Abstract

A transmission-type nonmechanical multiple-angle beam-steering device that uses liquid-crystal blazed grating has been developed. Sixteen steering angles with a contrast ratio of 18 has been demonstrated. A detailed analysis of the liquid-crystal and poly(methyl methacrylate) blazed-grating deflector was carried out to provide guidance during the deflector’s development. A manufacturing offset compensation technique is proposed to improve the device’s performance greatly. A hybrid approach utilizing electrically generated blazed grating combined with the cascading approach described here yields in excess of 500 deflecting angles.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections using liquid crystal microprism arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 195–198 (1994).
  2. K. Hirabayashi, T. Kurokawa, “Liquid crystal devices for optical communication and information processing systems,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 307–317 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, “Diffractive optics technology for display applications,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 57–61 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Drolet, E. Chuang, G. Barbastathis, D. Psaltis, “Compact, integrated dynamic holographic memory with refreshed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 22, 552–554 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. D. Stancil, “Guide-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401–1404 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Thomas, M. Lasher, Y. Fainman, P. Soltan, “PLZT-based dynamic diffractive optical element for high-speed, random-access beam steering,” in Optical Scanning Systems: Design and Applications, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3131, 124–132 (1997).
  7. D. P. Resler, D. S. Hobbs, R. C. Sharp, L. J. Friedman, T. A. Dorschner, “High-efficiency liquid-crystal optical phased-array beam steering,” Opt. Lett. 21, 689–691 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Schulze, W. Reden, “Diffractive liquid crystal spatial light modulators with fine-pitch phase gratings,” in Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Displays, R. Shashidhar, U. Efron, eds., Proc. SPIE2408, 113–120 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pollicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 352–357 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. L. Sutherland, “Electrically switchable volume holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Borel, J. C. Deutsch, G. Labrunie, J. Robert, “Liquid crystal diffraction grating,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (20October1974).
  13. A. F. Fray, D. Jones, “Large-angle beam deflector using liquid crystals,” Electron. Lett. 15, 358–359 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. A. Dorschner, D. P. Resler, “Optical beam steering having subaperture addressing,” U.S. Patent5,093,747 (5March1992).
  15. B. J. Cassarly, J. C. Ehlert, D. J. Henry, “Low insertion loss high precision liquid crystal optical phased array,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies III, D. L. Begley, B. D. Seery, eds., Proc. SPIE1417, 110–121 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, “Development of photopolymer liquid crystal composite materials for dynamic hologram applications,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 303–313 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Armitage, “Silicon-chip liquid crystal display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 280–290 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Uchida, “Present and future trend of liquid crystal devices,” in Display Technologies, S. Chen, T. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE1815, 10–17 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. G. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. 62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 415–430.
  20. L. M. Blinov, “Electro-optical effects in liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 658–672 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).
  22. Frank Allan, EM Industries, Inc., 7 Skyline Drive, Hawthorne, N.Y. (personal communication, 1996).
  23. Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, “Binary optics reflection grating for an imaging spectrometer,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 255–266 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. X. Wang, D. Psaltis, “Liquid crystal on silicon beam deflector,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems, and Spatial Light Modulators VI, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3633, 160–169 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1997

1996

1994

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections using liquid crystal microprism arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 195–198 (1994).

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. D. Stancil, “Guide-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401–1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Sutherland, “Electrically switchable volume holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. Hirabayashi, T. Kurokawa, “Liquid crystal devices for optical communication and information processing systems,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 307–317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1975

A. F. Fray, D. Jones, “Large-angle beam deflector using liquid crystals,” Electron. Lett. 15, 358–359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, “Electro-optical effects in liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 658–672 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Adamic, K. J.

Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akins, R. B.

Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Allan, Frank

Frank Allan, EM Industries, Inc., 7 Skyline Drive, Hawthorne, N.Y. (personal communication, 1996).

Armitage, D.

D. Armitage, “Silicon-chip liquid crystal display,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 280–290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, “Electro-optical effects in liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 658–672 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Borel, J.

J. Borel, J. C. Deutsch, G. Labrunie, J. Robert, “Liquid crystal diffraction grating,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (20October1974).

Bunning, T. J.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cassarly, B. J.

B. J. Cassarly, J. C. Ehlert, D. J. Henry, “Low insertion loss high precision liquid crystal optical phased array,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies III, D. L. Begley, B. D. Seery, eds., Proc. SPIE1417, 110–121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. D. Stancil, “Guide-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401–1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y.

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. D. Stancil, “Guide-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401–1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, E.

Clark, M. G.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pollicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 352–357 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, J. C.

J. Borel, J. C. Deutsch, G. Labrunie, J. Robert, “Liquid crystal diffraction grating,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (20October1974).

Domash, L. H.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

Drolet, J. J.

Ehlert, J. C.

B. J. Cassarly, J. C. Ehlert, D. J. Henry, “Low insertion loss high precision liquid crystal optical phased array,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies III, D. L. Begley, B. D. Seery, eds., Proc. SPIE1417, 110–121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

J. A. Thomas, M. Lasher, Y. Fainman, P. Soltan, “PLZT-based dynamic diffractive optical element for high-speed, random-access beam steering,” in Optical Scanning Systems: Design and Applications, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3131, 124–132 (1997).

Faklis, D.

D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, “Diffractive optics technology for display applications,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 57–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B.

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Fray, A. F.

A. F. Fray, D. Jones, “Large-angle beam deflector using liquid crystals,” Electron. Lett. 15, 358–359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

Gomatam, B. N.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, W. L.

Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gozewski, C. M.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Henry, D. J.

B. J. Cassarly, J. C. Ehlert, D. J. Henry, “Low insertion loss high precision liquid crystal optical phased array,” in Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies III, D. L. Begley, B. D. Seery, eds., Proc. SPIE1417, 110–121 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hirabayashi, K.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections using liquid crystal microprism arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 195–198 (1994).

K. Hirabayashi, T. Kurokawa, “Liquid crystal devices for optical communication and information processing systems,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 307–317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

Jones, D.

A. F. Fray, D. Jones, “Large-angle beam deflector using liquid crystals,” Electron. Lett. 15, 358–359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Kurokawa, “Liquid crystal devices for optical communication and information processing systems,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 307–317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Labrunie, G.

J. Borel, J. C. Deutsch, G. Labrunie, J. Robert, “Liquid crystal diffraction grating,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (20October1974).

Lasher, M.

J. A. Thomas, M. Lasher, Y. Fainman, P. Soltan, “PLZT-based dynamic diffractive optical element for high-speed, random-access beam steering,” in Optical Scanning Systems: Design and Applications, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3131, 124–132 (1997).

Maker, P. D.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, “Binary optics reflection grating for an imaging spectrometer,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 255–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. G. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. 62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 415–430.

Morris, G. M.

D. Faklis, G. M. Morris, “Diffractive optics technology for display applications,” in Projection Displays, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2407, 57–61 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. E.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, “Binary optics reflection grating for an imaging spectrometer,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 255–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. G. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. 62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 415–430.

Natarajan, L. V.

V. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, “Development of photopolymer liquid crystal composite materials for dynamic hologram applications,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 303–313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Powell, N. J.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pollicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 352–357 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Press, W.

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Psaltis, D.

J. J. Drolet, E. Chuang, G. Barbastathis, D. Psaltis, “Compact, integrated dynamic holographic memory with refreshed holograms,” Opt. Lett. 22, 552–554 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, D. Psaltis, “Liquid crystal on silicon beam deflector,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems, and Spatial Light Modulators VI, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3633, 160–169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Purvis, A.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pollicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 352–357 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Reden, W.

E. Schulze, W. Reden, “Diffractive liquid crystal spatial light modulators with fine-pitch phase gratings,” in Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Displays, R. Shashidhar, U. Efron, eds., Proc. SPIE2408, 113–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Resler, D. P.

Robert, J.

J. Borel, J. C. Deutsch, G. Labrunie, J. Robert, “Liquid crystal diffraction grating,” U.S. patent3,843,231 (20October1974).

Schuele, D. E.

Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, E.

E. Schulze, W. Reden, “Diffractive liquid crystal spatial light modulators with fine-pitch phase gratings,” in Liquid Crystal Materials, Devices, and Displays, R. Shashidhar, U. Efron, eds., Proc. SPIE2408, 113–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

Soltan, P.

J. A. Thomas, M. Lasher, Y. Fainman, P. Soltan, “PLZT-based dynamic diffractive optical element for high-speed, random-access beam steering,” in Optical Scanning Systems: Design and Applications, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3131, 124–132 (1997).

Stancil, D. D.

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. D. Stancil, “Guide-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401–1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

R. L. Sutherland, “Electrically switchable volume holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, V. R. L.

V. R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, “Development of photopolymer liquid crystal composite materials for dynamic hologram applications,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 303–313 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S.

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Thomas, J. A.

J. A. Thomas, M. Lasher, Y. Fainman, P. Soltan, “PLZT-based dynamic diffractive optical element for high-speed, random-access beam steering,” in Optical Scanning Systems: Design and Applications, L. Beiser, S. F. Sagan, eds., Proc. SPIE3131, 124–132 (1997).

Tondiglia, V. P.

L. H. Domash, T. Chen, B. N. Gomatam, C. M. Gozewski, R. L. Sutherland, L. V. Natarajan, V. P. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, W. W. Adams, “Switchable-focus lens in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 188–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Uchida, “Present and future trend of liquid crystal devices,” in Display Technologies, S. Chen, T. Wang, eds., Proc. SPIE1815, 10–17 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W.

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Wang, X.

X. Wang, D. Psaltis, “Liquid crystal on silicon beam deflector,” in Diffractive and Holographic Technologies, Systems, and Spatial Light Modulators VI, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, R. L. Sutherland, eds., Proc. SPIE3633, 160–169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

G. Williams, N. J. Powell, A. Purvis, M. G. Clark, “Electrically controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens,” in Current Developments in Optical Engineering and Commercial Optics, R. E. Fischer, H. M. Pollicove, W. J. Smith, eds., Proc. SPIE1168, 352–357 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, D. W.

P. D. Maker, D. W. Wilson, R. E. Muller, “Fabrication and performance of optical interconnect analog phase holograms made by E-beam lithography,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. G. Guilfoyle, eds., Vol. 62 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 415–430.

D. W. Wilson, P. D. Maker, R. E. Muller, “Binary optics reflection grating for an imaging spectrometer,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 255–266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections using liquid crystal microprism arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 195–198 (1994).

Yamamoto, T.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections using liquid crystal microprism arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 195–198 (1994).

Zhong, Z. Z.

Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. L. Sutherland, “Electrically switchable volume holographic gratings in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1074–1076 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. F. Fray, D. Jones, “Large-angle beam deflector using liquid crystals,” Electron. Lett. 15, 358–359 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, “Free-space optical interconnections using liquid crystal microprism arrays,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 139, 195–198 (1994).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Q. Chen, Y. Chiu, D. D. Stancil, “Guide-wave electro-optic beam deflector using domain reversal in LiTaO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1401–1404 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys.

Z. Z. Zhong, D. E. Schuele, W. L. Gordon, K. J. Adamic, R. B. Akins, “Dielectric properties of a PMMA/E7 polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. 30, 1443–1449 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

K. Hirabayashi, T. Kurokawa, “Liquid crystal devices for optical communication and information processing systems,” Liq. Cryst. 14, 307–317 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Sov. Phys. Usp.

L. M. Blinov, “Electro-optical effects in liquid crystals,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 658–672 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Press, B. Flannery, S. Teukolsky, W. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes in C, 2nd ed. (Cambridge U. Press, New York, 1988).

Frank Allan, EM Industries, Inc., 7 Skyline Drive, Hawthorne, N.Y. (personal communication, 1996).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LC blazed-grating beam deflector. PI, polyimide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multiple-layer stacking concept to achieve multiple deflector angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Homogeneous alignment configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeling results for homogeneous alignment orientation-angle distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Modeling results for homogeneous alignment refractive index.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LC blazed-grating diffraction model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optimization of the blazed-grating depth. dc, duty cycle.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

LC blazed-grating deflector’s driving voltage loss and nonuniformity. E1 and E2 represent the electrical field in the electrical domain.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

LC blazed-grating deflector index matching.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Surface profile of a 10-µm period grating measured by an AFM.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Influence of blazed-grating duty cycle on diffraction efficiency.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

LC blazed-grating deflector packaging process.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Characterization of the experimental setup. PBS, polarization beam splitter.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Determination of grating surface profile parameters.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

LC blazed-grating diffraction efficiency versus driving voltage.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Comparison between the real off state and the virtual off state.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Photographs of the 16-angle deflector diffracted spots.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diffraction Gratings of the Four LC–PMMA Blazed Gratings (%)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measurement Data of the Four Stacked-Grating 16-Angle Deflector

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fnet=120K11·n2+K22n·×n2+K33n××n2-D·EdV,
Fnet=120LK11 cos2 θ+K33 sin2 θdθdz2dz-1200LDz2 cos2 θ+ sin2 θdz,
dzdθ2=K111+K sin2 θC-Dz201+r sin2 θ.
neθz=noneno2 cos2 θz+ne2 sin2 θz1/2,
neff=1L0L nezdz.
δ=2πλ0Lnez-nodz.
Tx=Px * Gx.
Gx=m=1N δx-mprectxA,
Px=rectxpexpiΔx,
Δx=2πλn1-n2x tan θ0<xa,Δx=2πλn1-n2da<x<p,
Ex=FTTx=FTPx·FTGx=P·G,
DLCn-DPMMAn=σ=0,
Veff=1-r1+βr Vapply,
VLCx=1-rrx1+βrrx Veff,
Δϕ=2πλ Δnd,
Fθ-dFdθdzdz=0.
K11 cos2 θ+K33 sin2 θd2θdz2+K33-K11sin θ cos θdθdz2=Dz20-sin θ cos θ cos2 θ+ sin2 θ2.
-12d1 cos2 θ+ sin2 θdθ,
12dK11 cos2 θ+K33 sin2 θdθ=K33-K11 sin θ cos θ,
dK11 cos2 θ+K33 sin2 θdθdz2dz=-Dz20d1 cos2 θ+ sin2 θdz,

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