Abstract

Photosensitive ZrO2 gel films were patterned with a two-beam interference method by use of a 325-nm-wavelength He–Cd laser for the first time to our knowledge. The ZrO2 gel films were prepared from Zr(O-n-C4H9)4 chemically modified with benzoylacetone. We fabricated uniform gratings with a 0.5-µm period on Si or SiO2 substrates by etching the gel films in ethyl alcohol after UV irradiation. A maximum diffraction efficiency of 28% was attained with the grating fabricated on Si substrate under a Littrow mounting condition by use of a 633-nm-wavelength He–Ne laser. Blazed gratings could also be fabricated.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. R. Wang, H. Su, “Laser direct-write gray-level mask and one-step etching for diffractive microlens fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7568–7576 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization on resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

G. Zhao, N. Tohge, J. Nishii, “Fabrication and characterization of diffraction gratings using photosensitive Al2O3 gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1842–1846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, “Direct fabrication of microgratings in fused quartz by laser-induced plasma-assisted ablation with a KrF excimer laser,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1486–1488 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Wang, H. Su, “Laser direct-write gray-level mask and one-step etching for diffractive microlens fabrication,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7568–7576 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Moreau, P. Arguel, P. Coudray, P. Etienne, J. Porque, P. Signoret, “Direct printing of gratings on sol-gel layers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1130–1135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Shinmou, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Fine-patterning of ZrO2 thin films by the photolysis of chemically modified gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1181–L1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. E. Roman, K. A. Winick, “Photowritten gratings in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18, 808–810 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For example, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure though a phasemask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

Albert, J.

For example, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure though a phasemask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).

Andrews, M. P.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arguel, P.

Y. Moreau, P. Arguel, P. Coudray, P. Etienne, J. Porque, P. Signoret, “Direct printing of gratings on sol-gel layers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1130–1135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

For example, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure though a phasemask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).

Chisham, J.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coudray, P.

Y. Moreau, P. Arguel, P. Coudray, P. Etienne, J. Porque, P. Signoret, “Direct printing of gratings on sol-gel layers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1130–1135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Etienne, P.

Y. Moreau, P. Arguel, P. Coudray, P. Etienne, J. Porque, P. Signoret, “Direct printing of gratings on sol-gel layers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1130–1135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Heuberger, K.

Hill, K. O.

For example, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure though a phasemask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).

Joannopoulos, J. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Johnson, D. C.

For example, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure though a phasemask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).

Koyama, T.

Li, C. Y.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Malek-Tabrizi, A.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

For example, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure though a phasemask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).

Matsuo, S.

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization on resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meade, R. D.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Midorikawa, K.

Minami, T.

K. Shinmou, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Fine-patterning of ZrO2 thin films by the photolysis of chemically modified gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1181–L1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization on resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Moreau, Y.

Y. Moreau, P. Arguel, P. Coudray, P. Etienne, J. Porque, P. Signoret, “Direct printing of gratings on sol-gel layers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1130–1135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

G. Zhao, N. Tohge, J. Nishii, “Fabrication and characterization of diffraction gratings using photosensitive Al2O3 gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1842–1846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, “Bragg gratings printed upon thin glass films by excimer laser irradiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6852–6856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Porque, J.

Y. Moreau, P. Arguel, P. Coudray, P. Etienne, J. Porque, P. Signoret, “Direct printing of gratings on sol-gel layers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1130–1135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roman, J. E.

Shinmou, K.

K. Shinmou, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Fine-patterning of ZrO2 thin films by the photolysis of chemically modified gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1181–L1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Signoret, P.

Y. Moreau, P. Arguel, P. Coudray, P. Etienne, J. Porque, P. Signoret, “Direct printing of gratings on sol-gel layers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1130–1135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sincerbox, G. T.

Su, H.

Sugioka, K.

Sun, H. B.

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization on resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tohge, N.

G. Zhao, N. Tohge, J. Nishii, “Fabrication and characterization of diffraction gratings using photosensitive Al2O3 gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1842–1846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Shinmou, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Fine-patterning of ZrO2 thin films by the photolysis of chemically modified gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1181–L1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsunetomo, K.

Wang, M. R.

Werlich, H.

Winick, K. A.

Winn, J. N.

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanaka, H.

Yung, B.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, N. Tohge, J. Nishii, “Fabrication and characterization of diffraction gratings using photosensitive Al2O3 gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1842–1846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, “Three-dimensional photonic crystal structures achieved with two-photon-absorption photopolymerization on resin,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 786–788 (1999).
[CrossRef]

For example, K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, J. Albert, “Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure though a phasemask,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035–1037 (1993).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Zhao, N. Tohge, J. Nishii, “Fabrication and characterization of diffraction gratings using photosensitive Al2O3 gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 1842–1846 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Shinmou, N. Tohge, T. Minami, “Fine-patterning of ZrO2 thin films by the photolysis of chemically modified gel films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, L1181–L1184 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Coudray, J. Chisham, A. Malek-Tabrizi, C. Y. Li, M. P. Andrews, N. Peyghambarian, S. I. Najafi, “Ultraviolet light imprinted sol-gel silica glass waveguide devices on silicon,” Opt. Commun. 128, 19–22 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Moreau, P. Arguel, P. Coudray, P. Etienne, J. Porque, P. Signoret, “Direct printing of gratings on sol-gel layers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1130–1135 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J., 1995).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of two-beam interference method used to fabricate the gratings: M, mirror; H.M., half mirror; L1, expansion lens; L2, collimation lens; SF, spatial filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Changes in optical absorption spectra of ZrO2 gel films on SiO2 substrate after irradiation with the He–Cd laser light of 10 mW/cm2 in power density and 325-nm wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the absorption intensity on the irradiation energy density of the He–Cd laser light for ZrO2 gel films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Perspective SEM view of ZrO2 gel film grating fabricated on Si substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Perspective SEM view of ZrO2 gel film grating fabricated by irradiation from the reverse side of a SiO2 substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of diffraction efficiency on the irradiation time of the He–Cd laser light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of diffraction efficiency on the angle between the direction of grating line and the polarized angle of the He–Ne laser light.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Perspective SEM views of two-dimensional periodic structures fabricated on ZrO2 gel films: (a) checkered pattern (b) two-dimensional dotted pattern.

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