS: The SeaWiFS data analysis system,” presented at the 4th Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference, Qingdao, China, 28–31 July 1998.

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bale, A. J.

C. F. Jago, A. J. Bale, M. O. Green, M. J. Howarth, S. E. Jones, I. N. McCave, G. E. Millward, A. W. Morris, A. A. Rowden, J. J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” in Understanding the North Sea System, H. Charnock, K. R. Dyer, J. M. Huthnance, P. S. Liss, J. H. Simpson, P. B. Tett, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1994), pp. 97–113.
[CrossRef]

Barale, V.

G. Zibordi, V. Barale, G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, D. v. d. Linde, L. Alberotanza, P. Cova, C. Ramasco, “Coastal atmosphere and sea time-series project (CoASTS),” in Third International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995), Vol. II, pp. 96–100.

Barnes, R. A.

C. R. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. E. Esaias, M. Darzi, F. S. Patt, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, C. W. Brown, R. A. Barnes, L. Kumar, “SeaWiFS algorithms, Part 1,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWIFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Barnes, W. L.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWIFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Billen, G.

C. Lancelot, V. Rousseau, G. Billen, D. V. Eeckhout, “Coastal eutrophication of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: assessment and modelling,” in Sensitivity to Change: Black Sea, Baltic Sea and North Sea, E. Ozsoy, A. Mikaelyan, eds. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 437–454.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta 7, 33–50 (1987).

Brown, C. W.

C. R. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. E. Esaias, M. Darzi, F. S. Patt, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, C. W. Brown, R. A. Barnes, L. Kumar, “SeaWiFS algorithms, Part 1,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. E. Esaias, M. Darzi, F. S. Patt, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, C. W. Brown, R. A. Barnes, L. Kumar, “SeaWiFS algorithms, Part 1,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bruton, J. E.

Bukata, R. P.

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I. J. A. Althuis, S. Shimwell, “Modelling of remote sensing reflectance spectra for suspended matter concentration detection in coastal waters,” Adv. Remote Sens. 4, 53–59 (1995).

Shimwell, S. J.

I. J. A. Althuis, J. Vogelzang, M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, W. W. C. Gieskes, R. E. Warnock, J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, W. Zevenboom, “On the colour of case II waters: Particulate matter North Sea,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996).

Simpson, J. J.

B. A. Eckstein, J. J. Simpson, “Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 2359–2377 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Ship and satellite bio-optical research in the California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 281–294.
[CrossRef]

Starks, P. J.

J. F. Schalles, F. R. Schiebe, P. J. Starks, W. W. Troeger, “Estimation of algal and suspended sediment loads (singly and combined) using hyperspectral sensors and integrated mesocosm experiments,” in 4th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. I, pp. 247–258.

Steward, R. G.

Stewart, R. H.

F. M. Guan, J. Pelaez, R. H. Stewart, “The atmospheric correction and measurement of chlorophyll concentration using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 273–285 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, R.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV Conference, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998. Ocean Optics XIV CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1998).

Stumpf, R. P.

R. P. Stumpf, J. R. Pennock, “Calibration of a general optical equation for remote sensing of suspended sediments in a moderately turbid estuary,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14,363–14,371 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, B.

M. Viollier, B. Sturm, “CZCS data analysis in turbid coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4977–4985 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Sturm, “The atmospheric correction of remotely sensed data and the quantitative determination of suspended matter in marine water surface layers,” in Remote Sensing in Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology, A. P. Cracknell, ed. (Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK, 1980), pp. 163–197.

Sugihara, S.

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Estimation of water quality parameters from irradiance reflectance using optical models,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn 41, 399–406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Svitek, T.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWIFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

Tanré, D.

M. Viollier, D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tassan, S.

Troeger, W. W.

J. F. Schalles, F. R. Schiebe, P. J. Starks, W. W. Troeger, “Estimation of algal and suspended sediment loads (singly and combined) using hyperspectral sensors and integrated mesocosm experiments,” in 4th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. I, pp. 247–258.

Tycast, J. F.

J. F. Schalles, A. T. Sheil, J. F. Tycast, J. J. Alberts, Y. Z. Yacobi, “Detection of chlorophyll, seston and dissolved organic matter in the estuarine mixing zone of Georgia coastal plain rivers,” in 5th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1998), Vol. II, pp. 315–324.

Usry, J. W.

Vasilkov, A. P.

A. P. Vasilkov, “A retrieval of coastal water constituent concentrations by least-square inversion of a radiance model,” in 4th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. II, pp. 107–116.

Villars, M.

R. J. Vos, M. Villars, J. N. Roozekrans, S. W. M. Peters, W. v. Raaphorst, “RESTWAQ 2, Part 1. Integrated monitoring of total suspended matter in the Dutch coastal zone,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1998).

Viollier, M.

M. Viollier, B. Sturm, “CZCS data analysis in turbid coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4977–4985 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Viollier, D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Vogelzang, J.

I. J. A. Althuis, J. Vogelzang, M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, W. W. C. Gieskes, R. E. Warnock, J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, W. Zevenboom, “On the colour of case II waters: Particulate matter North Sea,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996).

Vos, R. J.

R. J. Vos, M. Villars, J. N. Roozekrans, S. W. M. Peters, W. v. Raaphorst, “RESTWAQ 2, Part 1. Integrated monitoring of total suspended matter in the Dutch coastal zone,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1998).

Wang, M.

Warnock, R. E.

I. J. A. Althuis, J. Vogelzang, M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, W. W. C. Gieskes, R. E. Warnock, J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, W. Zevenboom, “On the colour of case II waters: Particulate matter North Sea,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996).

Wernand, M. R.

I. J. A. Althuis, J. Vogelzang, M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, W. W. C. Gieskes, R. E. Warnock, J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, W. Zevenboom, “On the colour of case II waters: Particulate matter North Sea,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996).

Whitlock, C. H.

Williams, D. J.

Williams, J. J.

C. F. Jago, A. J. Bale, M. O. Green, M. J. Howarth, S. E. Jones, I. N. McCave, G. E. Millward, A. W. Morris, A. A. Rowden, J. J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” in Understanding the North Sea System, H. Charnock, K. R. Dyer, J. M. Huthnance, P. S. Liss, J. H. Simpson, P. B. Tett, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1994), pp. 97–113.
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Ship and satellite bio-optical research in the California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 281–294.
[CrossRef]

Witte, W. G.

Wouts, R.

I. J. A. Althuis, J. Vogelzang, M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, W. W. C. Gieskes, R. E. Warnock, J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, W. Zevenboom, “On the colour of case II waters: Particulate matter North Sea,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996).

J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, “Particulate matter North Sea plus,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1998).

Yacobi, Y. Z.

J. F. Schalles, A. T. Sheil, J. F. Tycast, J. J. Alberts, Y. Z. Yacobi, “Detection of chlorophyll, seston and dissolved organic matter in the estuarine mixing zone of Georgia coastal plain rivers,” in 5th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1998), Vol. II, pp. 315–324.

Yang, H.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared portions of the spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 188–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zevenboom, W.

I. J. A. Althuis, J. Vogelzang, M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, W. W. C. Gieskes, R. E. Warnock, J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, W. Zevenboom, “On the colour of case II waters: Particulate matter North Sea,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996).

Zibordi, G.

G. Zibordi, V. Barale, G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, D. v. d. Linde, L. Alberotanza, P. Cova, C. Ramasco, “Coastal atmosphere and sea time-series project (CoASTS),” in Third International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995), Vol. II, pp. 96–100.

Zwick, H. H.

Adv. Remote Sens. (1)

I. J. A. Althuis, S. Shimwell, “Modelling of remote sensing reflectance spectra for suspended matter concentration detection in coastal waters,” Adv. Remote Sens. 4, 53–59 (1995).

Adv. Space Res. (1)

S. Sathyendranath, L. Prieur, A. Morel, “An evaluation of the problems of chlorophyll retrieval from ocean colour, for case 2 waters,” Adv. Space Res. 7, 27–30 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (15)

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, P. M. Martinolich, “Spectral dependence of the scattering coefficient in case 1 and case 2 waters,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2377–2383 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, D. J. Castano, “Coastal Zone Color Scanner atmospheric correction algorithm: multiple scattering effects,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2111–2122 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of atmospheric effects from satellite imagery of the oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631–1636 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Whitlock, L. R. Poole, J. W. Usry, W. M. Houghton, W. G. Witte, W. D. Morris, E. A. Gurganis, “Comparison of reflectance with backscatter and absorption parameters for turbid waters,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1696–1703 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Bukata, J. H. Jerome, J. E. Bruton, S. C. Jain, H. H. Zwick, “Optical water quality model of Lake Ontario. 1. Determination of the optical cross sections of organic and inorganic particulates in Lake Ontario,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1696–1703 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear water radiances for atmospheric correction of coastal zone color scanner imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175–4180 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tassan, “Local algorithms using SeaWiFS data for the retrieval of phytoplankton, pigments, suspended sediment, and yellow substance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2369–2378 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, “Model for the interpretation of hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectance,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5721–5732 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7754–7763 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Remote sensing of ocean color: assessment of water-leaving radiance bidirectional effects on atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7887–7897 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors: computing atmospheric diffuse transmittance,” Appl. Opt. 38, 451–455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tassan, G. M. Ferrari, “Proposal for the measurement of backward and total scattering by mineral particles suspended in water,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8345–8353 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ding, H. R. Gordon, “Analysis of the influence of O2 A band absorption on atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery,” Appl. Opt. 34, 8363–8374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Land, J. D. Haigh, “Atmospheric correction over case 2 waters with an iterative fitting algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5443–5451 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boundary-Layer Meteorol. (1)

M. Viollier, D. Tanré, P. Y. Deschamps, “An algorithm for remote sensing of water color from space,” Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 18, 247–267 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. J. Gons, “Optical teledetection of chlorophyll a in turbid inland waters,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 33, 1127–1132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (2)

G. J. Prangsma, J. N. Roozekrans, “Using NOAA AVHRR imagery in assessing water quality parameters,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 10, 811–818 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Eckstein, J. J. Simpson, “Cloud screening Coastal Zone Color Scanner images using channel 5,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 12, 2359–2377 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytical radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, J. R. Pennock, “Calibration of a general optical equation for remote sensing of suspended sediments in a moderately turbid estuary,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 14,363–14,371 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Neville, J. F. R. Gower, “Passive remote sensing of phytoplankton via chlorophyll a fluorescence,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3487–3493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, “Concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended matter, gelbstoff in case II waters derived from satellite coastal zone color scanner data with inverse modeling methods,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7457–7466 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Viollier, B. Sturm, “CZCS data analysis in turbid coastal waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4977–4985 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn (1)

S. Sugihara, M. Kishino, N. Okami, “Estimation of water quality parameters from irradiance reflectance using optical models,” J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn 41, 399–406 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (4)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Guan, J. Pelaez, R. H. Stewart, “The atmospheric correction and measurement of chlorophyll concentration using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 273–285 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, C. Roesler, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “In situ methods for measuring the inherent optical properties of ocean waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 40, 393–410 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Pegau, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Temperature-dependent absorption of water in the red and near-infrared portions of the spectrum,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 38, 188–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Technol. Soc. J. (1)

S. Ouillon, P. Forget, J. M. Froidefond, J. J. Naudin, “Estimating suspended matter concentrations from SPOT data and from field measurements in the Rhone River plume,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 31, 15–20 (1997).

Neth. J. Sea Res. (1)

T. Aarup, S. Groom, P. M. Holligan, “The processing and interpretation of North Sea CZCS imagery,” Neth. J. Sea Res. 25, 3–9 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oceanol. Acta (2)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery: use of a reflectance model,” Oceanol. Acta 7, 33–50 (1987).

J. M. Andre, A. Morel, “Atmospheric corrections and interpretation of marine radiances in CZCS imagery, revisited,” Oceanol. Acta 14, 3–22 (1991).

Remote Sens. Rev. (1)

A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, L. M. Goddijn, T. J. M. Malthus, “The relation between inherent optical properties and reflectance spectra in turbid inland waters,” Remote Sens. Rev. 15, 59–74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sea Technol. (1)

C. R. McClain, M. L. Cleave, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, S. B. Hooker, N. Kuring, “Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research,” Sea Technol. 9, 10–16 (1998).

Other (22)

C. R. McClain, K. Arrigo, W. E. Esaias, M. Darzi, F. S. Patt, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, C. W. Brown, R. A. Barnes, L. Kumar, “SeaWiFS algorithms, Part 1,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

R. J. Vos, M. Villars, J. N. Roozekrans, S. W. M. Peters, W. v. Raaphorst, “RESTWAQ 2, Part 1. Integrated monitoring of total suspended matter in the Dutch coastal zone,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1998).

G. Fu, K. S. Baith, C. R. McClain, “SeaDAS: The SeaWiFS data analysis system,” presented at the 4th Pacific Ocean Remote Sensing Conference, Qingdao, China, 28–31 July 1998.

C. F. Jago, A. J. Bale, M. O. Green, M. J. Howarth, S. E. Jones, I. N. McCave, G. E. Millward, A. W. Morris, A. A. Rowden, J. J. Williams, “Resuspension processes and seston dynamics, southern North Sea,” in Understanding the North Sea System, H. Charnock, K. R. Dyer, J. M. Huthnance, P. S. Liss, J. H. Simpson, P. B. Tett, eds. (Chapman & Hall, London, 1994), pp. 97–113.
[CrossRef]

I. J. A. Althuis, J. Vogelzang, M. R. Wernand, S. J. Shimwell, W. W. C. Gieskes, R. E. Warnock, J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, W. Zevenboom, “On the colour of case II waters: Particulate matter North Sea,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1996).

C. Lancelot, V. Rousseau, G. Billen, D. V. Eeckhout, “Coastal eutrophication of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: assessment and modelling,” in Sensitivity to Change: Black Sea, Baltic Sea and North Sea, E. Ozsoy, A. Mikaelyan, eds. (Kluwer Scientific, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1997), pp. 437–454.

J. F. Schalles, F. R. Schiebe, P. J. Starks, W. W. Troeger, “Estimation of algal and suspended sediment loads (singly and combined) using hyperspectral sensors and integrated mesocosm experiments,” in 4th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. I, pp. 247–258.

J. F. Schalles, A. T. Sheil, J. F. Tycast, J. J. Alberts, Y. Z. Yacobi, “Detection of chlorophyll, seston and dissolved organic matter in the estuarine mixing zone of Georgia coastal plain rivers,” in 5th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1998), Vol. II, pp. 315–324.

J. Kromkamp, R. Wouts, “Particulate matter North Sea plus,” (Beleidscommissie Remote Sensing, Delft, The Netherlands, 1998).

G. Zibordi, V. Barale, G. M. Ferrari, N. Hoepffner, D. v. d. Linde, L. Alberotanza, P. Cova, C. Ramasco, “Coastal atmosphere and sea time-series project (CoASTS),” in Third International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1995), Vol. II, pp. 96–100.

A. P. Vasilkov, “A retrieval of coastal water constituent concentrations by least-square inversion of a radiance model,” in 4th International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., 1997), Vol. II, pp. 107–116.

B. Sturm, “The atmospheric correction of remotely sensed data and the quantitative determination of suspended matter in marine water surface layers,” in Remote Sensing in Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology, A. P. Cracknell, ed. (Ellis Horwood, Chichester, UK, 1980), pp. 163–197.

R. A. Arnone, P. Martinolich, R. W. Gould, R. Stumpf, S. Ladner, “Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS,” presented at Ocean Optics XIV Conference, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 10–13 November 1998. Ocean Optics XIV CD-ROM (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1998).

J. Aiken, G. Moore, “MERIS algorithm theoretical basis document: case 2 (S) bright pixel atmospheric correction,” (Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK, 1997).

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Ship and satellite bio-optical research in the California Bight,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 281–294.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS),” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 239–255.
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, “Effects of water reflectance at 670 nm on Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) aerosol radiance estimates off the coast of central California,” in Ocean Optics VII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE489, 179–186 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, “Extending Coastal Zone Color Scanner estimates of the diffuse attenuation coefficient into Case II waters,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 342–356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Preisendorfer, “Application of radiative transfer theory to light measurements in the sea,” (International Union for Geodesy and Geophysics, Paris, 1961).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, T. Svitek, “SeaWIFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization,” (NASA, Greenbelt, Md., 1994).

A. G. Dekker, “Detection of water quality parameters for eutrophic waters by high resolution remote sensing,” Ph.D. dissertation (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1993).

R. Doerffer, “Imaging spectroscopy for detection of chlorophyll and suspended matter,” in Imaging Spectroscopy: Fundamentals and Prospective Applications, F. Toselli, J. Bodechtel, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 215–257.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-of-atmosphere radiance (mW cm-2 µm-1 sr-1) at 765 nm for the SeaWiFS image taken 28 October 1997, 12:15 UTC. The heavily outlined box is the subregion, defined by top-right and bottom-left corners at (52°N, 3.5°E) and (51°N, 2°E), used subsequently for calibration of the turbid water atmospheric correction algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized water-leaving radiance (mW cm-2 µm-1 sr-1) for the SeaWiFS image taken 28 October 1997, 12:15 UTC, at 443 nm after the standard atmospheric correction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized water-leaving radiance (mW cm-2 µm-1 sr-1) for the SeaWiFS image taken 28 October 1997, 12:15 UTC, at 670 nm after the standard atmospheric correction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatterplot of Rayleigh-corrected reflectances at 765 and 865 nm for the subregion outlined in Fig. 1 of the SeaWiFS image taken 28 October 1997, 12:15 UTC. The superimposed straight lines correspond to ρc7/ρc8 = 1 (solid line); = 0.09, 1.10, 1.20 (short-dashed lines); = 1.72 (long-dashed line).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized water-leaving radiance (mW cm-2 µm-1 sr-1) for the SeaWiFS image taken 28 October 1997, 12:15 UTC, at 443 nm after the turbid water atmospheric correction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized water-leaving radiance (mW cm-2 µm-1 sr-1) for the SeaWiFS image taken 28 October 1997, 12:15 UTC, at 670 nm after the turbid water atmospheric correction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized water-leaving radiances for a typical turbid water point (filled diamonds) and a clearer offshore pixel (open squares) obtained with the standard atmospheric correction (dashed–dotted curves) and with the new turbid water atmospheric correction with eps = εm7,8 = 1.05 (solid curves) and eps = εm7,8 = 1.10 (dashed curves).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of in situ PR-650 colorimeter measurements of water-leaving radiance for Lake Markermeer taken on 25 June 1999 at 12:48 UTC with coincident spectra from the SeaWiFS image acquired at 11:31 UTC and processed with the standard and the new turbid water atmospheric correction algorithms.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Estimation of Errors Associated with Turbid Water Atmospheric Correction Assumptions from Eq. (A8) with tv*i = 1 and εm7,8 = 1.10 and Typical Values of ρam8 = 0.005 for a Clear Atmosphere and ρam8 = 0.015 for a Turbid Atmosphere, ρw8 = 0.001 for Clear Water and ρw8 = 0.020 for Turbid Water, Δεm7,8 = 0.05, and Δα = 0.13 × 1.72

Equations (61)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ=πL/F0 cos θ0,
ρtλ=ρrλ+ρaλ+ρraλ+Tvλρwλ+ρwcλ,
LwN=LwT0 cos θ0,
ρcλ=ρtλ-ρrλ-Tvλρwcλ=ρaλ+ρraλ+Tvλρwλ.
Tv=tva+rtvoztvO2,
T0=t0a+rt0ozt0O2,
ρcλ=ρaλ+ρraλ+tv*λρwλ,
ρ=ρtvoztvO2t0ozt0O2
tv*=TvtvoztvO2t0ozt0O2=tva+rt0a+rT0.
ρamλ=ρaλ+ρraλ.
ρam7=ρc7,
ρam8=ρc8,
εsIi,jρasiρasj.
ρami=fIρasi,
ρasi=gIρami.
ρami+tv*iρwi=ρci,  i=1  8,
εsIi,8=gIρamigIρam8,
ρam7ρam8εm7,8,
αρw7/T07ρw8/T08,
tv*7ρw7=tva+r7t0a+r7T07 ρw7=tva+r7t0a+r7α ρw8T08=αγtv*8ρw8,
γ=tva+r7t0a+r7tva+r8t0a+r8.
εm7,8ρam8+αtv*8ρw8=ρc7,
ρam8+tv*8ρw8=ρc8,
ρam8=αρc8-ρc7α-εm7,8,
tv*8ρw8=ρc7-εm7,8ρc8α-εm7,8,
ρam7=εm7,8αρc8-ρc7α-εm7,8,
tv*7ρw7=αρc7-εm7,8ρc8α-εm7,8.
R=1MQπρwT0,
RQ=l1bba,
aλ=awλ.
bbλ=bb0.
ρwλT0λ=Ml1π bb0awλ.
α=ρw7/T07ρw8/T08=aw8aw7,
α=4.436 m-12.586 m-1=1.72.
Δρwi=-1tv*i εmi,8Kiρam8Δεm7,8+tv*8α-εm7,8 ρw8Δα.
εmi,8=expcλ8-λi
εmi,8=εm7,8δi,
δi=λ8-λiλ8-λ7.
ρamiρam8=εsIi,8,
εmi,8=εsIi,8
ρami=εm7,8δiρam8.
Δρwi=-1tv*iρamiεm7,8 Δεm7,8+ρamiα Δα,
Δρwi=-1tv*i εmi,8Kiρam8Δεm7,8+tv*8α-εm7,8 ρw8Δα,
Ki=δiεm7,8+1α-εm7,8.
α0=aw8aw7.
R1-rR=1MQπρwT0,
α=R7R81-rR81-rR7.
α=α01-rR81-α0.
α=α01+0.48×0.02×0.72=1.007α0.
RQ=l1bba+l2*bba2,
α=ρw7/T07ρw8/T08=l1bbaw7+l2*bbaw72×l1bbaw8+l2*bbaw82-1=aw8aw71+l2*l1bbaw71+l2*l1bbaw8-1,
α=α01+l2*l1bbaw7-bbaw8.
α=α01+l2*Ql12R7-R8=α01+l2*Ql12 R8α0-1,
α=0.992α0.
aλ7=aw7+a*7,
aλ8=aw8+a*8.
α=α01+a*8aw8-a*7aw7.
α=α01-0.01 m-12.59 m-1=0.996α0.
bbλ=bb0λ/λ0-n,
α=α0λ7λ8-n=α0765 nm865 nm-n,
α=aw866.4 nmaw764.9 nm=1.74.

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