Abstract

Transient optical modulation properties of a disperse-red-1–doped polymer film are investigated by use of four-wave mixing with two-color light. Interesting behavior is observed for the transient modulation on variation of the two-color light intensities because of competition between the two mechanisms of one-photon (reorientation) and biphoton (isomerization) gratings. Positive and negative modulation as well as double-frequency modulation relative to blue-light input is observed in the experiment. The results may have applications in optical information processing.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1998

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Ichimura, S. Morino, H. Akiyama, “Three-dimensional orientational control of molecules by slantwise photoirradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 921–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Photoassisted poling induced second harmonic generation with in-plane anisotropy in azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3629–3631 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Kaino, S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

1978

C. D. Eisenbach, “Effect of polymer matrix on the cis–trans isomerization of azobenzene residues in bulk polymers,” Makromol. Chem. 179, 2489–2506 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

K. Ichimura, S. Morino, H. Akiyama, “Three-dimensional orientational control of molecules by slantwise photoirradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 921–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, S.

Charra, F.

Chen, D.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Couture, J. J. A.

Dutton, T. E.

Dvornikov, A. S.

Eisenbach, C. D.

C. D. Eisenbach, “Effect of polymer matrix on the cis–trans isomerization of azobenzene residues in bulk polymers,” Makromol. Chem. 179, 2489–2506 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fiddy, M. A.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, M. A. Fiddy, S. K. Tripathy, “Nonlinear optical photoresponsive polymer for reversible optical data storage,” in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE1853, 23–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

Gong, X.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

K. Ichimura, S. Morino, H. Akiyama, “Three-dimensional orientational control of molecules by slantwise photoirradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 921–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeng, R. J.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, M. A. Fiddy, S. K. Tripathy, “Nonlinear optical photoresponsive polymer for reversible optical data storage,” in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE1853, 23–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X. L.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Photoassisted poling induced second harmonic generation with in-plane anisotropy in azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3629–3631 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kalluri, S.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, M. A. Fiddy, S. K. Tripathy, “Nonlinear optical photoresponsive polymer for reversible optical data storage,” in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE1853, 23–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Photoassisted poling induced second harmonic generation with in-plane anisotropy in azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3629–3631 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, M. A. Fiddy, S. K. Tripathy, “Nonlinear optical photoresponsive polymer for reversible optical data storage,” in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE1853, 23–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Photoassisted poling induced second harmonic generation with in-plane anisotropy in azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3629–3631 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, M. A. Fiddy, S. K. Tripathy, “Nonlinear optical photoresponsive polymer for reversible optical data storage,” in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE1853, 23–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morino, S.

K. Ichimura, S. Morino, H. Akiyama, “Three-dimensional orientational control of molecules by slantwise photoirradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 921–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J.

Olson, D. J.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rabek, J. F.

J. F. Rabek, Photochemistry and Photophysics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 120–141.

Raimond, P.

Rangel-Rojo, R.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

Rochon, P.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tomaru, S.

T. Kaino, S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tomov, I. V.

Tripathy, S. K.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Photoassisted poling induced second harmonic generation with in-plane anisotropy in azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3629–3631 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, M. A. Fiddy, S. K. Tripathy, “Nonlinear optical photoresponsive polymer for reversible optical data storage,” in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE1853, 23–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, O.

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

VanWonterghem, B.

Volodin, B. L.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yankelevich, D.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zou, B.

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

Adv. Mater.

T. Kaino, S. Tomaru, “Organic materials for nonlinear optics,” Adv. Mater. 5, 172–178 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. L. Jiang, L. Li, J. Kumar, S. K. Tripathy, “Photoassisted poling induced second harmonic generation with in-plane anisotropy in azobenzene containing polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3629–3631 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Ichimura, S. Morino, H. Akiyama, “Three-dimensional orientational control of molecules by slantwise photoirradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 921–923 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, A. Natansohn, “Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136–138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, J. Kumar, “Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, J. H. Bechtel, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, W. Wang, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, “Photoinduced molecular alignment relaxation in poled electro-optic polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1040–1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, H. Matsuda, D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Makromol. Chem.

C. D. Eisenbach, “Effect of polymer matrix on the cis–trans isomerization of azobenzene residues in bulk polymers,” Makromol. Chem. 179, 2489–2506 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

P. Wu, L. Wang, J. Xu, B. Zou, X. Gong, G. Zhang, G. Tang, W. Chen, W. Huang, “Transient biphotonic holographic grating in photoisomerizative azo materials,” Phys. Rev. B 57, 3874–3880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, “Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films,” Science 268, 1873–1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. F. Rabek, Photochemistry and Photophysics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), pp. 120–141.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, R. J. Jeng, J. Kumar, M. A. Fiddy, S. K. Tripathy, “Nonlinear optical photoresponsive polymer for reversible optical data storage,” in Organic and Biological Optoelectronics, P. M. Rentzepis, ed., Proc. SPIE1853, 23–28 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for transient optical modulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Negative transient modulation for a low 442-nm intensity of 0.25 mW with different 647-nm intensities of each of the beams: (a) 11 mW, (b) 42 mW, (c) 78 mW, (d) 107 mW, (e) 146 mW. The blue light is turned on during the time periods of 0–1 s, 2–3 s, etc., and turned off during periods of 1–2 s, 3–4 s, etc. The noise level is less than 1 nW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal diffraction signals that result from the reorientation grating formed by red beams of different intensities without blue-light irradiation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Positive transient modulation: high 442-nm intensity of 2.8 mW with different 647-nm intensities of each beam: (a) 11 mW, (b) 42 mW, (c) 78 mW, (d) 107 mW, (e) 146 mW. The blue light is turned on during time periods of 0–1 s, 2–3 s, etc., and turned off during periods of 1–2 s, 3–4 s, etc.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the modulation intervals for the one-photon component (reorientation grating) and the biphoton component (isomerization grating) on the intensity of blue light. The intensity of red light is fixed at 80 mW for each beam.

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