Abstract

The concept of adaptive optics for improving the cost–performance of free-space optoelectronic interconnects is discussed. Adaptive optics as a design option for optical interconnect systems is presented and discussed. A practical demonstrator that performs low-order correction was built and tested. Slowly varying misalignments, including thermal effects, were compensated for in a 622-Mbit/s free-space optical data link.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Malinverni, A. Frochel, Technology Roadmap: Optoelectronic Interconnects for Integrated Circuits (European Union Information Technologies Programme, Advanced Initiative in Microelectronics, Optoelectronics Interconnects for Integrated Circuits, 1998), see the website at http://www.cordis.lu/esprit/src/melop-rm.htm .
  2. S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Ghosh, “Alignment considerations in the package design of optical interconnect systems,” IETE Tech. Rev. 13, 163–177 (1996).
  5. E. W. Williams, The CD-ROM and Optical Disk Recording Systems (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1994).
  6. M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnects passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. C. Boisset, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, “In-situ measurement of misalignment errors in free-space optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 847–858 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. V. Vdovin, P. M. Sarro, “Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2968–2972 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Lui, B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a hybrid optical interconnect for a four-stage free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Naruse, Department of Mathematical Engineering and Information Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113, Japan (personal communication, 20July1998).

1998 (5)

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnects passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, “In-situ measurement of misalignment errors in free-space optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lui, B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a hybrid optical interconnect for a four-stage free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ghosh, “Alignment considerations in the package design of optical interconnect systems,” IETE Tech. Rev. 13, 163–177 (1996).

1995 (2)

G. V. Vdovin, P. M. Sarro, “Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2968–2972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

Baillie, D. A.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birch, P. M.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buller, B. S.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Desmulliez, M. P. Y.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dines, J. A. B.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, M. G. F.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A. K.

A. K. Ghosh, “Alignment considerations in the package design of optical interconnect systems,” IETE Tech. Rev. 13, 163–177 (1996).

Gourlay, J.

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hino, S.

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

Iyer, R.

Kabal, D.

Lee, S. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-C.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. S.

Love, G. D.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lui, Y.

Ma, J.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McLaren, T. S.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, V. N.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Naruse, M.

M. Naruse, Department of Mathematical Engineering and Information Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113, Japan (personal communication, 20July1998).

Neff, J. A.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. T.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozguz, V. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patra, S. K.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

Pottier, F.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prince, S. M.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Purvis, A.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

Roggemann, M. C.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, D. R.

Sarro, P. M.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sharples, R. M.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. R.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Snowdon, J. F.

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, I.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G. V.

Vogele, B.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waddie, A.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B. M.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, L. C.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, E. W.

E. W. Williams, The CD-ROM and Optical Disk Recording Systems (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1994).

Williams, R.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Yang, T.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnects passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vdovin, P. M. Sarro, “Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2968–2972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lui, B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a hybrid optical interconnect for a four-stage free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. (1)

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IETE Tech. Rev. (1)

A. K. Ghosh, “Alignment considerations in the package design of optical interconnect systems,” IETE Tech. Rev. 13, 163–177 (1996).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Malinverni, A. Frochel, Technology Roadmap: Optoelectronic Interconnects for Integrated Circuits (European Union Information Technologies Programme, Advanced Initiative in Microelectronics, Optoelectronics Interconnects for Integrated Circuits, 1998), see the website at http://www.cordis.lu/esprit/src/melop-rm.htm .

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, Department of Mathematical Engineering and Information Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113, Japan (personal communication, 20July1998).

E. W. Williams, The CD-ROM and Optical Disk Recording Systems (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1994).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Astronomical adaptive-optics system for a large ground-based telescope. Optical aberrations are introduced into the wave front as it passes through the upper atmosphere. The aberrations are measured with a wave-front measurement system and usually corrected by a deformable mirror by means of a closed-loop control system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simple definition of the problem: light spots imaged onto detectors. Realistically, our system is likely to produce spots such as those shown on the left-hand side that change in real time. Ideally, we would wish for the situation shown on the right-hand side.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram showing the experimental setup including an external influence. A quad-cell detector is used to monitor the position of a reference beam to control the VAP correction device through a proportion-integration–differentiation (PID) closed-loop feedback controller.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Eye diagram showing the 622-Mbit/s free-space optical data transfer between the transceiver and the receiver planes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic that shows the operation of the VAP. (b) Photograph of the VAP.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Graph of the frequency response of the VAP. The bandwidth is 30 Hz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Computer-aided-design layout of the optomechanical system used in the experiments. The VAP is located in the middle, and the two printed circuit boards are mounted at each end.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photograph of the experimental system with all the components and the peripheral kit in place.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Voltage applied to the VAP compared with the channel signal and the quadrant-detector error signal. The corresponding spot movement is shown above.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Typical results of the manual-misalignment experiment.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical results of the thermal experiment.

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