Abstract

Sun-stimulated chlorophyll a fluorescence has been measured in situ, within the upward and downward light fields, in oceanic waters with chlorophyll concentrations of 0.04–3 mg m-3. We combined these signals with phytoplankton absorption spectra to derive the fluorescence quantum yield, ϕ (number of photons emitted by fluorescence/number of absorbed photons). ϕ was derived separately from hyperspectral (upward and downward) irradiance measurements (with a LI-COR Instruments spectroradiometer) and from nadir radiance near 683 nm (with a Biospherical Instruments profiler). The contribution of inelastic Raman scattering to the signal in the red band was assessed and subtracted. Raman-corrected ϕ values derived from the two instruments compared well. Vertical ϕ profiles were strongly structured, with maximal (5–6%) values at depth, whereas ϕ was ≅1% in near-surface waters (measurements made approximately at solar noon). These near-surface values are needed for interpretation of remotely sensed fluorescence signals. This optical study shows that the fluorescence yield of algae in their natural environment can be accurately derived in a nonintrusive way with available instrumentation and adequate protocols.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,413–12,423 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. S. Yentsch, D. A. Phinney, “A bridge between ocean optics and microbial ecology,” Limnol Oceanogr. 34, 1694–1705 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. Marra, “Analysis of diel variability in chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Mar. Res. 55, 767–784 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic photosynthesis (Blackwell, Malden, Mass., 1997), p. 375.
  35. D. A. Kiefer, R. A. Reynolds, “Advances in understanding phytoplankton fluorescence and photosynthesis,” in Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 155–179.
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dandonneau, “Introduction to special section: biogeochemical conditions in the equatorial Pacific in late 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3291–3295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, H. Loisel, “Apparent optical properties of oceanic water: dependence on the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4765–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

R. M. Pope, E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,413–12,423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Marra, “Analysis of diel variability in chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Mar. Res. 55, 767–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Babin, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. H. Krause, E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis—the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Phys. 42, 313–349 (1991).

1990 (3)

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption-coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter—a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, D. A. Kiefer, J. H. Morrow, R. C. Murphy, “Evidence for a simple relationship between natural fluorescence, photosynthesis and chlorophyll in the sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 951–973 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

J. T. O. Kirk, “The upwelling light stream in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1410–1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Yentsch, D. A. Phinney, “A bridge between ocean optics and microbial ecology,” Limnol Oceanogr. 34, 1694–1705 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, “Natural fluorescence of chlorophyll a: relationship to photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentration in the western South Pacific gyre,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 868–881 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

B. J. Topliss, T. Platt, “Passive fluorescence and photosynthesis in the ocean—implications for remote-sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 33, 849–864 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

P. G. Falkowski, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a fluorescence in phytoplankton: relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 715–731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Collins, D. A. Kiefer, J. B. SooHoo, I. S. McDermid, “The role of reabsorption in the spectral distribution of phytoplankton fluorescence emission,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 983–1003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

1984 (2)

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Influence of fluorescence of chlorophyll a on underwater upward irradiance spectrum,” La Mer 22, 224–232 (1984).

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Estimation of quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence from the upward irradiance spectrum in the sea,” La Mer 22, 233–240 (1984).

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

1977 (2)

R. A. Neville, J. F. R. Gower, “Passive remote-sensing of phytoplankton via chlorophyll-alpha fluorescence,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3487–3493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,413–12,423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonin, M. C.

B. Coste, H. J. Minas, M. C. Bonin, “Production Pélagique des Côtes du Pérou et des Iles Galapagos, Campagne PACIPROD (8 Aout–18 Septembre 1986),” (Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Service Documentation and Publications, Plouzane, France, 1987), p. 183.

Booth, C. R.

W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, D. A. Kiefer, J. H. Morrow, R. C. Murphy, “Evidence for a simple relationship between natural fluorescence, photosynthesis and chlorophyll in the sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 951–973 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, “Natural fluorescence of chlorophyll a: relationship to photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentration in the western South Pacific gyre,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 868–881 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Borstad, G. A.

J. F. R. Gower, G. A. Borstad, “Use of in vivo fluorescence line at 685 nm for remote sensing surveys of surface chlorophyll a,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 329–338.

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,413–12,423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption-coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter—a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cailliau, C.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chamberlin, W. S.

W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, D. A. Kiefer, J. H. Morrow, R. C. Murphy, “Evidence for a simple relationship between natural fluorescence, photosynthesis and chlorophyll in the sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 951–973 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, “Natural fluorescence of chlorophyll a: relationship to photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentration in the western South Pacific gyre,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 868–881 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,413–12,423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D. J.

D. J. Collins, D. A. Kiefer, J. B. SooHoo, I. S. McDermid, “The role of reabsorption in the spectral distribution of phytoplankton fluorescence emission,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 983–1003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Coste, B.

B. Coste, H. J. Minas, M. C. Bonin, “Production Pélagique des Côtes du Pérou et des Iles Galapagos, Campagne PACIPROD (8 Aout–18 Septembre 1986),” (Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Service Documentation and Publications, Plouzane, France, 1987), p. 183.

Dandonneau, Y.

Y. Dandonneau, “Introduction to special section: biogeochemical conditions in the equatorial Pacific in late 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3291–3295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, P. G.

P. G. Falkowski, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a fluorescence in phytoplankton: relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 715–731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic photosynthesis (Blackwell, Malden, Mass., 1997), p. 375.

Fry, E. S.

Gentili, B.

M. Babin, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Gower, J. F. R.

R. A. Neville, J. F. R. Gower, “Passive remote-sensing of phytoplankton via chlorophyll-alpha fluorescence,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3487–3493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. F. R. Gower, G. A. Borstad, “Use of in vivo fluorescence line at 685 nm for remote sensing surveys of surface chlorophyll a,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 329–338.

Ichimura, S.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Kattawar, G. W.

Kiefer, D. A.

W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, D. A. Kiefer, J. H. Morrow, R. C. Murphy, “Evidence for a simple relationship between natural fluorescence, photosynthesis and chlorophyll in the sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 951–973 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, “Natural fluorescence of chlorophyll a: relationship to photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentration in the western South Pacific gyre,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 868–881 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Falkowski, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a fluorescence in phytoplankton: relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 715–731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Collins, D. A. Kiefer, J. B. SooHoo, I. S. McDermid, “The role of reabsorption in the spectral distribution of phytoplankton fluorescence emission,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 983–1003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, R. A. Reynolds, “Advances in understanding phytoplankton fluorescence and photosynthesis,” in Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 155–179.
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T. O.

J. T. O. Kirk, “The upwelling light stream in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1410–1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Influence of fluorescence of chlorophyll a on underwater upward irradiance spectrum,” La Mer 22, 224–232 (1984).

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Estimation of quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence from the upward irradiance spectrum in the sea,” La Mer 22, 233–240 (1984).

Krause, G. H.

G. H. Krause, E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis—the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Phys. 42, 313–349 (1991).

Loisel, H.

Marie, D.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marra, J.

J. Marra, “Analysis of diel variability in chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Mar. Res. 55, 767–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, B. R.

Marty, J.-C.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

D. J. Collins, D. A. Kiefer, J. B. SooHoo, I. S. McDermid, “The role of reabsorption in the spectral distribution of phytoplankton fluorescence emission,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 983–1003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Minas, H. J.

B. Coste, H. J. Minas, M. C. Bonin, “Production Pélagique des Côtes du Pérou et des Iles Galapagos, Campagne PACIPROD (8 Aout–18 Septembre 1986),” (Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Service Documentation and Publications, Plouzane, France, 1987), p. 183.

Morel, A.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, H. Loisel, “Apparent optical properties of oceanic water: dependence on the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4765–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, J. H.

W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, D. A. Kiefer, J. H. Morrow, R. C. Murphy, “Evidence for a simple relationship between natural fluorescence, photosynthesis and chlorophyll in the sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 951–973 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, R. C.

W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, D. A. Kiefer, J. H. Morrow, R. C. Murphy, “Evidence for a simple relationship between natural fluorescence, photosynthesis and chlorophyll in the sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 951–973 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Neville, R. A.

R. A. Neville, J. F. R. Gower, “Passive remote-sensing of phytoplankton via chlorophyll-alpha fluorescence,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3487–3493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Okami, N.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Influence of fluorescence of chlorophyll a on underwater upward irradiance spectrum,” La Mer 22, 224–232 (1984).

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Estimation of quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence from the upward irradiance spectrum in the sea,” La Mer 22, 233–240 (1984).

Owens, T. G.

T. G. Owens, “Energy transformation and fluorescence in photosynthesis,” in Particle Analysis in Oceanography, S. Demers, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 101–137.
[CrossRef]

Phinney, D. A.

C. S. Yentsch, D. A. Phinney, “A bridge between ocean optics and microbial ecology,” Limnol Oceanogr. 34, 1694–1705 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

B. J. Topliss, T. Platt, “Passive fluorescence and photosynthesis in the ocean—implications for remote-sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 33, 849–864 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Prieur, L.

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Raven, J. A.

P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic photosynthesis (Blackwell, Malden, Mass., 1997), p. 375.

Reynolds, R. A.

D. A. Kiefer, R. A. Reynolds, “Advances in understanding phytoplankton fluorescence and photosynthesis,” in Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 155–179.
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

B. R. Marshall, R. C. Smith, “Raman scattering and in-water ocean optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 29, 71–84 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance under Water, Vol. 1 of Ocean Series (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970), p. 103.

SooHoo, J. B.

D. J. Collins, D. A. Kiefer, J. B. SooHoo, I. S. McDermid, “The role of reabsorption in the spectral distribution of phytoplankton fluorescence emission,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 983–1003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption-coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter—a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, S.

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Estimation of quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence from the upward irradiance spectrum in the sea,” La Mer 22, 233–240 (1984).

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Influence of fluorescence of chlorophyll a on underwater upward irradiance spectrum,” La Mer 22, 224–232 (1984).

Tailliez, D.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Topliss, B. J.

B. J. Topliss, T. Platt, “Passive fluorescence and photosynthesis in the ocean—implications for remote-sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 33, 849–864 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, J. E.

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance under Water, Vol. 1 of Ocean Series (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970), p. 103.

Vastano, J. C.

Vaulot, D.

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weis, E.

G. H. Krause, E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis—the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Phys. 42, 313–349 (1991).

Yentsch, C. S.

C. S. Yentsch, D. A. Phinney, “A bridge between ocean optics and microbial ecology,” Limnol Oceanogr. 34, 1694–1705 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Plant Phys. (1)

G. H. Krause, E. Weis, “Chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis—the basics,” Annu. Rev. Plant Phys. 42, 313–349 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Bull. Mar. Sci. (1)

M. Kishino, M. Takahashi, N. Okami, S. Ichimura, “Estimation of the spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton in the sea,” Bull. Mar. Sci. 37, 634–642 (1985).

Deep-Sea Res. (3)

D. J. Collins, D. A. Kiefer, J. B. SooHoo, I. S. McDermid, “The role of reabsorption in the spectral distribution of phytoplankton fluorescence emission,” Deep-Sea Res. 32, 983–1003 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, D. A. Kiefer, J. H. Morrow, R. C. Murphy, “Evidence for a simple relationship between natural fluorescence, photosynthesis and chlorophyll in the sea,” Deep-Sea Res. 37, 951–973 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Topliss, T. Platt, “Passive fluorescence and photosynthesis in the ocean—implications for remote-sensing,” Deep-Sea Res. 33, 849–864 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

M. Babin, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Remote sensing of sea surface Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: consequences of natural variations in the optical characteristics of phytoplankton and the quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 17, 2417–2448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13,321–13,332 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, H. Claustre, “Variations of light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31,033–31,044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical modeling of the upper ocean in relation to its biogenous matter content (Case I waters),” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,749–10,768 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Claustre, A. Morel, M. Babin, C. Cailliau, D. Marie, J.-C. Marty, D. Tailliez, D. Vaulot, “Variability in particle attenuation and chlorophyll fluorescence in the tropical Pacific: Scales, patterns, and biogeochemical implications,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3401–3422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dandonneau, “Introduction to special section: biogeochemical conditions in the equatorial Pacific in late 1994,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 3291–3295 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Neville, J. F. R. Gower, “Passive remote-sensing of phytoplankton via chlorophyll-alpha fluorescence,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 3487–3493 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. Allali, A. Bricaud, H. Claustre, “Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 12,413–12,423 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

J. Marra, “Analysis of diel variability in chlorophyll fluorescence,” J. Mar. Res. 55, 767–784 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Plankton Res. (1)

P. G. Falkowski, D. A. Kiefer, “Chlorophyll a fluorescence in phytoplankton: relationship to photosynthesis and biomass,” J. Plankton Res. 7, 715–731 (1985).
[CrossRef]

La Mer (2)

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Influence of fluorescence of chlorophyll a on underwater upward irradiance spectrum,” La Mer 22, 224–232 (1984).

M. Kishino, S. Sugihara, N. Okami, “Estimation of quantum yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence from the upward irradiance spectrum in the sea,” La Mer 22, 233–240 (1984).

Limnol Oceanogr. (1)

C. S. Yentsch, D. A. Phinney, “A bridge between ocean optics and microbial ecology,” Limnol Oceanogr. 34, 1694–1705 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (5)

A. Morel, L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. T. O. Kirk, “The upwelling light stream in natural waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1410–1425 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Maritorena, A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: influence of water depth and bottom albedo,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 39, 1689–1703 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, W. S. Chamberlin, C. R. Booth, “Natural fluorescence of chlorophyll a: relationship to photosynthesis and chlorophyll concentration in the western South Pacific gyre,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 868–881 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, D. Stramski, “Spectral absorption-coefficients of living phytoplankton and nonalgal biogenous matter—a comparison between the Peru upwelling area and the Sargasso Sea,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 35, 562–582 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. Coste, H. J. Minas, M. C. Bonin, “Production Pélagique des Côtes du Pérou et des Iles Galapagos, Campagne PACIPROD (8 Aout–18 Septembre 1986),” (Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Service Documentation and Publications, Plouzane, France, 1987), p. 183.

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, Measurements of Spectral Irradiance under Water, Vol. 1 of Ocean Series (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970), p. 103.

T. G. Owens, “Energy transformation and fluorescence in photosynthesis,” in Particle Analysis in Oceanography, S. Demers, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 101–137.
[CrossRef]

J. F. R. Gower, G. A. Borstad, “Use of in vivo fluorescence line at 685 nm for remote sensing surveys of surface chlorophyll a,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 329–338.

M. R. Abbott, R. M. Letelier, “Chlorophyll fluorescence (MODIS Product Number 20),” MODIS algorithm theoretical basis document ( http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov/MODIS/ATBD , 1999).

P. G. Falkowski, J. A. Raven, Aquatic photosynthesis (Blackwell, Malden, Mass., 1997), p. 375.

D. A. Kiefer, R. A. Reynolds, “Advances in understanding phytoplankton fluorescence and photosynthesis,” in Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, P. G. Falkowski, A. D. Woodhead, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 155–179.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

OLIPAC Station 7, 150 °W–4 °S (12 November 1994). Left, vertical profiles of beam attenuation and fluorescence (SeaTech sensors) and density excess. Right, vertical profiles obtained with the PNF 300 instrument (downcasts and upcasts); note the different scales used for Lu683 and for E˚ PAR (at depth or above surface).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Examples of upward and downward irradiance spectra (logarithmic scale, Station 3, 150 °W–10 °S, 8 November 1994) determined at 31.6 m; the chlorophyll concentration at this depth is 0.09 mg m-3. (b) Reflectance spectra for two stations (OLIPAC cruise), denoted 1 and 2, with [Chl] = 0.09 and [Chl] = 0.17 mg m-3, respectively, and three stations (PACIPROD cruise), denoted 3, 4, and 5, with [Chl] = 1.75, 1.08, 5.45 mg m-3, respectively. (c) Detail of the spectral zone 625–725 nm, which includes the fluorescence peak (logarithmic scale). The successive panels are for increasing depth as indicated; solid curves, upward irradiance; dashed curves (from z = 21.2 m and beyond), downward irradiance. At this station (150 °W–1 °S, 14 November 1994), [Chl] is steadily 0.25 (±0.02) mg m-3 within the entire water column.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of chlorophyll-specific absorption spectra of algae in three situations (a) in oligotrophic waters, (b) in mesotrophic waters (OLIPAC cruise), (c) in eutrophic waters (PACIPROD cruise) in the Peruvian upwelling zone.20 For (c), only near-surface waters samples are shown; for (a) and (b), the sampling depths are indicated, together with the SeaTech fluorescence and density profiles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Fluorescence quantum yields ϕ derived from the LI-1800 UW (LiCor) upwelling irradiance data at all stations all along 150 °W and at latitudes as indicated (the increment in the x axis actually corresponds to 1 day; 5-day stations were occupied at 5° and 16 °S). Symbols represent the depth of the ϕ estimates. (b) Same data as in (a) displayed for each station as a function of depth. Stations with particularly high or low ϕ are indicated by their latitude (longitude is always 150 °W).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Quantum yield (Y) derived from the downward fluorescence signals [Eq. (7)] as a function of yield (X) from the upward signal [Eq. (6)] at the same depths and stations. Linear regression, Y = 1.027X - 0.02 (with r 2 = 0.913). The regression (plot not shown) between the quantum yield derived from the sum of the upward and downward fluorescence signals [through Eq. (9)] and that derived from the downward signal practically leads to a 1:1 line, with a higher r 2 (=0.973).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Quantum yield values derived from the PNF 300 instrument (PNF), without (raw) or after Raman correction as a function of those derived from the upward fluorescence signal determined with the LI-1800 UW (LI-COR) instrument; when the five ϕ(LI-COR) values that exceed 5% are excluded, the slope of the regression line (solid line) is 0.995, and r 2 = 0.98.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman-corrected quantum yield derived from the PNF 300 profiles (see text). The three examples, along the 150 °W meridian, are (1) for a station at the equator on 15 November 1984, (2) for a station at 5 °S on 21 November 1984, and (3) at 16 °S on 26 November 1984. The SeaTech fluorescence profiles, determined at these stations early in the morning (before photoinhibition starts), are shown in the inset to illustrate roughly the vertical biomass distribution; the [Chl] values are constant from 0 to 90 m and are equal to 0.29 mg m-3 for example (1); for example (2) they are 0.17 and 0.28 mg m-3 within the upper layers and inside the DCM, respectively; for the third example, they are 0.035 and 0.29 mg m-3 near the surface and inside the DCM.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ff=ϕAex.
Aex=ChlΛex a*λE˚λdλ,
Aex=Chlāex*E˚ex.
āex*=Λex a*λE˚λλdλΛex E˚λλdλ,
dLfx=1/4πFfxdx,
E˚exx=E˚exx=0exp-Kexx,
dLfz=ϕ/4πE˚exzāex exp-aem+Kxdx,
Lfz=ϕ/4πE˚exzāexaem+K-1.
Efz=ϕ/4E˚exzāexκ+K-1,
Efz=ϕ/4E˚exzāexκ-K-1.
Efz/Efz=κ+K/κ-K.
Efz+Efz=ϕ/2E˚exzāexκ/κ2-K2.

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