Abstract

We propose a simple extension to the optical network of a scalable multiprocessor that optimizes page swap outs. More specifically, we propose to extend the network with an optical ring that not only transfers swapped-out pages between the local memories and the disks of the multiprocessor but also acts as a systemwide write cache for these pages. This extended optical network confers several performance benefits: It provides a staging area where swapped-out pages can reside until the disk is free, it increases the possibility of combining several writes to disk, and it acts as a victim cache for pages that are swapped out and subsequently accessed by the same or a different processor. To evaluate the extent to which these benefits affect performance, we use detailed execution-driven simulations of several out-of-core parallel applications that run on an eight-node scalable multiprocessor. Our results demonstrate that our optical ring provides consistent performance improvements that derive mostly from faster page swap outs and victim caching. To show that our optical ring can also be applied successfully to traditional multiprocessors in which processors are interconnected with electronic networks, we evaluate its benefits for a mesh-connected multiprocessor. This latter evaluation shows that our optical ring improves performance for a traditional multiprocessor by roughly the same amount as it does for an optically interconnected multiprocessor. On the basis of these results and our parameter-space study our main conclusion is that our optical ring is highly efficient under several architectural assumptions and for most out-of-core parallel applications. Even though our study focuses on optimizing page swap outs, we believe that caching data with an optical ring can be beneficial for other types of disk-write traffic as well.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Alverson, D. Callahan, D. Cummings, B. Koblenz, A. Porterfield, B. Smith, “The tera computer system,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’90 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1990), pp. 1–16.
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    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Bianchini, E. V. Carrera, “Designing and evaluating a cost-effective optical network for multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (to be published).
  10. P. E. Green, “Optical networking update,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 764–779 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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  19. D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. W. Dowd, J. Chu, “Photonic architectures for distributed shared memory multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections MMPOI’94 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 151–161.
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. S. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfeld, U. Koren, R. W. Wilson, “New advances on optical components needed for FDM optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1222–1224 (1993).
  22. L. G. Kasovsky, T. K. Fong, T. Hofmeister, “Optical local area network technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 50–54 (1994).
  23. B. Mukherjee, “WDM-based local lightwave networks—Part II: multihop systems,” IEEE Network 6(4), 20–32 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. R. Desai, K. Ghose, “An evaluation of communication protocols for star-coupled multidimensional WDM networks for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections MMPOI’95 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 42–49.
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Ghose, R. K. Horsell, N. Singhvi, “Hybrid multiprocessing in OPTIMUL: a multiprocessor for distributed and shared memory multiprocessing with WDM optical fiber interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Parallel Processing (CRC Press, Saint Charles, Ill., 1994), pp. 196–199.
  26. J.-H. Ha, T. M. Pinkston, “SPEED DMON: cache coherence on an optical multichannel interconnect architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 78–91 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. M. Spirit, A. D. Ellis, P. E. Barnsley, “Optical time division multiplexing: systems and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 56–62 (1994).
  28. R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, R. J. Feuerstein, “Optoelectronic time-of-flight design and the demonstration of an all-optical, stored program, digital computer,” Special issue on optical computing, Proc. IEEE 82, 1678–1689 (1994).
  30. E. V. Carrera, R. Bianchini, “NetCache: a network/cache hybrid for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Optics and Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, San Juan, P.R., 1999), pp. 859–872.
  31. D. Stodolsky, M. Holland, W. Courtright, G. Gibson, “Parity logging disk arrays,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 12, 206–235 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. Ruemmler, J. Wilkes, “UNIX disk access patterns,” in Proceedings of the Winter 1993 USENIX Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 405–420.
  33. M. Rosenblum, J. K. Ousterhout, “The design and implementation of a log-structured file system,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 10, 26–52 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Y. Hu, Q. Yang, “DCD-disk caching disk: a new approach for boosting I/O performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 169–177.
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J.-H. Ha, T. M. Pinkston, “SPEED DMON: cache coherence on an optical multichannel interconnect architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 78–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. E. Green, “Optical networking update,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 764–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, R. J. Feuerstein, “Optoelectronic time-of-flight design and the demonstration of an all-optical, stored program, digital computer,” Special issue on optical computing, Proc. IEEE 82, 1678–1689 (1994).

D. Stodolsky, M. Holland, W. Courtright, G. Gibson, “Parity logging disk arrays,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 12, 206–235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kasovsky, T. K. Fong, T. Hofmeister, “Optical local area network technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 50–54 (1994).

D. M. Spirit, A. D. Ellis, P. E. Barnsley, “Optical time division multiplexing: systems and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 56–62 (1994).

1993 (3)

D. Kotz, C. Ellis, “Practical prefetching techniques for multiprocessor file systems,” J. Distrib. Parallel Databases 1, 33–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfeld, U. Koren, R. W. Wilson, “New advances on optical components needed for FDM optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1222–1224 (1993).

1992 (2)

B. Mukherjee, “WDM-based local lightwave networks—Part II: multihop systems,” IEEE Network 6(4), 20–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Rosenblum, J. K. Ousterhout, “The design and implementation of a log-structured file system,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 10, 26–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 8, 948–964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Sarrazin, H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, “Fiber optic delay line memory,” Appl. Opt. 29, 627–637 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

K. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, R. Fabry, “A fast file system for UNIX,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 2(3), 181–197 (1984).

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

Alverson, R.

R. Alverson, D. Callahan, D. Cummings, B. Koblenz, A. Porterfield, B. Smith, “The tera computer system,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’90 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1990), pp. 1–16.

Bailey, D. H.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Barnsley, P. E.

D. M. Spirit, A. D. Ellis, P. E. Barnsley, “Optical time division multiplexing: systems and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 56–62 (1994).

Barszcz, E.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Barton, J.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Bershad, B.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, R.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

R. Bianchini, E. V. Carrera, “Designing and evaluating a cost-effective optical network for multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (to be published).

E. V. Carrera, R. Bianchini, “OPTNET: a cost-effective optical network for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’98 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1998), pp. 401–408.
[CrossRef]

E. V. Carrera, R. Bianchini, “NetCache: a network/cache hybrid for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Optics and Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, San Juan, P.R., 1999), pp. 859–872.

Brackett, C. A.

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 8, 948–964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Browning, D.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Callahan, D.

R. Alverson, D. Callahan, D. Cummings, B. Koblenz, A. Porterfield, B. Smith, “The tera computer system,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’90 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1990), pp. 1–16.

Cao, P.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Carrera, E. V.

R. Bianchini, E. V. Carrera, “Designing and evaluating a cost-effective optical network for multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (to be published).

E. V. Carrera, R. Bianchini, “OPTNET: a cost-effective optical network for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’98 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1998), pp. 401–408.
[CrossRef]

E. V. Carrera, R. Bianchini, “NetCache: a network/cache hybrid for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Optics and Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, San Juan, P.R., 1999), pp. 859–872.

Carter, R.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Chaiken, D.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

Chu, J.

P. W. Dowd, J. Chu, “Photonic architectures for distributed shared memory multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections MMPOI’94 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 151–161.
[CrossRef]

Courtright, W.

D. Stodolsky, M. Holland, W. Courtright, G. Gibson, “Parity logging disk arrays,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 12, 206–235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Culler, D.

D. Culler, A. Dusseau, S. C. Goldstein, A. Krishnamurthy, S. Lumetta, T. von Eicken, K. Yelick, “Parallel programming in Split-C,” in Proceedings of Supercomputing ’93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 262–273.

Cummings, D.

R. Alverson, D. Callahan, D. Cummings, B. Koblenz, A. Porterfield, B. Smith, “The tera computer system,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’90 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1990), pp. 1–16.

Dagum, L.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Demke, A.

T. Mowry, A. Demke, O. Krieger, “Automatic compiler-inserted I/O prefetching for out-of-core applications,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 3–17.
[CrossRef]

Desai, K. R.

K. R. Desai, K. Ghose, “An evaluation of communication protocols for star-coupled multidimensional WDM networks for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections MMPOI’95 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 42–49.
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, E.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dowd, P. W.

P. W. Dowd, J. Chu, “Photonic architectures for distributed shared memory multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections MMPOI’94 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 151–161.
[CrossRef]

Dusseau, A.

D. Culler, A. Dusseau, S. C. Goldstein, A. Krishnamurthy, S. Lumetta, T. von Eicken, K. Yelick, “Parallel programming in Split-C,” in Proceedings of Supercomputing ’93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 262–273.

Eiselt, M.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

D. M. Spirit, A. D. Ellis, P. E. Barnsley, “Optical time division multiplexing: systems and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 56–62 (1994).

Ellis, C.

D. Kotz, C. Ellis, “Practical prefetching techniques for multiprocessor file systems,” J. Distrib. Parallel Databases 1, 33–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fabry, R.

K. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, R. Fabry, “A fast file system for UNIX,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 2(3), 181–197 (1984).

Fatoohi, R.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Felten, E.

E. Felten, J. Zahorjan, “Issues in the implementation of a remote memory paging system,” (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., 1991).

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, R. J.

H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, R. J. Feuerstein, “Optoelectronic time-of-flight design and the demonstration of an all-optical, stored program, digital computer,” Special issue on optical computing, Proc. IEEE 82, 1678–1689 (1994).

Fineberg, S.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Fong, T. K.

L. G. Kasovsky, T. K. Fong, T. Hofmeister, “Optical local area network technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 50–54 (1994).

Fowler, R. J.

J. E. Veenstra, R. J. Fowler, “MINT: a front end for efficient simulation of shared-memory multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS) [Information Systems in Mobile Computing Environments (SIAM), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1994], pp. 201–207.

Frederickson, P.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Ghose, K.

K. R. Desai, K. Ghose, “An evaluation of communication protocols for star-coupled multidimensional WDM networks for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections MMPOI’95 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 42–49.
[CrossRef]

K. Ghose, R. K. Horsell, N. Singhvi, “Hybrid multiprocessing in OPTIMUL: a multiprocessor for distributed and shared memory multiprocessing with WDM optical fiber interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Parallel Processing (CRC Press, Saint Charles, Ill., 1994), pp. 196–199.

Gibson, G.

D. Stodolsky, M. Holland, W. Courtright, G. Gibson, “Parity logging disk arrays,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 12, 206–235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, G. A.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Glance, B. S.

B. S. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfeld, U. Koren, R. W. Wilson, “New advances on optical components needed for FDM optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1222–1224 (1993).

Goldstein, S. C.

D. Culler, A. Dusseau, S. C. Goldstein, A. Krishnamurthy, S. Lumetta, T. von Eicken, K. Yelick, “Parallel programming in Split-C,” in Proceedings of Supercomputing ’93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 262–273.

Green, P. E.

P. E. Green, “Optical networking update,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 764–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greenberg, D.

D. Womble, D. Greenberg, R. Riesen, D. Lewis, “Out of core, out of mind: practical parallel I/O,” in Proceedings of the Scalable Parallel Libraries Conference (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 10–16.

Grosskopf, G.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A.

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Woo, M. O’hara, E. Torrie, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, “The SPLASH-2 programs: characterizations and methodological considerations,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

Ha, J.-H.

J.-H. Ha, T. M. Pinkston, “SPEED DMON: cache coherence on an optical multichannel interconnect architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 78–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hennessy, J.

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heuring, V. P.

H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, R. J. Feuerstein, “Optoelectronic time-of-flight design and the demonstration of an all-optical, stored program, digital computer,” Special issue on optical computing, Proc. IEEE 82, 1678–1689 (1994).

D. B. Sarrazin, H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, “Fiber optic delay line memory,” Appl. Opt. 29, 627–637 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmeister, T.

L. G. Kasovsky, T. K. Fong, T. Hofmeister, “Optical local area network technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 50–54 (1994).

Holland, M.

D. Stodolsky, M. Holland, W. Courtright, G. Gibson, “Parity logging disk arrays,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 12, 206–235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Horsell, R. K.

K. Ghose, R. K. Horsell, N. Singhvi, “Hybrid multiprocessing in OPTIMUL: a multiprocessor for distributed and shared memory multiprocessing with WDM optical fiber interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Parallel Processing (CRC Press, Saint Charles, Ill., 1994), pp. 196–199.

Hu, Y.

Y. Hu, Q. Yang, “DCD-disk caching disk: a new approach for boosting I/O performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 169–177.
[CrossRef]

Joe, T.

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

Jordan, H. F.

H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, R. J. Feuerstein, “Optoelectronic time-of-flight design and the demonstration of an all-optical, stored program, digital computer,” Special issue on optical computing, Proc. IEEE 82, 1678–1689 (1994).

D. B. Sarrazin, H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, “Fiber optic delay line memory,” Appl. Opt. 29, 627–637 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joy, W.

K. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, R. Fabry, “A fast file system for UNIX,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 2(3), 181–197 (1984).

Karlin, A. R.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Kasovsky, L. G.

L. G. Kasovsky, T. K. Fong, T. Hofmeister, “Optical local area network technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 50–54 (1994).

Kimbrel, T.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Koblenz, B.

R. Alverson, D. Callahan, D. Cummings, B. Koblenz, A. Porterfield, B. Smith, “The tera computer system,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’90 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1990), pp. 1–16.

Koren, U.

B. S. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfeld, U. Koren, R. W. Wilson, “New advances on optical components needed for FDM optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1222–1224 (1993).

Kotz, D.

D. Kotz, C. Ellis, “Practical prefetching techniques for multiprocessor file systems,” J. Distrib. Parallel Databases 1, 33–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kranz, D.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

Krieger, O.

T. Mowry, A. Demke, O. Krieger, “Automatic compiler-inserted I/O prefetching for out-of-core applications,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 3–17.
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, A.

D. Culler, A. Dusseau, S. C. Goldstein, A. Krishnamurthy, S. Lumetta, T. von Eicken, K. Yelick, “Parallel programming in Split-C,” in Proceedings of Supercomputing ’93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 262–273.

Kubiatowicz, J.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

Küller, L.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langenhorst, R.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lasinski, T.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Laudon, J.

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leffler, S.

K. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, R. Fabry, “A fast file system for UNIX,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 2(3), 181–197 (1984).

Lenoski, D.

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, D.

D. Womble, D. Greenberg, R. Riesen, D. Lewis, “Out of core, out of mind: practical parallel I/O,” in Proceedings of the Scalable Parallel Libraries Conference (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 10–16.

Li, K.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Lim, B.-H.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, R.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lumetta, S.

D. Culler, A. Dusseau, S. C. Goldstein, A. Krishnamurthy, S. Lumetta, T. von Eicken, K. Yelick, “Parallel programming in Split-C,” in Proceedings of Supercomputing ’93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 262–273.

Mackenzie, K.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

McKusick, K.

K. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, R. Fabry, “A fast file system for UNIX,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 2(3), 181–197 (1984).

Mowry, T.

T. Mowry, A. Demke, O. Krieger, “Automatic compiler-inserted I/O prefetching for out-of-core applications,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 3–17.
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, B.

B. Mukherjee, “WDM-based local lightwave networks—Part II: multihop systems,” IEEE Network 6(4), 20–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakahira, D.

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nowatzyk, A. G.

A. G. Nowatzyk, P. R. Prucnal, “Are crossbars really dead? The case for optical multiprocessor interconnect systems,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 106–115.
[CrossRef]

O’hara, M.

S. C. Woo, M. O’hara, E. Torrie, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, “The SPLASH-2 programs: characterizations and methodological considerations,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

Ousterhout, J. K.

M. Rosenblum, J. K. Ousterhout, “The design and implementation of a log-structured file system,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 10, 26–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, R. H.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Pieper, W.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pinkston, T. M.

J.-H. Ha, T. M. Pinkston, “SPEED DMON: cache coherence on an optical multichannel interconnect architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 78–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Porterfield, A.

R. Alverson, D. Callahan, D. Cummings, B. Koblenz, A. Porterfield, B. Smith, “The tera computer system,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’90 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1990), pp. 1–16.

Prucnal, P. R.

A. G. Nowatzyk, P. R. Prucnal, “Are crossbars really dead? The case for optical multiprocessor interconnect systems,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 106–115.
[CrossRef]

Riesen, R.

D. Womble, D. Greenberg, R. Riesen, D. Lewis, “Out of core, out of mind: practical parallel I/O,” in Proceedings of the Scalable Parallel Libraries Conference (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 10–16.

Rosenblum, M.

M. Rosenblum, J. K. Ousterhout, “The design and implementation of a log-structured file system,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 10, 26–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ruemmler, C.

C. Ruemmler, J. Wilkes, “UNIX disk access patterns,” in Proceedings of the Winter 1993 USENIX Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 405–420.

Sarrazin, D. B.

Schreiber, R.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Simon, H.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Singh, J. P.

S. C. Woo, M. O’hara, E. Torrie, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, “The SPLASH-2 programs: characterizations and methodological considerations,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

Singhvi, N.

K. Ghose, R. K. Horsell, N. Singhvi, “Hybrid multiprocessing in OPTIMUL: a multiprocessor for distributed and shared memory multiprocessing with WDM optical fiber interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Parallel Processing (CRC Press, Saint Charles, Ill., 1994), pp. 196–199.

Smith, B.

R. Alverson, D. Callahan, D. Cummings, B. Koblenz, A. Porterfield, B. Smith, “The tera computer system,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’90 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1990), pp. 1–16.

Spirit, D. M.

D. M. Spirit, A. D. Ellis, P. E. Barnsley, “Optical time division multiplexing: systems and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 56–62 (1994).

Stevens, L.

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stodolsky, D.

D. Stodolsky, M. Holland, W. Courtright, G. Gibson, “Parity logging disk arrays,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 12, 206–235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tomkins, A.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

Torrie, E.

S. C. Woo, M. O’hara, E. Torrie, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, “The SPLASH-2 programs: characterizations and methodological considerations,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, J. E.

J. E. Veenstra, R. J. Fowler, “MINT: a front end for efficient simulation of shared-memory multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS) [Information Systems in Mobile Computing Environments (SIAM), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1994], pp. 201–207.

Venkatakrishnan, V.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

von Eicken, T.

D. Culler, A. Dusseau, S. C. Goldstein, A. Krishnamurthy, S. Lumetta, T. von Eicken, K. Yelick, “Parallel programming in Split-C,” in Proceedings of Supercomputing ’93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 262–273.

Weber, H. G.

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weeratunga, S.

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

B. S. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfeld, U. Koren, R. W. Wilson, “New advances on optical components needed for FDM optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1222–1224 (1993).

Wilkes, J.

C. Ruemmler, J. Wilkes, “UNIX disk access patterns,” in Proceedings of the Winter 1993 USENIX Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 405–420.

Wilson, R. W.

B. S. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfeld, U. Koren, R. W. Wilson, “New advances on optical components needed for FDM optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1222–1224 (1993).

Womble, D.

D. Womble, D. Greenberg, R. Riesen, D. Lewis, “Out of core, out of mind: practical parallel I/O,” in Proceedings of the Scalable Parallel Libraries Conference (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 10–16.

Woo, S. C.

S. C. Woo, M. O’hara, E. Torrie, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, “The SPLASH-2 programs: characterizations and methodological considerations,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

Yang, Q.

Y. Hu, Q. Yang, “DCD-disk caching disk: a new approach for boosting I/O performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 169–177.
[CrossRef]

Yelick, K.

D. Culler, A. Dusseau, S. C. Goldstein, A. Krishnamurthy, S. Lumetta, T. von Eicken, K. Yelick, “Parallel programming in Split-C,” in Proceedings of Supercomputing ’93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 262–273.

Yeung, D.

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

Zahorjan, J.

E. Felten, J. Zahorjan, “Issues in the implementation of a remote memory paging system,” (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., 1991).

ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. (3)

M. Rosenblum, J. K. Ousterhout, “The design and implementation of a log-structured file system,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 10, 26–52 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, R. Fabry, “A fast file system for UNIX,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 2(3), 181–197 (1984).

D. Stodolsky, M. Holland, W. Courtright, G. Gibson, “Parity logging disk arrays,” ACM Trans. Comput. Sys. 12, 206–235 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

L. G. Kasovsky, T. K. Fong, T. Hofmeister, “Optical local area network technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 50–54 (1994).

D. M. Spirit, A. D. Ellis, P. E. Barnsley, “Optical time division multiplexing: systems and networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. December, 56–62 (1994).

IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. (2)

P. E. Green, “Optical networking update,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 14, 764–779 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Brackett, “Dense wavelength division networks: principles and applications,” IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun. 8, 948–964 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Network (1)

B. Mukherjee, “WDM-based local lightwave networks—Part II: multihop systems,” IEEE Network 6(4), 20–32 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. S. Glance, J. M. Wiesenfeld, U. Koren, R. W. Wilson, “New advances on optical components needed for FDM optical networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1222–1224 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. (1)

D. Lenoski, J. Laudon, T. Joe, D. Nakahira, L. Stevens, A. Gupta, J. Hennessy, “The DASH prototype: logic overhead and performance,” IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Sys. 4, 41–61 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Distrib. Parallel Databases (1)

D. Kotz, C. Ellis, “Practical prefetching techniques for multiprocessor file systems,” J. Distrib. Parallel Databases 1, 33–51 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. Langenhorst, M. Eiselt, W. Pieper, G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, L. Küller, E. Dietrich, H. G. Weber, “Fiber loop optical buffer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 324–335 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (1)

J.-H. Ha, T. M. Pinkston, “SPEED DMON: cache coherence on an optical multichannel interconnect architecture,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. 41, 78–91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. F. Jordan, V. P. Heuring, R. J. Feuerstein, “Optoelectronic time-of-flight design and the demonstration of an all-optical, stored program, digital computer,” Special issue on optical computing, Proc. IEEE 82, 1678–1689 (1994).

Other (19)

E. V. Carrera, R. Bianchini, “NetCache: a network/cache hybrid for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Optics and Computer Science (Springer-Verlag, San Juan, P.R., 1999), pp. 859–872.

P. W. Dowd, J. Chu, “Photonic architectures for distributed shared memory multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections MMPOI’94 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1994), pp. 151–161.
[CrossRef]

K. R. Desai, K. Ghose, “An evaluation of communication protocols for star-coupled multidimensional WDM networks for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections MMPOI’95 (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 42–49.
[CrossRef]

K. Ghose, R. K. Horsell, N. Singhvi, “Hybrid multiprocessing in OPTIMUL: a multiprocessor for distributed and shared memory multiprocessing with WDM optical fiber interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Parallel Processing (CRC Press, Saint Charles, Ill., 1994), pp. 196–199.

E. Felten, J. Zahorjan, “Issues in the implementation of a remote memory paging system,” (Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., 1991).

J. E. Veenstra, R. J. Fowler, “MINT: a front end for efficient simulation of shared-memory multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (MASCOTS) [Information Systems in Mobile Computing Environments (SIAM), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1994], pp. 201–207.

A. G. Nowatzyk, P. R. Prucnal, “Are crossbars really dead? The case for optical multiprocessor interconnect systems,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 106–115.
[CrossRef]

S. C. Woo, M. O’hara, E. Torrie, J. P. Singh, A. Gupta, “The SPLASH-2 programs: characterizations and methodological considerations,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 24–36.
[CrossRef]

D. H. Bailey, E. Barszcz, J. Barton, D. Browning, R. Carter, L. Dagum, R. Fatoohi, S. Fineberg, P. Frederickson, T. Lasinski, R. Schreiber, H. Simon, V. Venkatakrishnan, S. Weeratunga, “The NAS parallel benchmarks,” (NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., 1994).

D. Culler, A. Dusseau, S. C. Goldstein, A. Krishnamurthy, S. Lumetta, T. von Eicken, K. Yelick, “Parallel programming in Split-C,” in Proceedings of Supercomputing ’93 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 262–273.

T. Kimbrel, A. Tomkins, R. H. Patterson, B. Bershad, P. Cao, E. Felten, G. A. Gibson, A. R. Karlin, K. Li, “A trace-driven comparison of algorithms for parallel prefetching and caching,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 19–34.
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal, R. Bianchini, D. Chaiken, K. Johnson, D. Kranz, J. Kubiatowicz, B.-H. Lim, K. Mackenzie, D. Yeung, “The MIT alewife machine: architecture and performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1995), pp. 2–13.
[CrossRef]

R. Alverson, D. Callahan, D. Cummings, B. Koblenz, A. Porterfield, B. Smith, “The tera computer system,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’90 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1990), pp. 1–16.

E. V. Carrera, R. Bianchini, “OPTNET: a cost-effective optical network for multiprocessors,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing ’98 (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1998), pp. 401–408.
[CrossRef]

R. Bianchini, E. V. Carrera, “Designing and evaluating a cost-effective optical network for multiprocessors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput. (to be published).

Y. Hu, Q. Yang, “DCD-disk caching disk: a new approach for boosting I/O performance,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Symposium on Computer Architecture (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1996), pp. 169–177.
[CrossRef]

T. Mowry, A. Demke, O. Krieger, “Automatic compiler-inserted I/O prefetching for out-of-core applications,” in Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI’96) (Advanced Computing Systems Corporation, Berkeley, Calif., 1996), pp. 3–17.
[CrossRef]

D. Womble, D. Greenberg, R. Riesen, D. Lewis, “Out of core, out of mind: practical parallel I/O,” in Proceedings of the Scalable Parallel Libraries Conference (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1993), pp. 10–16.

C. Ruemmler, J. Wilkes, “UNIX disk access patterns,” in Proceedings of the Winter 1993 USENIX Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 1993), pp. 405–420.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the OPTNET architecture: Tx represents fixed transmitters that are associated with the request channel (R), with a coherence channel (C), and with home channel i. Rx represents fixed receivers that are associated with the request channel (R), with a coherence channel (C1), and with a second coherence channel (C2). TRx represents a tunable receiver. MUX, multiplexer; DEMUX, demultiplexer; NI, network interface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Overview of the node architecture: μP, processor; WB, coalescing write buffer; L1 and L2, first- and second-level caches; LM, local memory; NI, network interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Overview of the OWCache architecture (see Fig. 1 for definitions of the labels).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance of the OPTNET multiprocessor (the graphs on the left-hand sides of each pair that corresponds to each application) compared with that of the OWCache multiprocessor (the graph on the right-hand side of each pair) under optimal prefetching.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Performance of the OPTNET multiprocessor (left-hand graph of each pair) compared with that of the OWCache (right-hand graph of each pair) under naive prefetching.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Performance of the OWCache multiprocessor for different numbers of I/O nodes under optimal prefetching. The values are normalized with respect to the corresponding execution times of the OPTNET multiprocessor.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Performance of the OWCache multiprocessor for different numbers of I/O nodes under naive prefetching. The values are normalized with respect to the corresponding execution times of the OPTNET multiprocessor.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Performance of the OWCache multiprocessor with different amounts of data-storage capacity under optimal prefetching. The results are normalized with respect to the corresponding OPTNET results.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Performance of the OWCache multiprocessor for different amounts of data-storage capacity under naive prefetching. The results are normalized with respect to the corresponding results for the OPTNET-based multiprocessor.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Performance of the OPTNET multiprocessor for several combined disk-cache sizes under optimal prefetching. OWC, OWCache.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Performance of the OPTNET multiprocessor for several combined disk-cache sizes under naive prefetching. OWC, OWCache.

Tables (9)

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Table 1 Parameters and Their Default Valuesa

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Table 2 Application Descriptions and Main Input Parameters

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Table 3 Average Swap-Out Times under Optimal Prefetching

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Table 4 Average Swap-Out Times under Naïve Prefetching

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Table 5 Average Write Combining under Optimal Prefetching

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Table 6 Average Write Combining under Naïve Prefetching

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Table 7 OWCache Hit Rates under Different Prefetching Techniques

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Table 8 Average Page-Read Overhead under Optimal Prefetching

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Table 9 Average Page-Read under Naïve Prefetching

Equations (1)

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Capacity in bits=number of channels × fiber length × transmission ratespeed of light in the fiber,

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