Abstract

The design and the implementation of a modular spot-array generator for a modulator-based free-space optical interconnect is presented. Two cascaded diffractive optical elements produce 4 × 8 clusters on a 1600 µm × 800 µm pitch, where each cluster is a 4 × 4 array of (1/e 2) 13.1-µm-radius spots on a 90-µm pitch. The spot-array generator is kinematically aligned to the interconnect system such that no realignment is necessary between removal and reinsertion. Characterization results are presented.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  28. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 546–555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal, and optomechanical packaging of large 2-D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (5)

1996 (4)

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET–SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Fan, D. A. Van Blerkom, W. L. Hendrick, S. C. Esener, “Free-space optical interconnection: a technology comparison of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and multiple-quantum-well modulators,” Opt. Rev. Jpn. 3, 394–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of computer-generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, M. M. Down, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Akulova, Y.

L. A. Coldren, E. Hegblom, E. Strzelecka, J. Ko, Y. Akulova, B. Thibeault, “Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 2–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal, and optomechanical packaging of large 2-D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics of a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device–based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baillie, D. A.

Bernier, E.

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

L. A. Coldren, E. Hegblom, E. Strzelecka, J. Ko, Y. Akulova, B. Thibeault, “Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 2–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Craft, N. C.

N. C. Craft, M. E. Prise, “Optical system tolerances for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices in optical computers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 334–337.

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dammann, H.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Down, M. M.

J. Jahns, M. M. Down, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esener, S. C.

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 546–555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Fan, D. A. Van Blerkom, W. L. Hendrick, S. C. Esener, “Free-space optical interconnection: a technology comparison of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and multiple-quantum-well modulators,” Opt. Rev. Jpn. 3, 394–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, C.

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 546–555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Fan, D. A. Van Blerkom, W. L. Hendrick, S. C. Esener, “Free-space optical interconnection: a technology comparison of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and multiple-quantum-well modulators,” Opt. Rev. Jpn. 3, 394–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goodwill, D. J.

Gortler, K.

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Gossen, “Progress in optoelectronic-VLSI smart pixel technology based on GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 181–198 (1997).

Hall, T. J.

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of computer-generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hegblom, E.

L. A. Coldren, E. Hegblom, E. Strzelecka, J. Ko, Y. Akulova, B. Thibeault, “Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 2–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hendrick, W. L.

C. Fan, D. A. Van Blerkom, W. L. Hendrick, S. C. Esener, “Free-space optical interconnection: a technology comparison of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and multiple-quantum-well modulators,” Opt. Rev. Jpn. 3, 394–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET–SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, W. S.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, R.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, M. M. Down, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kabal, D.

Khurana, P.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal, and optomechanical packaging of large 2-D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kibar, O.

Kirk, A. G.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal, and optomechanical packaging of large 2-D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of computer-generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ko, J.

L. A. Coldren, E. Hegblom, E. Strzelecka, J. Ko, Y. Akulova, B. Thibeault, “Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 2–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Gossen, “Progress in optoelectronic-VLSI smart pixel technology based on GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 181–198 (1997).

Lacroix, F.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal, and optomechanical packaging of large 2-D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leibengath, R. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, “Qualitative comparison of MQW modulator and VCSEL based OE-VLSI: a systems perspective,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’97: Tenth Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 83–84.

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Liu, Y. S.

Lopata, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. M.

Morgan, R. A.

R. A. Morgan, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: present and future,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 14–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

Otazo, M. R.

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET–SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pavlasek, D.

Plant, D. V.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal, and optomechanical packaging of large 2-D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics of a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device–based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET–SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prince, S. M.

Prise, M. E.

J. Jahns, M. M. Down, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Craft, M. E. Prise, “Optical system tolerances for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices in optical computers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 334–337.

Robertson, B.

B. Robertson, “Design of an optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2974–2984 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics of a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device–based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET–SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, W. M.

Rolston, D. R.

D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET–SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ross, N.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shang, A. Z.

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET–SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 11.

Streibl, N.

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, M. M. Down, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Strzelecka, E.

L. A. Coldren, E. Hegblom, E. Strzelecka, J. Ko, Y. Akulova, B. Thibeault, “Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 2–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

Thibeault, B.

L. A. Coldren, E. Hegblom, E. Strzelecka, J. Ko, Y. Akulova, B. Thibeault, “Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 2–13 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal, and optomechanical packaging of large 2-D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

Van Blerkom, D. A.

O. Kibar, D. A. Van Blerkom, C. Fan, S. C. Esener, “Power minimization and technology comparisons for digital free-space optoelectronic interconnections,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 546–555 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Fan, D. A. Van Blerkom, W. L. Hendrick, S. C. Esener, “Free-space optical interconnection: a technology comparison of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and multiple-quantum-well modulators,” Opt. Rev. Jpn. 3, 394–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. J.

J. Jahns, M. M. Down, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, J. D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zydzik, G. J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

D. T. Neilson, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, F. A. P. Tooley, “Optical design of a 1024-channel free-space sorting demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9243–9252 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, “Design of an optical interconnect for photonic backplane applications,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2974–2984 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, D. V. Plant, “Analysis of a microchannel interconnect based on the clustering of smart-pixel-device windows,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1220–1233 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Miller, M. R. Taghizadeh, J. Turunen, N. Ross, “Multilevel-grating array generators: fabrication error analysis and experiments,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2519–2525 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, G. C. Boisset, D. J. Goodwill, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, W. M. Robertson, D. Kabal, F. Lacroix, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of an optical power supply spot-array generator for a four-stage free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9230–9242 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Robertson, Y. Liu, G. C. Boisset, M. R. Taghizadeh, D. V. Plant, “In situ interferometric alignment systems for the assembly of microchannel relay systems,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9253–9260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, B. Robertson, R. Iyer, Y. S. Liu, D. V. Plant, D. J. Goodwill, D. Kabal, D. Pavlasek, “Optomechanics of a four-stage hybrid-self-electro-optic-device–based free-space optical backplane,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7341–7358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. V. Plant, A. Z. Shang, M. R. Otazo, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design, modeling, and characterization of FET–SEED smart pixel transceiver arrays for optical backplanes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1391–1398 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. A. P. Tooley, “Challenges in optically interconnecting electronics,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 3–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, L. M. F. Chirovsky, W. S. Hobson, R. E. Leibengath, S. P. Hui, G. J. Zydzik, K. W. Gossen, J. D. Wynn, B. J. Tseng, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, L. A. D’Asaro, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers flip-chip bonded to gigabit-per-second CMOS circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 128–130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Gossen, “Progress in optoelectronic-VLSI smart pixel technology based on GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 181–198 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

N. Streibl, “Beam shaping with optical array generators,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1559–1573 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. H. Ayliffe, D. Kabal, P. Khurana, F. Lacroix, A. G. Kirk, F. A. P. Tooley, D. V. Plant, “Electrical, thermal, and optomechanical packaging of large 2-D optoelectronic device arrays for free-space optical interconnects,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 1, 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. G. Kirk, T. J. Hall, “Design of computer-generated holograms by simulated annealing: coding density and reconstruction error,” Opt. Commun. 94, 491–496 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Dammann, K. Gortler, “High-efficiency in-line multiple imaging by means of multiple phase holograms,” Opt. Commun. 3, 312–315 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

F. B. McCormick, “Generation of large spot arrays from a single laser beam by multiple imaging with binary phase gratings,” Opt. Eng. 28, 299–304 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Jahns, M. M. Down, M. E. Prise, N. Streibl, S. J. Walker, “Dammann gratings for laser beam shaping,” Opt. Eng. 28, 1267–1275 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Rev. Jpn. (1)

C. Fan, D. A. Van Blerkom, W. L. Hendrick, S. C. Esener, “Free-space optical interconnection: a technology comparison of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and multiple-quantum-well modulators,” Opt. Rev. Jpn. 3, 394–396 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. S. Hinton, T. J. Cloonan, F. B. McCormick, A. L. Lentine, F. A. P. Tooley, “Free-space digital optical systems,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1632–1649 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

A. L. Lentine, “Qualitative comparison of MQW modulator and VCSEL based OE-VLSI: a systems perspective,” in Proceedings of LEOS ’97: Tenth Annual Meeting (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1997), Vol. 2, pp. 83–84.

L. A. Coldren, E. Hegblom, E. Strzelecka, J. Ko, Y. Akulova, B. Thibeault, “Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 2–13 (1997).
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R. A. Morgan, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: present and future,” in Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, K. D. Choquette, D. G. Deppe, eds., Proc. SPIE3003, 14–26 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Lacroix, B. Robertson, M. H. Ayliffe, E. Bernier, F. A. P. Tooley, M. Châteauneuf, D. V. Plant, A. G. Kirk, “Design and implementation of a four-stage clustered free-space optical interconnect,” in Optics in Computing ’98, P. H. Chavel, D. A. Miller, H. Thienpont, eds., Proc. SPIE3490, 107–110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Craft, M. E. Prise, “Optical system tolerances for symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices in optical computers,” in Optical Computing, Vol. 9 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 334–337.

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 11.

J. L. Brubaker, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the components,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 88–96 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switch: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the spot-array generator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of a ring-based optical backplane that requires the proposed spot-array generator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical interconnect design. Note that the array size of the OE-VLSI chip and of the lenslet array is 8 × 8 (not 4 × 4) and that the size of the PMG array is 8 × 1 (not 4 × 1, as shown). LA, lenslet array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Design of the array-generation system. (For simplicity polarization and beam-steering components are not shown.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the OPS module optical design. CL, collimating lens; LA, lenslet array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the OPS module optomechanics.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagrams of the collimation barrel and its components.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of the fiber-centering mechanism.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph of an assembled OPS module.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic diagram of the insertion of the OPS module into the interconnect baseplate.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Characterization of the repeatability of the OPS baseplate insertion: (a) lateral repeatability in micrometers and (b) angular repeatability in degrees.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Photograph of the 512-spot array (the contrast is inverted).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Photograph of the 4 × 8 spot array on the mask substrate.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 OPS Requirements

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Table 2 OPS Module Degrees of Freedom

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Table 3 Characterization Results for the Four OPS Modules

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Table 4 Throughput Efficiency of the Array-Generation System

Equations (1)

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ω0 λπω0 f,

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