Abstract

Thin-film interference filters, suitable for use on GaAs- and InP-based lasers, have been fabricated by use of the electron–cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Multilayer film structures composed of silicon oxynitride material have been deposited at low temperatures with an in situ rotating compensator ellipsometer for monitoring the index of refraction and thickness of the deposited layers. Individual layers with an index of refraction from 3.3 to 1.46 at 633 nm have been produced with a run-to-run reproducibility of 0.005 and a thickness control of 10 Å. Several filter designs have been implemented, including high-reflection filters, one- and two-layer anitreflection filters, and narrow-band high-reflection filters. It is shown that an accurate measurement of the filter optical properties during deposition is possible and that controlled reflectance spectra can be obtained.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kaukawa, N. Iwai, N. Yamanaka, “Very high characteristic temperature and constant differential quantum efficiency 1.3 µm GaInAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers by use of temperature dependent reflectivity (TDR) mirror,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1064–1065 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. H. MacDougal, H. Zhao, P. D. Dapkus, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors using oxide/GaAs multilayer,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1147–1149 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. M. Braun, R. L. Jungerman, “Broadband multilayer antireflection coating for semiconductor laser facets,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1154–1156 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Boudreau, M. Boumerzoug, P. Mascher, P. E. Jessop, “Electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitrides using tris(dimethylamino)silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3014–3016 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Smith, “Controlling the plasma chemistry of silicon nitride and oxide deposition from silane,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 1843–1850 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).
  7. P. S. Hauge, F. H. Dill, “A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14, 431–437 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-HollandAmsterdam, 1988), pp. 270–275.
  9. I. Wu, J. B. Dottellis, M. Dagenais, “Real-time in-situ ellipsometric control of antireflection coatings for semiconductor laser amplifiers using SiOx,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2398–2406 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Vassallo, “Rigorous and approximate calculations of antireflection layer parameters for travelling-wave diode laser amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 333–334 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. J. Gallant, M. L. Tilton, D. J. Bossert, J. D. Barrie, G. C. Dente, “Optimized single-layer antireflection coatings for semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 300–302 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, M. J. Robertson, “New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 148–150 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. W. Hakki, T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. T. Cassidy, “Technique for measurement of the gain spectra of semiconductor diode lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 3096–3099 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

1997 (1)

D. J. Gallant, M. L. Tilton, D. J. Bossert, J. D. Barrie, G. C. Dente, “Optimized single-layer antireflection coatings for semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 300–302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

A. Kaukawa, N. Iwai, N. Yamanaka, “Very high characteristic temperature and constant differential quantum efficiency 1.3 µm GaInAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers by use of temperature dependent reflectivity (TDR) mirror,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1064–1065 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. H. MacDougal, H. Zhao, P. D. Dapkus, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors using oxide/GaAs multilayer,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1147–1149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, M. J. Robertson, “New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 148–150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Wu, J. B. Dottellis, M. Dagenais, “Real-time in-situ ellipsometric control of antireflection coatings for semiconductor laser amplifiers using SiOx,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2398–2406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Boudreau, M. Boumerzoug, P. Mascher, P. E. Jessop, “Electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitrides using tris(dimethylamino)silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3014–3016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Smith, “Controlling the plasma chemistry of silicon nitride and oxide deposition from silane,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 1843–1850 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. Vassallo, “Rigorous and approximate calculations of antireflection layer parameters for travelling-wave diode laser amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 333–334 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. T. Cassidy, “Technique for measurement of the gain spectra of semiconductor diode lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 3096–3099 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

B. W. Hakki, T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Hauge, F. H. Dill, “A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14, 431–437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, M. J. Robertson, “New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 148–150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-HollandAmsterdam, 1988), pp. 270–275.

Balcaitis, G.

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

Barrie, J. D.

D. J. Gallant, M. L. Tilton, D. J. Bossert, J. D. Barrie, G. C. Dente, “Optimized single-layer antireflection coatings for semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 300–302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-HollandAmsterdam, 1988), pp. 270–275.

Bossert, D. J.

D. J. Gallant, M. L. Tilton, D. J. Bossert, J. D. Barrie, G. C. Dente, “Optimized single-layer antireflection coatings for semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 300–302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boudreau, M.

M. Boudreau, M. Boumerzoug, P. Mascher, P. E. Jessop, “Electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitrides using tris(dimethylamino)silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3014–3016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boudreau, M. G.

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

Boumerzoug, M.

M. Boudreau, M. Boumerzoug, P. Mascher, P. E. Jessop, “Electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitrides using tris(dimethylamino)silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3014–3016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D. M.

Cassidy, D. T.

D. T. Cassidy, “Technique for measurement of the gain spectra of semiconductor diode lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 3096–3099 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

I. Wu, J. B. Dottellis, M. Dagenais, “Real-time in-situ ellipsometric control of antireflection coatings for semiconductor laser amplifiers using SiOx,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2398–2406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

M. H. MacDougal, H. Zhao, P. D. Dapkus, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors using oxide/GaAs multilayer,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1147–1149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dente, G. C.

D. J. Gallant, M. L. Tilton, D. J. Bossert, J. D. Barrie, G. C. Dente, “Optimized single-layer antireflection coatings for semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 300–302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dill, F. H.

P. S. Hauge, F. H. Dill, “A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14, 431–437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dottellis, J. B.

I. Wu, J. B. Dottellis, M. Dagenais, “Real-time in-situ ellipsometric control of antireflection coatings for semiconductor laser amplifiers using SiOx,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2398–2406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gallant, D. J.

D. J. Gallant, M. L. Tilton, D. J. Bossert, J. D. Barrie, G. C. Dente, “Optimized single-layer antireflection coatings for semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 300–302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hakki, B. W.

B. W. Hakki, T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hauge, P. S.

P. S. Hauge, F. H. Dill, “A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14, 431–437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

Iwai, N.

A. Kaukawa, N. Iwai, N. Yamanaka, “Very high characteristic temperature and constant differential quantum efficiency 1.3 µm GaInAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers by use of temperature dependent reflectivity (TDR) mirror,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1064–1065 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

M. Boudreau, M. Boumerzoug, P. Mascher, P. E. Jessop, “Electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitrides using tris(dimethylamino)silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3014–3016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jungerman, R. L.

Kaukawa, A.

A. Kaukawa, N. Iwai, N. Yamanaka, “Very high characteristic temperature and constant differential quantum efficiency 1.3 µm GaInAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers by use of temperature dependent reflectivity (TDR) mirror,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1064–1065 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, P. C.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, M. J. Robertson, “New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 148–150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

MacDougal, M. H.

M. H. MacDougal, H. Zhao, P. D. Dapkus, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors using oxide/GaAs multilayer,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1147–1149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mascher, P.

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

M. Boudreau, M. Boumerzoug, P. Mascher, P. E. Jessop, “Electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitrides using tris(dimethylamino)silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3014–3016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murugkar, S.

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

Paoli, T. L.

B. W. Hakki, T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. A.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, M. J. Robertson, “New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 148–150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, M. J.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, M. J. Robertson, “New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 148–150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Robson, P. N.

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, M. J. Robertson, “New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 148–150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Roscoe, J. R.

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

Smith, D. L.

D. L. Smith, “Controlling the plasma chemistry of silicon nitride and oxide deposition from silane,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 1843–1850 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

M. H. MacDougal, H. Zhao, P. D. Dapkus, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors using oxide/GaAs multilayer,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1147–1149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tilton, M. L.

D. J. Gallant, M. L. Tilton, D. J. Bossert, J. D. Barrie, G. C. Dente, “Optimized single-layer antireflection coatings for semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 300–302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vassallo, C.

C. Vassallo, “Rigorous and approximate calculations of antireflection layer parameters for travelling-wave diode laser amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 333–334 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, S. G.

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

Wettlaufer, C.

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

Wu, I.

I. Wu, J. B. Dottellis, M. Dagenais, “Real-time in-situ ellipsometric control of antireflection coatings for semiconductor laser amplifiers using SiOx,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2398–2406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, N.

A. Kaukawa, N. Iwai, N. Yamanaka, “Very high characteristic temperature and constant differential quantum efficiency 1.3 µm GaInAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers by use of temperature dependent reflectivity (TDR) mirror,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1064–1065 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

M. H. MacDougal, H. Zhao, P. D. Dapkus, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors using oxide/GaAs multilayer,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1147–1149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ziari, M.

M. H. MacDougal, H. Zhao, P. D. Dapkus, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors using oxide/GaAs multilayer,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1147–1149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Boudreau, M. Boumerzoug, P. Mascher, P. E. Jessop, “Electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxynitrides using tris(dimethylamino)silane,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3014–3016 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Soc. Proc. (1)

P. Mascher, M. G. Boudreau, S. G. Wallace, J. R. Roscoe, S. Murugkar, G. Balcaitis, C. Wettlaufer, H. K. Haugen, “Optical coatings for improved semiconductor diode laser performance,” Electrochem. Soc. Proc. V98–2, 56–67 (1998).

Electron. Lett. (3)

C. Vassallo, “Rigorous and approximate calculations of antireflection layer parameters for travelling-wave diode laser amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 21, 333–334 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Kaukawa, N. Iwai, N. Yamanaka, “Very high characteristic temperature and constant differential quantum efficiency 1.3 µm GaInAsP/InP strained-layer quantum well lasers by use of temperature dependent reflectivity (TDR) mirror,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1064–1065 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. H. MacDougal, H. Zhao, P. D. Dapkus, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, “Wide-bandwidth distributed Bragg reflectors using oxide/GaAs multilayer,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1147–1149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

D. J. Gallant, M. L. Tilton, D. J. Bossert, J. D. Barrie, G. C. Dente, “Optimized single-layer antireflection coatings for semiconductor lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 300–302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Kendall, D. A. Roberts, P. N. Robson, M. J. Adams, M. J. Robertson, “New formula for semiconductor laser facet reflectivity,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 5, 148–150 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. W. Hakki, T. L. Paoli, “Gain spectra in GaAs double-heterostructure injection lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1299–1306 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Cassidy, “Technique for measurement of the gain spectra of semiconductor diode lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 3096–3099 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, “Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon,” J. Phys. E 16, 1214–1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

I. Wu, J. B. Dottellis, M. Dagenais, “Real-time in-situ ellipsometric control of antireflection coatings for semiconductor laser amplifiers using SiOx,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 2398–2406 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Smith, “Controlling the plasma chemistry of silicon nitride and oxide deposition from silane,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 1843–1850 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. S. Hauge, F. H. Dill, “A rotating-compensator Fourier ellipsometer,” Opt. Commun. 14, 431–437 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-HollandAmsterdam, 1988), pp. 270–275.

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