Abstract

Shot-noise-limited sensitivity is calculated for gravitational-wave interferometers with Fabry–Perot arms, similar to those being installed at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Italian–French Laser Interferometer Collaboration (VIRGO) facility. This calculation includes the effect of nonstationary shot noise that is due to phase modulation of the light. The resulting formula is experimentally verified by a test interferometer with suspended mirrors in the 40-m arms.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  28. Ref. 23, Eq. (10–17), p. 291.
  29. Ref. 23, Eq. (10–95), p. 313–314.

1998 (1)

P. Fritschel, G. Gonzalez, B. Lantz, P. Saha, M. Zucker, “High power interferometric measurement limited by quantum noise and application to detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3181–3184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Flaminio, H. Heitmann, “Longitudinal control of an interferometer for the detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Lett. A 214, 112–122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. X. Sun, M. M. Feyer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

M. B. Gray, A. J. Stevenson, H. A. Bachor, D. E. McClelland, “Harmonic demodulation of nonstationary shot noise,” Opt. Lett. 18, 759–761 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

N. Mio, K. Tsubono, “Observation of an effect due to nonstationary shot noise,” Phys. Lett. A 164, 255–258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Meers, K. A. Strain, “Modulation, signal, and quantum noise in interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4693–4703 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shoemaker, P. Fritschel, J. Giaime, N. Christensen, R. Weiss, “Prototype Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot cavities,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3133–3138 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, A. Brillet, “Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 433–447 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1975 (1)

W. A. Gardner, L. E. Franks, “Characterization of cyclostationary random signal processes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-21, 4–14 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abramovici, A.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aguirregabiria, J. M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Althouse, W. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. Z.

Aufmuth, P.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Bachor, H. A.

Barone, F.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bel, H.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. R. J.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Bonazzola, S.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bradaschia, C.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Brillet, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, A. Brillet, “Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 433–447 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

K. X. Sun, M. M. Feyer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, A. M.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Capozzi, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, N.

Cregut, O.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Damour, T.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Del Fabbro, R.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Di Fiore, L.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Di Virgilio, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R. W. P.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, “Interferometric detectors for gravitational radiation,” in Gravitational Radiation, N. Deruelle, T. Piran, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 321–328.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

Durance, D.

T. Lyons, A. Kuhnert, F. J. Raab, J. E. Logan, D. Durance, R. E. Spero, S. Whitcomb, B. Kells, “Optical recombination of the 40-m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 2000).

Duruisseau, J. P.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Feyer, M. M.

K. X. Sun, M. M. Feyer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flaminio, R.

R. Flaminio, H. Heitmann, “Longitudinal control of an interferometer for the detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Lett. A 214, 112–122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

Franks, L. E.

W. A. Gardner, L. E. Franks, “Characterization of cyclostationary random signal processes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-21, 4–14 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Frisch, J. C.

Fritschel, P.

P. Fritschel, G. Gonzalez, B. Lantz, P. Saha, M. Zucker, “High power interferometric measurement limited by quantum noise and application to detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3181–3184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Shoemaker, P. Fritschel, J. Giaime, N. Christensen, R. Weiss, “Prototype Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot cavities,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3133–3138 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuligni, F.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, W. A.

W. A. Gardner, L. E. Franks, “Characterization of cyclostationary random signal processes,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-21, 4–14 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Giaime, J.

Giazotto, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, G.

P. Fritschel, G. Gonzalez, B. Lantz, P. Saha, M. Zucker, “High power interferometric measurement limited by quantum noise and application to detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3181–3184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gourghoulon, Y.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

Gursel, Y.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafson, E.

K. X. Sun, M. M. Feyer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heitmann, H.

R. Flaminio, H. Heitmann, “Longitudinal control of an interferometer for the detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Lett. A 214, 112–122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hello, P.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, L. E.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Iafolla, V.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kautzky, H.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kells, B.

T. Lyons, A. Kuhnert, F. J. Raab, J. E. Logan, D. Durance, R. E. Spero, S. Whitcomb, B. Kells, “Optical recombination of the 40-m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 2000).

Kerr, I. M.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

Kose, V.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Kuhne, M.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Kuhnert, A.

T. Lyons, A. Kuhnert, F. J. Raab, J. E. Logan, D. Durance, R. E. Spero, S. Whitcomb, B. Kells, “Optical recombination of the 40-m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 2000).

Lantz, B.

P. Fritschel, G. Gonzalez, B. Lantz, P. Saha, M. Zucker, “High power interferometric measurement limited by quantum noise and application to detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3181–3184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ledenmat, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Logan, J. E.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

T. Lyons, A. Kuhnert, F. J. Raab, J. E. Logan, D. Durance, R. E. Spero, S. Whitcomb, B. Kells, “Optical recombination of the 40-m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 2000).

Longo, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lops, M.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Luck, H.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Lyons, T.

T. Lyons, A. Kuhnert, F. J. Raab, J. E. Logan, D. Durance, R. E. Spero, S. Whitcomb, B. Kells, “Optical recombination of the 40-m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 2000).

Man, C. N.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, A. Brillet, “Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 433–447 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Manh, P. T.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marck, J. A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marraud, A.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Masser, C. S.

McClelland, D. E.

Meers, B.

J. Y. Vinet, B. Meers, C. N. Man, A. Brillet, “Optimization of long-baseline optical interferometers for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 433–447 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Meers, B. J.

B. J. Meers, K. A. Strain, “Modulation, signal, and quantum noise in interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 4693–4703 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Meers, “Recycling in laser-interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. D 38, 2317–2326 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Milano, L.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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N. Mio, K. Tsubono, “Observation of an effect due to nonstationary shot noise,” Phys. Lett. A 164, 255–258 (1992).
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J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
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C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

Natale, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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Nelson, P.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
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Newton, G. P.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Nicholson, D.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Niebauer, T. M.

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
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A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, Calif., 1991), pp. 373–374.

Passuello, D.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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Pinto, I.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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Pugh, J. R.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

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M. W. Regehr, F. J. Raab, S. E. Whitcomb, “Demonstration of a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot arms by frontal modulation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1507–1509 (1995).
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A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
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T. Lyons, A. Kuhnert, F. J. Raab, J. E. Logan, D. Durance, R. E. Spero, S. Whitcomb, B. Kells, “Optical recombination of the 40-m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 2000).

Regehr, M. W.

Rinkleff, R.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Robertson, D. I.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Robertson, N. A.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

Rotoli, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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Rudiger, A.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Rüdiger, A.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
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T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
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Russo, G.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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Schilling, R.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
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T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
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K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Schrempel, M.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Schutz, B. F.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Shoemaker, D.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
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Others have observed that illuminating the entire surface of a photodiode can cause such an effect, which can be eliminated if only the active region is illuminated (D. H. Shoemaker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., personal communication, 1999.) In our case the laser beam illumination was well within the active region whereas the incandescent light illuminated the entire photodiode. Unfortunately we did not try changing the collimation of the incandescent light.

Shuttleworth, J.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

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A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
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R. E. Spero, “In situ measurement of cavity parameters needed for calculating shot noise sensitivity,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1994).

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Strain, K. A.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
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A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
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Tourrenc, P.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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N. Mio, K. Tsubono, “Observation of an effect due to nonstationary shot noise,” Phys. Lett. A 164, 255–258 (1992).
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Tunnermann, A.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Vinet, J. Y.

C. Bradaschia, R. Del Fabbro, A. Di Virgilio, A. Giazotto, H. Kautzky, V. Montelatici, D. Passuello, A. Brillet, O. Cregut, P. Hello, C. N. Man, P. T. Manh, A. Marraud, D. Shoemaker, J. Y. Vinet, F. Barone, L. Di Fiore, L. Milano, G. Russo, J. M. Aguirregabiria, H. Bel, J. P. Duruisseau, G. Ledenmat, P. Tourrenc, M. Capozzi, M. Longo, M. Lops, I. Pinto, G. Rotoli, T. Damour, S. Bonazzola, J. A. Marck, Y. Gourghoulon, L. E. Holloway, F. Fuligni, V. Iafolla, G. Natale, “The VIRGO project: a wide band antenna for gravitational wave detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 289, 518–525 (1990).
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Vogt, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

Weiss, R.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shoemaker, P. Fritschel, J. Giaime, N. Christensen, R. Weiss, “Prototype Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot cavities,” Appl. Opt. 30, 3133–3138 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welling, H.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Whitcomb, S.

T. Lyons, A. Kuhnert, F. J. Raab, J. E. Logan, D. Durance, R. E. Spero, S. Whitcomb, B. Kells, “Optical recombination of the 40-m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 2000).

S. Whitcomb, R. Spero, “Shot noise in the Caltech 40 m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1985).

Whitcomb, S. E.

M. W. Regehr, F. J. Raab, S. E. Whitcomb, “Demonstration of a power-recycled Michelson interferometer with Fabry–Perot arms by frontal modulation,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1507–1509 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willke, B.

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Winkler, W.

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

Zucker, M.

P. Fritschel, G. Gonzalez, B. Lantz, P. Saha, M. Zucker, “High power interferometric measurement limited by quantum noise and application to detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3181–3184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, M. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

R. Flaminio, H. Heitmann, “Longitudinal control of an interferometer for the detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Lett. A 214, 112–122 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mizuno, K. A. Strain, P. Nelson, J. Chen, R. Schilling, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, “Resonant sideband extraction: a new configuration for interferometric gravitational wave detectors,” Phys. Lett. A 175, 273–276 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. M. Niebauer, R. Schilling, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, W. Winkler, “Nonstationary shot noise and its effect on the sensitivity of interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 5022–5029 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. X. Sun, M. M. Feyer, E. Gustafson, R. L. Byer, “Sagnac interferometer for gravitational-wave detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053–3056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fritschel, G. Gonzalez, B. Lantz, P. Saha, M. Zucker, “High power interferometric measurement limited by quantum noise and application to detection of gravitational waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3181–3184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, M. E. Zucker, “LIGO—the laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory,” Science 256, 325–333 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (13)

K. Danzmann, H. Luck, A. Rudiger, R. Schilling, M. Schrempel, W. Winkler, J. Hough, G. P. Newton, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, A. M. Campbell, J. E. Logan, D. I. Robertson, K. A. Strain, J. R. J. Bennett, V. Kose, M. Kuhne, B. F. Schutz, D. Nicholson, J. Shuttleworth, H. Welling, P. Aufmuth, R. Rinkleff, A. Tunnermann, B. Willke, “GEO 600. A 600 m laser interferometric gravitational wave antenna,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 100–111.

K. Tsubono, “300-m laser interferometer gravitational wave detector (TAMA300) in Japan,” in First Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Wave Experiments, E. Coccia, G. Pizzella, F. Ronga, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), pp. 112–114.

R. W. P. Drever, G. M. Ford, J. Hough, I. M. Kerr, A. J. Munley, J. R. Pugh, N. A. Robertson, H. Ward, “A gravity-wave detector using optical cavity sensing,” in Ninth International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation, E. Schmutzer, ed. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1983).

R. W. P. Drever, “Interferometric detectors for gravitational radiation,” in Gravitational Radiation, N. Deruelle, T. Piran, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), pp. 321–328.

K. S. Thorne, “Gravitational radiation,” in 300 Years of Gravitation, S. W. Hawking, W. Israel, eds. (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1987), Eq. 115, p. 424.

S. Whitcomb, R. Spero, “Shot noise in the Caltech 40 m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1985).

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, Calif., 1991), pp. 373–374.

T. Lyons, A. Kuhnert, F. J. Raab, J. E. Logan, D. Durance, R. E. Spero, S. Whitcomb, B. Kells, “Optical recombination of the 40-m interferometer,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 2000).

R. E. Spero, “In situ measurement of cavity parameters needed for calculating shot noise sensitivity,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1994).

Others have observed that illuminating the entire surface of a photodiode can cause such an effect, which can be eliminated if only the active region is illuminated (D. H. Shoemaker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., personal communication, 1999.) In our case the laser beam illumination was well within the active region whereas the incandescent light illuminated the entire photodiode. Unfortunately we did not try changing the collimation of the incandescent light.

Ref. 23, Eq. (10–17), p. 291.

Ref. 23, Eq. (10–95), p. 313–314.

The nth-order sideband transmission to the antisymmetric port is tn± = 1/2{exp[2i(k ± nK)l1] - exp[2i(k ± nK)l2]} where K equals the wave number at the modulation frequency. Let l = 1/2(l1 + l2). Then, neglecting unimportant phase factors and accounting for the carrier being on a dark fringe yieldtn±=1/2exp⁡ 2ik±nkl+δ/2−exp⁡2ik±nkl−δ/2=1/2exp⁡±inKδ−exp⁡(∓inKδ)=±i sin⁡ nα.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Power-recycled interferometer with Fabry–Perot arm cavities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recycled interferometer with mirrors and optical fields labeled.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detection system for the antisymmetric port light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated shot-noise contribution to the interferometer displacement spectrum (long-dashed curve), with an empirical measurement of the shot-noise contribution (short-dashed curve) and interferometer displacement spectrum taken shortly before 10 January 1996 (solid curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Differential-mode servo loop with shot-noise, dark-noise, and readout noise inputs.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Parameters for the 40-m Interferometer

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters used in the Shot-Noise Calculation

Equations (49)

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Eanti=EA+iE+ expiωt+iE+ exp-iωt+iE2+ exp2iωt-iE2+ exp-2iωt,
EA=Edc-ikE2T3r41-r3r42x0 sinΩt+ψ1+Ω/ωc21/2,
ωc=c2l1-r3r4r3r4,
ip=|EA+iE+ expiωt+iE+ exp-iωt+iE2+ exp2iωt-iE2+ exp-2iωt|2=|EA|2+2E+2+4E+ ImEAcos ωt+2E+2 cos 2ωt-4E2+ ReEAsin 2ωt.
4kE2E+T3r41-r3r42x0 sinΩt+ψ1+Ω/ωc21/2 cos ωt.
id=4kE2E+T3r41-r3r42x0 sinΩt+ψ1+Ω/ωc21/2 cos2 ωt.
io=2kE2E+T3r41-r3r42x0 sinΩt+ψ1+Ω/ωc21/2.
|Hf|ı˜ofx˜0f=2k|E2|E+T3r41-r3r4211+Ω/ωc21/2,
Rxxτ=Ext+τxt,  Sxxf=2 - Rxxτexp2πifτdτ.
Syyf=|Hf|2Sxxf.
Rxx¯τ=1Ttt+T Rxxt+τ, tdt,  Sxx¯f=2 -Rxx¯τexp2πifτdτ,
Syy¯f=|Hf|2Sxx¯f
Sidid¯f=3E+2+Edc2+9E+4+6Edc2E+2+Edc4+4E2+2Edc2δ2πf-ω+E+4+4E2+2Edc2δ2πf-3ω.
Sioio¯f=3E+2+Edc2.
Sx4x4¯f1/2=Sioio¯f1/2|Hf|=3E+2+Edc21/22k|E2|E+1-r3r42T3r41+2πfωc21/2.
E2=VmaxRe1/2J0Γ,
E+=VmaxRe1/2J1Γsin α,
Edc=VminRe-2E+21/2,
M1-Rarm1-Rtheory,
SΔ¯f1/2=3E+2+Edc21/22kM|E2|E+1-r3r42T3r41+2πfωc21/2.
xsopen loop=ABC  xnopen loop=C.
xsclosed loop=ABC1-L   xnclosed loop=C,
rarmϕ=r3-1-L3r4 expiϕ1-r3r4 expiϕ,  ϕ=2kx4.
E5=E4rarmx4=0+drarmdx4x4=0x0+.
E5=E4r3-1-L3r41-r3r4-2ik T3r41-r3r42 x0.
tarmϕ=t3 expiϕ/21-r3r4 expiϕ.
expiϕ=exp2iω0±Ωlc=expiΩ 2lc1±iΩ 2lc,
tarmϕ=t31±iΩ lc1-r3r41±iΩ 2lc.
ωc=c2l1-r3r4r3r4.
E5=E4r3-1-L3r41-r3r4-2ik T3r41-r3r42x0 sinΩt+ψ1+Ω/ωc21/2,
E4=E22, E6=-E22.
EA=12 E5+12 E7.
E7=E6r5-1-L5r61-r5r6,
EA=Edc-ikE2T3r41-r3r42x0 sinΩt+ψ1+Ω/ωc21/2,
Eipt=|Edc|2+2E+2+4E+ ImEdccos ωt+2E+2 cos 2ωt-4E2+ ReEdcsin 2ωt=Edc2+2E+2+2E+2 cos 2ωt-4E2+Edc sin 2ωt.
λt=a+b cos 2ωt+c sin 2ωt.
ipt=dqtdt=i δt-ti.
Rqqt1, t2=0t2 λtdt1+0t1 λtdtt1>t20t1 λtdt1+0t2 λtdtt2>t1.
Rqqt1, t2=2Rxxt1, t2t1t2.
Ripipt1, t2=2Rqqt1, t2t1t2=λt1λt2t1>t2λt2λt1t2>t1.
Ripipt1, t2=λt1λt2+λt1δt1-t2.
Rididt+τ, t=Eipt+τcos ωt+τiptcos ωt=Eipt+τiptcos ωt+τcos ωt=λt+τλt+λt+τδτ×cos ωt+τcos ωt,
Ridid¯τ=1T0T Rididt+τ, tdt=1T0Tλt+τλt+λt+τδτ×cos ωt+τcos ωtdt,
Sidid¯f=2 -Ridid¯τexp2πifτdτ.
1T0T λt+τλtcos ωt+τcos ωtdt=1T0Ta+b cos 2ωt+c sin 2ωt×a+b cos 2ωt+τ+c sin 2ωt+τ×cos ωt+τcos ωtdt=12a2+ab+14b2+c2cos ωτ+14b2+c2cos 3ωτ.
2 -12a2+2ab+14b2+c2cos ωτ+14b2+c2cos 3ωτexp2πifτdτ=a2+ab+14b2+c2δ2πf-ω+14b2+c2δ2πf-3ω.
2T-0T λt+τδτcos ωt+τcos ωtdt exp2πifτdτ=2T0T- λt+τδτcos ωt+τ×cos ωt exp2πifτdτdt=2T0T λtcos2 ωtdt=2T0Ta+b cos 2ωt+c sin 2ωtcos2 ωtdt=a+b2.
Sidid¯f=3E+2+Edc2+9E+4+6Edc2E+2+Edc4+4E2+2Edc2δ2πf-ω+E+4+4E2+2Edc2δ2πf-3ω.
tn±=1/2exp 2ik±nkl+δ/2exp2ik±nklδ/2=1/2exp±inKδexp(inKδ)=±i sin nα.

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