Abstract

The asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a promising technique for broadband switching that is capable of supporting high-bit-rate multimedia services. Progress in all-optical parallel processing shows that photonics may be used in the future in full-functionality ATM switching nodes. All-optical switching fabrics and buffers have already been demonstrated. Fewer studies have been dedicated to ATM header-processing functions. As an example of photonic header processing, the implementation of a header-error control (HEC) subsystem by means of an optical circuit is investigated. Although traditional electronic decoders perform HEC in a serial mode, the architecture chosen for the optical HEC subsystem is based on parallelism, and an appropriate parallel-decoding algorithm was used in designing it.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1999 (1)

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, E. J. Manning, “All-optical parity checker with bit-differential delay,” Opt. Commun. 162, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1996 (1)

P. E. Green, “Optical networking update,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 764–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

P. Boffi, S. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, “Optical time-to-space converter,” Opt. Commun. 123, 473–476 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, “Digital optical computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 758–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Andonovic, I.

Bauknecht, R.

Bendelli, G.

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Benedetto, S.

S. Benedetto, E. Biglieri, V. Castellani, Digital Transmission Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1987).

Biglieri, E.

S. Benedetto, E. Biglieri, V. Castellani, Digital Transmission Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1987).

Blow, K. J.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, E. J. Manning, “All-optical parity checker with bit-differential delay,” Opt. Commun. 162, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boffi, P.

P. Boffi, S. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, “Optical time-to-space converter,” Opt. Commun. 123, 473–476 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bostica, B.

Burzio, M.

C. Guillemot, M. Renaud, P. Gambini, C. Janz, I. Andonovic, R. Bauknecht, B. Bostica, M. Burzio, F. Callegati, M. Casoni, D. Chiaroni, F. Clérot, S. L. Danielsen, F. Dorgeville, A. Dupas, A. Franzen, P. B. Hansen, D. K. Hunter, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, B. Lavigne, A. le Corre, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, J. C. Simon, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: the European ACTS KEOPS project approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2117–2134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Callegati, F.

Calzavara, M.

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Casoni, M.

Castellani, V.

S. Benedetto, E. Biglieri, V. Castellani, Digital Transmission Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1987).

Chiaroni, D.

Cinato, P.

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Clérot, F.

Danielsen, S. L.

de Prycker, M.

M. de Prycker, Asynchronous Transfer Mode: Solution for Broadband ISDN, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1995).

Delorme, F.

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Dorgeville, F.

Dupas, A.

Dupraz, J.

J. Dupraz, “ATM: current status and perspectives of evolution,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC ’94 (Peregrinus, London, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 555–562.

Feitelson, G.

G. Feitelson, Optical Computing, 1st ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1992).

Franzen, A.

Gambini, P.

C. Guillemot, M. Renaud, P. Gambini, C. Janz, I. Andonovic, R. Bauknecht, B. Bostica, M. Burzio, F. Callegati, M. Casoni, D. Chiaroni, F. Clérot, S. L. Danielsen, F. Dorgeville, A. Dupas, A. Franzen, P. B. Hansen, D. K. Hunter, A. Kloch, R. Krähenbühl, B. Lavigne, A. le Corre, C. Raffaelli, M. Schilling, J. C. Simon, L. Zucchelli, “Transparent optical packet switching: the European ACTS KEOPS project approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2117–2134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Green, P. E.

P. E. Green, “Optical networking update,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 764–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guillemot, C.

Hansen, P. B.

Hinton, H. S.

H. S. Hinton, An Introduction to Photonic Switching Fabrics (Plenum, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, D. K.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, S. Lee, Optical Computing Hardware (Academic, New York, 1994).

Janz, C.

Kelly, A. E.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, E. J. Manning, “All-optical parity checker with bit-differential delay,” Opt. Commun. 162, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kloch, A.

Krähenbühl, R.

Lavigne, B.

le Corre, A.

Lee, S.

J. Jahns, S. Lee, Optical Computing Hardware (Academic, New York, 1994).

Manning, E. J.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, E. J. Manning, “All-optical parity checker with bit-differential delay,” Opt. Commun. 162, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, M.

P. Boffi, S. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, “Optical time-to-space converter,” Opt. Commun. 123, 473–476 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Melen, R.

R. Melen, Strutture di Commutazione ATM (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1995).

Mowle, F. J.

F. J. Mowle, A Systematic Approach to Digital Logic Design (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976).

Nakajima, H.

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Pietralunga, S.

P. Boffi, S. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, “Optical time-to-space converter,” Opt. Commun. 123, 473–476 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poustie, A. J.

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, E. J. Manning, “All-optical parity checker with bit-differential delay,” Opt. Commun. 162, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Puleo, M.

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Raffaelli, C.

Renaud, M.

Sawchuk, A. A.

A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, “Digital optical computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 758–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

Simon, J. C.

Strand, T. C.

A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, “Digital optical computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 758–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vezzoni, E.

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

Yamanaka, A. N.

Zucchelli, L.

IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. (1)

P. E. Green, “Optical networking update,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 764–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Boffi, S. Pietralunga, M. Martinelli, “Optical time-to-space converter,” Opt. Commun. 123, 473–476 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Poustie, K. J. Blow, A. E. Kelly, E. J. Manning, “All-optical parity checker with bit-differential delay,” Opt. Commun. 162, 37–43 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. A. Sawchuk, T. C. Strand, “Digital optical computing,” Proc. IEEE 72, 758–779 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

International Telecommunication Union, T Recommendation: B-Isdn User–Network Interface, Physical Layer Specification I.432 (International Telecommunication Union, Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland).

S. Benedetto, E. Biglieri, V. Castellani, Digital Transmission Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1987).

G. Bendelli, M. Burzio, M. Calzavara, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, F. Delorme, H. Nakajima, “Photonic ATM switch based on a multiwavelength fiber-loop buffer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of OSA 1995 Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 141–142.

G. Feitelson, Optical Computing, 1st ed. (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1992).

H. S. Hinton, An Introduction to Photonic Switching Fabrics (Plenum, New York, 1993).
[CrossRef]

M. de Prycker, Asynchronous Transfer Mode: Solution for Broadband ISDN, 3rd ed. (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1995).

R. Melen, Strutture di Commutazione ATM (Scuola Superiore G. Reiss Romoli, L’Aquila, Italy, 1995).

J. Dupraz, “ATM: current status and perspectives of evolution,” in Proceedings of the Twentieth European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC ’94 (Peregrinus, London, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 555–562.

J. Jahns, S. Lee, Optical Computing Hardware (Academic, New York, 1994).

F. J. Mowle, A Systematic Approach to Digital Logic Design (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Parity-check matrix H′ of the parallel-decoding algorithm evaluated for the ATM HEC cyclic code: a filled circle in the figure represents a 1 element in the corresponding position of H′, whereas a 0 is represented by a blank.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical HEC subsystem parallel-architecture logical scheme: a filled circle in the figure represents a logical 1, whereas a logical 0 is represented by a blank.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme of the proposed HEC subsystem optical. In the inset is shown an experimental implementation, which exploits serial-to-parallel conversion that is based on e-o wafer gates (see text).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gate arrays that implement operator 3.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

yD=xD+eD.
yD=mDgD+sD  sD=modyDgD,
y=x+e,
s=yH.
Φ40, 32.
gD=D8+D2+D+1,
s=yH.
si=j=140yj · Hi, j,   1i8.
si=j=140yj AND Hi, j,   1i8.
Y=y  yYi, j=yj,  1i81j40.
Ci, j=Yi, j AND Hi, j, 1i81j40.
si=j=140Ci, j,   1i8.
OUT=ORi=18si=s1 OR s2  OR s8.
xorx1,, xn=x1  x2,,  xn= i=1n xi.

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