Abstract

The concept of adaptive optics for improving the cost–performance of free-space optoelectronic interconnects is discussed. Adaptive optics as a design option for optical interconnect systems is presented and discussed. A practical demonstrator that performs low-order correction was built and tested. Slowly varying misalignments, including thermal effects, were compensated for in a 622-Mbit/s free-space optical data link.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Malinverni, A. Frochel, Technology Roadmap: Optoelectronic Interconnects for Integrated Circuits (European Union Information Technologies Programme, Advanced Initiative in Microelectronics, Optoelectronics Interconnects for Integrated Circuits, 1998), see the website at http://www.cordis.lu/esprit/src/melop-rm.htm .
  2. S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. K. Ghosh, “Alignment considerations in the package design of optical interconnect systems,” IETE Tech. Rev. 13, 163–177 (1996).
  5. E. W. Williams, The CD-ROM and Optical Disk Recording Systems (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1994).
  6. M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnects passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. C. Boisset, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, “In-situ measurement of misalignment errors in free-space optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 847–858 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. V. Vdovin, P. M. Sarro, “Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2968–2972 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).
  14. A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Lui, B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a hybrid optical interconnect for a four-stage free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Naruse, Department of Mathematical Engineering and Information Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113, Japan (personal communication, 20July1998).

1998 (5)

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lui, B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a hybrid optical interconnect for a four-stage free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnects passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Boisset, D. R. Rolston, B. Robertson, Y. S. Liu, R. Iyer, D. Kabal, “In-situ measurement of misalignment errors in free-space optical interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 847–858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Ghosh, “Alignment considerations in the package design of optical interconnect systems,” IETE Tech. Rev. 13, 163–177 (1996).

1995 (2)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vdovin, P. M. Sarro, “Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2968–2972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ayliffe, M. H.

Baillie, D. A.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birch, P. M.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boisset, G. C.

Brubaker, J. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Buller, B. S.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Crisci, R. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Desmulliez, M. P. Y.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dines, J. A. B.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forbes, M. G. F.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A. K.

A. K. Ghosh, “Alignment considerations in the package design of optical interconnect systems,” IETE Tech. Rev. 13, 163–177 (1996).

Gourlay, J.

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Herron, M. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Hino, S.

Hinterlong, S. J.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Hinton, H. S.

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

Iyer, R.

Kabal, D.

Lee, S. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-C.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Liu, Y. S.

Love, G. D.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lui, Y.

Ma, J.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

McCormick, F. B.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

McLaren, T. S.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morozov, V. N.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Naruse, M.

M. Naruse, Department of Mathematical Engineering and Information Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113, Japan (personal communication, 20July1998).

Neff, J. A.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. T.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozguz, V. H.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patra, S. K.

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plant, D. V.

Pottier, F.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prince, S. M.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Purvis, A.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, B.

Roggemann, M. C.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rolston, D. R.

Sarro, P. M.

Sasian, J. M.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Sharples, R. M.

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. R.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Snowdon, J. F.

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C. R.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tooley, F. A. P.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Underwood, I.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G. V.

Vogele, B.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waddie, A.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

Welsh, B. M.

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, L. C.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Williams, E. W.

E. W. Williams, The CD-ROM and Optical Disk Recording Systems (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1994).

Williams, R.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Yang, T.

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

A. C. Walker, T. Yang, J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, M. G. F. Forbes, S. M. Prince, D. A. Baillie, D. T. Nelson, R. Williams, L. C. Wilkinson, G. R. Smith, M. P. Y. Desmulliez, B. S. Buller, M. R. Taghizadeh, A. Waddie, I. Underwood, C. R. Stanley, F. Pottier, B. Vogele, W. Sibbett, “Optoelectronic systems based on InGaAs/CMOS smart-pixel arrays and free-space optical interconnects,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2823–2830 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lui, B. Robertson, G. C. Boisset, M. H. Ayliffe, R. Iyer, D. V. Plant, “Design, implementation, and characterization of a hybrid optical interconnect for a four-stage free-space optical backplane demonstrator,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2895–2914 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Vdovin, P. M. Sarro, “Flexible mirror micromachined in silicon,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2968–2972 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, S. Matsuo, S. Hino, “Board-to-board free-space optical interconnects passing through boards for a bookshelf-assembled terabit-per-second-class ATM switch,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2985–2995 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. (1)

J. Gourlay, J. A. B. Dines, J. F. Snowdon, A. C. Walker, “Development of free-space digital optics in computing,” IEEE Comput. 31, 38–44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. C. Boisset, B. Robertson, H. S. Hinton, “Design and construction of an active alignment demonstrator for a free-space optical interconnect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 676–678 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IETE Tech. Rev. (1)

A. K. Ghosh, “Alignment considerations in the package design of optical interconnect systems,” IETE Tech. Rev. 13, 163–177 (1996).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Gourlay, G. D. Love, P. M. Birch, R. M. Sharples, A. Purvis, “A real-time closed-loop liquid crystal adaptive optics system: first results,” Opt. Commun. 137, 17–21 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

S. K. Patra, J. Ma, V. H. Ozguz, S. H. Lee, “Alignment issues in packaging for free-space optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1561–1570 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Morozov, Y.-C. Lee, J. A. Neff, D. O’Brien, T. S. McLaren, H. Zhou, “Tolerance analysis for three-dimensional optoelectronic system packaging,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2034–2043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. C. Roggemann, B. M. Welsh, R. Q. Fugate, “Improving the resolution of ground-based telescopes,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 437–505 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Malinverni, A. Frochel, Technology Roadmap: Optoelectronic Interconnects for Integrated Circuits (European Union Information Technologies Programme, Advanced Initiative in Microelectronics, Optoelectronics Interconnects for Integrated Circuits, 1998), see the website at http://www.cordis.lu/esprit/src/melop-rm.htm .

E. W. Williams, The CD-ROM and Optical Disk Recording Systems (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1994).

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, J. L. Brubaker, J. M. Sasian, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, R. J. Crisci, S. L. Walker, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, “Optomechanics of a free-space photonic switching fabric: the system,” in Optomechanics and Dimensional Stability, R. A. Paquin, D. Vukobratovich, eds., Proc. SPIE1533, 97–114 (1991).

M. Naruse, Department of Mathematical Engineering and Information Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113, Japan (personal communication, 20July1998).

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