Abstract

We report on the implementation of an end-to-end imaging demonstrator to validate the concept of optical fiber use in high-resolution aperture synthesis in astronomy. As the coherent transport of light has been conclusively investigated, this study is focused primarily on the accuracy and reliability of the experimental data. In the framework of the European Space Agency project Optical Aperture Synthesis Technologies (OAST), the telescope array’s complexity is minimized such that a realistic concept for a future space mission can be proposed. The reconstructed images are obtained by use of a particular self-calibration procedure that was designed to process the visibility contrast and the related weak phase information (one phase closure for each visibility triplet).

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  41. J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “Analysis and control of polarization effects on phase closure and image acquisition in a fiber-linked three-telescope stellar interferometer,” J. Opt. A 2, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (7)

L. M. Simohamed, F. Reynaud, “Characterization of the dispersion evolution in a large stroke optical fiber delay line,” Opt. Commun. 159, 118–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, E. Thiébaut, “Imaging laboratory tests on a fiber linked telescopes array,” Opt. Commun. 160, 27–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry: I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Lannes, “Phase calibration on interferometric graphs,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 443–454 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Lannes, E. Anterrieu, “Redundant spacing calibration: phase restoration methods,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2866–2879 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “Polarization control in a large stroke optical fiber delay line,” Opt. Lett. 24, 95–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Lannes, “Weak-phase imaging in optical interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15, 811–824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

L. M. Simohamed, F. Reynaud, “A two meter stroke optical fibre delay line,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, L37–L41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Restaino, J. Baker, R. A. Carreras, J. L. Fender, G. C. Loos, R. J. MaBroom, D. Nahrstedt, D. M. Payne, “Single mode fibre linkages of large telescopes at visible wavelengths: experimental results,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

L. M. Simohamed, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “An optical fibre delay line with a 318 mm stroke,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 1005–1009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

1993 (2)

F. Reynaud, “Optical fiber Babinet compensator,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 185–188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud, E. Delaire, “Linear optical path modulation with 1/200 accuracy using a fibre stretcher,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1718–1719 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

S. Shaklan, “Fiber optic beam combiner for multiple-telescope interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 29, 684–689 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. J. Cornwell, “A novel principle for optimization of the instantaneous Fourier plane coverage of interferometric arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

T. J. Cornwell, P. N. Wilkinson, “A new method for making maps with unstable interferometers,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 196, 1067–1086 (1981).

1968 (1)

1958 (1)

R. C. Jennison, “A phase sensitive interferometer technique for the measurement of the Fourier transforms of spatial brightness distributions of small angular extent,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 118, 276–284 (1958).

1868 (1)

A. H. Fizeau, “Prix Bordin: rapport sur le concours de l’année 1867,” C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 66, 932–934 (1868).

Alleman, J. J.

J. J. Alleman, F. Reynaud, P. Connes, “Fiber-linked telescope array: description and laboratory tests of a two-channel prototype,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2284–2294 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, P. Connes, “Interferometric control of fiber length for coherent telescope array,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3736–3743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Alleman, “Réalisation d’un interféromètre à deux télescopes reliés par fibres optiques de silice pour l’interféromètrie stellaire dans la bande spectrale 600 nm à 900 nm,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Limoges, Limoges, France, 1996).

F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, H. Lagorceix, “Interferometric fiber arms for stellar interferometry,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth observation and astronomy,” M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 431–435 (1994).

Anterrieu, E.

Armstrong, J. T.

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

S. R. Restaino, J. Baker, R. A. Carreras, J. L. Fender, G. C. Loos, R. J. MaBroom, D. Nahrstedt, D. M. Payne, “Single mode fibre linkages of large telescopes at visible wavelengths: experimental results,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. E.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, C. A. Haniff, P. R. Lawson, C. D. Mackay, J. Rogers, D. St-Jacques, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, J. S. Young, “Current status of COAST,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beckett, M. G.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Benech, P.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry: I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Rousselet-Perraut, E. Stadler, P. Feautrier, E. Le Coarer, P. Petmezakis, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, L. Delage, “The Integrated Optics Near-infrared Interferometric Camera (IONIC),” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.194, 344–349 (1999).

Benson, J. A.

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J. P.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry: I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J.-P.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, E. Stadler, P. Feautrier, E. Le Coarer, P. Petmezakis, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, L. Delage, “The Integrated Optics Near-infrared Interferometric Camera (IONIC),” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.194, 344–349 (1999).

Black, D.

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blazit, A.

D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

Bonneau, D.

D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

Booth, A. J.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, R. A. Minard, S. M. Owens, R. R. Shobbrook, “Progress in commissioning the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI),” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 231–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980).

Bowers, P. F.

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boysen, R. C.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, C. A. Haniff, P. R. Lawson, C. D. Mackay, J. Rogers, D. St-Jacques, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, J. S. Young, “Current status of COAST,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. G.

Burns, D.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Buscher, D. F.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Carleton, N. P.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carreras, R. A.

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N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
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Lawson, P. R.

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S. R. Restaino, J. Baker, R. A. Carreras, J. L. Fender, G. C. Loos, R. J. MaBroom, D. Nahrstedt, D. M. Payne, “Single mode fibre linkages of large telescopes at visible wavelengths: experimental results,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1105–1111 (1997).
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J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

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F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry: I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 1–10 (1999).
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Merlin, G.

D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

Minard, R. A.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, R. A. Minard, S. M. Owens, R. R. Shobbrook, “Progress in commissioning the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI),” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 231–241 (1994).
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D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

Mourard, D.

D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

Mozurkewich, D.

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
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Nahrstedt, D.

S. R. Restaino, J. Baker, R. A. Carreras, J. L. Fender, G. C. Loos, R. J. MaBroom, D. Nahrstedt, D. M. Payne, “Single mode fibre linkages of large telescopes at visible wavelengths: experimental results,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1105–1111 (1997).
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J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

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N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
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J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, R. A. Minard, S. M. Owens, R. R. Shobbrook, “Progress in commissioning the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI),” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 231–241 (1994).
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Panasyuk, A.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
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Papaliolios, C.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
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Pauls, T. A.

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. M.

S. R. Restaino, J. Baker, R. A. Carreras, J. L. Fender, G. C. Loos, R. J. MaBroom, D. Nahrstedt, D. M. Payne, “Single mode fibre linkages of large telescopes at visible wavelengths: experimental results,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pearlman, M. R.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
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Petmezakis, P.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, E. Stadler, P. Feautrier, E. Le Coarer, P. Petmezakis, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, L. Delage, “The Integrated Optics Near-infrared Interferometric Camera (IONIC),” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.194, 344–349 (1999).

Predmore, R.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
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Reasenberg, R. D.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Restaino, S. R.

S. R. Restaino, J. Baker, R. A. Carreras, J. L. Fender, G. C. Loos, R. J. MaBroom, D. Nahrstedt, D. M. Payne, “Single mode fibre linkages of large telescopes at visible wavelengths: experimental results,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “Analysis and control of polarization effects on phase closure and image acquisition in a fiber-linked three-telescope stellar interferometer,” J. Opt. A 2, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, F. Reynaud, “Characterization of the dispersion evolution in a large stroke optical fiber delay line,” Opt. Commun. 159, 118–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, E. Thiébaut, “Imaging laboratory tests on a fiber linked telescopes array,” Opt. Commun. 160, 27–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “Polarization control in a large stroke optical fiber delay line,” Opt. Lett. 24, 95–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, F. Reynaud, “A two meter stroke optical fibre delay line,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, L37–L41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “An optical fibre delay line with a 318 mm stroke,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 1005–1009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Lagorceix, F. Reynaud, “Birefringent effect measurement and compensation in a highly birefringent fiber optical path modulator,” Opt. Commun. 118, 235–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Alleman, F. Reynaud, P. Connes, “Fiber-linked telescope array: description and laboratory tests of a two-channel prototype,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2284–2294 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Reynaud, E. Delaire, “Linear optical path modulation with 1/200 accuracy using a fibre stretcher,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1718–1719 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud, “Optical fiber Babinet compensator,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 185–188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, P. Connes, “Interferometric control of fiber length for coherent telescope array,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3736–3743 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, H. Lagorceix, “Interferometric fiber arms for stellar interferometry,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth observation and astronomy,” M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 431–435 (1994).

F. Reynaud, “Positioning telescopes of a synthesized aperture in a star wave plane using an interferometric metrology,” in Space Optics 1994. Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 517–521 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Connes, F. Reynaud, “Fibers tests on a radiotelescope,” in Proceedings of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories–ESO Conference on “High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry Ground-Based Interferometry at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths, F. Merkle, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 1117–1129.

F. Reynaud, H. Lagorceix, “Stabilization and control of a fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Conference Astrofib’96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimaud, Grenoble, 1996), pp. 249–257.

Rickard, L. J.

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S.

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, “FLUOR: a stellar interferometer using single mode infrared fibers,” in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory Conference High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 731–740.

Rogers, J.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, C. A. Haniff, P. R. Lawson, C. D. Mackay, J. Rogers, D. St-Jacques, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, J. S. Young, “Current status of COAST,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rogstad, D. H.

Rousselet-Perraut, K.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry: I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Rousselet-Perraut, E. Stadler, P. Feautrier, E. Le Coarer, P. Petmezakis, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, L. Delage, “The Integrated Optics Near-infrared Interferometric Camera (IONIC),” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.194, 344–349 (1999).

Schanen-Duport, I.

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry: I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Rousselet-Perraut, E. Stadler, P. Feautrier, E. Le Coarer, P. Petmezakis, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, L. Delage, “The Integrated Optics Near-infrared Interferometric Camera (IONIC),” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.194, 344–349 (1999).

Scheuer, P. A. G.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Schloerb, F. P.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scott, T. R.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Shaklan, S.

S. Shaklan, “Fiber optic beam combiner for multiple-telescope interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 29, 684–689 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shobbrook, R. R.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, R. A. Minard, S. M. Owens, R. R. Shobbrook, “Progress in commissioning the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI),” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 231–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simohamed, L. M.

L. M. Simohamed, F. Reynaud, “Characterization of the dispersion evolution in a large stroke optical fiber delay line,” Opt. Commun. 159, 118–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “Polarization control in a large stroke optical fiber delay line,” Opt. Lett. 24, 95–97 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, F. Reynaud, “A two meter stroke optical fibre delay line,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, L37–L41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “An optical fibre delay line with a 318 mm stroke,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 1005–1009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, E.

K. Rousselet-Perraut, E. Stadler, P. Feautrier, E. Le Coarer, P. Petmezakis, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, L. Delage, “The Integrated Optics Near-infrared Interferometric Camera (IONIC),” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.194, 344–349 (1999).

St-Jacques, D.

J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, C. A. Haniff, P. R. Lawson, C. D. Mackay, J. Rogers, D. St-Jacques, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, J. S. Young, “Current status of COAST,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tallon-Bosc, I.

D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

Tango, W. J.

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, R. A. Minard, S. M. Owens, R. R. Shobbrook, “Progress in commissioning the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI),” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 231–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thiébaut, E.

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, E. Thiébaut, “Imaging laboratory tests on a fiber linked telescopes array,” Opt. Commun. 160, 27–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tuthill, P. G.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Vakili, F.

D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

Warner, P. J.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, C. A. Haniff, P. R. Lawson, C. D. Mackay, J. Rogers, D. St-Jacques, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, J. S. Young, “Current status of COAST,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

White, N. M.

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, P. N.

T. J. Cornwell, P. N. Wilkinson, “A new method for making maps with unstable interferometers,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 196, 1067–1086 (1981).

Wilson, D. M. A.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, C. A. Haniff, P. R. Lawson, C. D. Mackay, J. Rogers, D. St-Jacques, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, J. S. Young, “Current status of COAST,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. W.

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980).

Xu, X.

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. S.

J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, C. A. Haniff, P. R. Lawson, C. D. Mackay, J. Rogers, D. St-Jacques, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, J. S. Young, “Current status of COAST,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

D. Mourard, I. Tallon-Bosc, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, G. Merlin, F. Morand, F. Vakili, A. Labeyrie, “The GI2T Interferometer on Plateau de Calern,” Astron. Astrophys. 283, 705–713 (1994).

J. E. Baldwin, M. G. Beckett, R. C. Boysen, D. Burns, D. F. Buscher, G. C. Cox, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, N. S. Nightingale, J. Rogers, P. A. G. Scheuer, T. R. Scott, P. G. Tuthill, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, R. W. Wilson, “The first images from an optical aperture synthesis array: mapping of Capella with COAST at two epochs,” Astron. Astrophys. 306, L13–L16 (1996).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. (2)

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry: I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 138, 1–10 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Kern, F. Malbet, I. Schanen-Duport, F. Reynaud, P. Haguenauer, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. II. First laboratory white-light interferograms,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 139, 173–177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astron. J. (1)

J. A. Benson, D. J. Hutter, N. M. Elias, P. F. Bowers, K. J. Johnston, A. R. Hajian, J. T. Armstrong, D. Mozurkewich, T. A. Pauls, L. J. Rickard, C. A. Hummel, N. M. White, D. Black, C. S. Denison, “Multichannel optical aperture synthesis imaging of lambda1 URSAE majoris with the Navy prototype optical interferometer,” Astron. J. 114, 1221–1226 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. (1)

A. H. Fizeau, “Prix Bordin: rapport sur le concours de l’année 1867,” C. R. Hebd. Seances Acad. Sci. 66, 932–934 (1868).

Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Reynaud, E. Delaire, “Linear optical path modulation with 1/200 accuracy using a fibre stretcher,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1718–1719 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

T. J. Cornwell, “A novel principle for optimization of the instantaneous Fourier plane coverage of interferometric arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 36, 1165–1167 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “Analysis and control of polarization effects on phase closure and image acquisition in a fiber-linked three-telescope stellar interferometer,” J. Opt. A 2, 1–7 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

A. Lannes, “Weak-phase imaging in optical interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15, 811–824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. R. Restaino, J. Baker, R. A. Carreras, J. L. Fender, G. C. Loos, R. J. MaBroom, D. Nahrstedt, D. M. Payne, “Single mode fibre linkages of large telescopes at visible wavelengths: experimental results,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 8, 1105–1111 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

R. C. Jennison, “A phase sensitive interferometer technique for the measurement of the Fourier transforms of spatial brightness distributions of small angular extent,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 118, 276–284 (1958).

T. J. Cornwell, P. N. Wilkinson, “A new method for making maps with unstable interferometers,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 196, 1067–1086 (1981).

Opt. Commun. (3)

H. Lagorceix, F. Reynaud, “Birefringent effect measurement and compensation in a highly birefringent fiber optical path modulator,” Opt. Commun. 118, 235–240 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, F. Reynaud, “Characterization of the dispersion evolution in a large stroke optical fiber delay line,” Opt. Commun. 159, 118–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Delage, F. Reynaud, E. Thiébaut, “Imaging laboratory tests on a fiber linked telescopes array,” Opt. Commun. 160, 27–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Shaklan, “Fiber optic beam combiner for multiple-telescope interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 29, 684–689 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pure Appl. Opt. (3)

L. M. Simohamed, L. Delage, F. Reynaud, “An optical fibre delay line with a 318 mm stroke,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 1005–1009 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Simohamed, F. Reynaud, “A two meter stroke optical fibre delay line,” Pure Appl. Opt. 6, L37–L41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud, “Optical fiber Babinet compensator,” Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 185–188 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

P. Connes, F. Reynaud, “Fibers tests on a radiotelescope,” in Proceedings of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories–ESO Conference on “High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry Ground-Based Interferometry at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths, F. Merkle, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 1117–1129.

J. J. Alleman, “Réalisation d’un interféromètre à deux télescopes reliés par fibres optiques de silice pour l’interféromètrie stellaire dans la bande spectrale 600 nm à 900 nm,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Limoges, Limoges, France, 1996).

K. Rousselet-Perraut, E. Stadler, P. Feautrier, E. Le Coarer, P. Petmezakis, P. Haguenauer, P. Kern, F. Malbet, J.-P. Berger, I. Schanen-Duport, P. Benech, L. Delage, “The Integrated Optics Near-infrared Interferometric Camera (IONIC),” in Working on the Fringe: Optical and IR Interferometry from Ground and Space, S. Unwin, R. Stachnik, eds., Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser.194, 344–349 (1999).

H. Lagorceix, “Application des fibres optiques unimodales à l’interférométrie stellaire,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Limoges, Limoges, France, 1995).

J. E. Baldwin, R. C. Boysen, C. A. Haniff, P. R. Lawson, C. D. Mackay, J. Rogers, D. St-Jacques, P. J. Warner, D. M. A. Wilson, J. S. Young, “Current status of COAST,” in Astronomical Interferometry, R. D. Reasenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE3350, 736–745 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Coudé du Foresto, S. Ridgway, “FLUOR: a stellar interferometer using single mode infrared fibers,” in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory Conference High-Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, J. M. Beckers, F. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 731–740.

F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, H. Lagorceix, “Interferometric fiber arms for stellar interferometry,” in Space Optics 1994: Earth observation and astronomy,” M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 431–435 (1994).

F. Reynaud, H. Lagorceix, “Stabilization and control of a fiber array for the coherent transport of beams in a stellar interferometer,” in Proceedings of the Conference Astrofib’96 on Integrated Optics for Astronomical Interferometry, P. Kern, F. Malbet, eds. (Bastianelli-Guirimaud, Grenoble, 1996), pp. 249–257.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980).

N. P. Carleton, W. A. Traub, M. G. Lacasse, P. Nisenson, M. R. Pearlman, R. D. Reasenberg, X. Xu, C. M. Coldwell, A. Panasyuk, J. A. Benson, C. Papaliolios, R. Predmore, F. P. Schloerb, H. M. Dyck, D. M. Gibson, “Current status of the IOTA interferometer,” in Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 152–165 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Davis, W. J. Tango, A. J. Booth, R. A. Minard, S. M. Owens, R. R. Shobbrook, “Progress in commissioning the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI),” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 231–241 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Labeyrie, “High-resolution techniques in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1976), Vol. XIV, pp. 49–85.

C. Froehly, “Coherence and interferometry through optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Conference, M. H. Ulrich, K. Kjär, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1982), pp. 285–293.

P. Connes, C. Froehly, P. Facq, “A fibre-linked version of project TRIO,” in Proceedings of the European Space Agency Colloquium Kilometric Optical Arrays in Space, N. Longdon, O. Melita, eds. (Cargèse, Corsica, France, 1984), pp. 49–61.

F. Reynaud, “Positioning telescopes of a synthesized aperture in a star wave plane using an interferometric metrology,” in Space Optics 1994. Earth Observation and Astronomy, M. G. Cerutti-Maori, P. Roussel, eds., Proc. SPIE2209, 517–521 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General diagram of the experimental setup: a star simulator; a telescope array with a highly birefringent fiber linkage, and an interferometric mixing assembly. The experimental setup uses a temporal display of the interference fringes. The information relative to each baseline is encoded at F1, F2, and F3 frequencies of the detector signal that is recording the temporal fringes (see Subsection 6.B). PZT’s, piezoelectric transducers; FT’s, Fourier transforms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photo of the star simulator. This device permits control of the object polarization and magnification of the object for good sampling of the object’s Fourier spectrum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Summary of the real size of the object and the baselines of the three-telescope array required for convenient sampling of the Fourier spectrum. d, site of the pixel element; D max, site of the object. The typical minimum baseline is in an 8-mm range (<λ/θmax) with a telescope diameter of 1 mm. The maximum baseline is in a 60-mm range (>λ/θmin).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Rear view of telescope array.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Architecture of the metrological interferometric assembly dedicated to controlling the linear optical path variation versus time. The operating wavelength is 632.8 nm. The reference beam is split and the resultant beams mixed independently with the beams 1 and 2. Two π/2 phase-shifted fringe signals are observed on each part of the interferometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Architecture of the science interferometric assembly. The three astronomical beams are mixed simultaneously by an x beam splitter. The operating wavelength is 680 nm. The APD detector records the fringe pattern.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Functional diagram of the servo system used to control the linear optical path modulation relative to time.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Principles of generation of two π/2 phase-shifted fringe signals that encode the same path optical linear modulation relative to time (two-arm interferometer configuration). BS’s, beam splitters, L’s, lenses.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental results for the stability of the linear optical path modulation. Top, error signal when the servo system is off. Bottom, error signal when the servo system is on. The standard deviation of the linear optical path modulation is λ/200.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic presentation of the four three-telescope arrays. The corresponding (uv) plane coverage results from nine object rotations for each array configuration.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Summary of the science signal processing: measurement of the fringe complex visibility function for each fringe modulation. S, spectral channel.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Summary of the steps in science data processing for retrieval of the three moduli of object intensity spectrum V obj (one for each baseline) and the relative phase closure.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Example of acquisition of (a) the astronomical interferometric signal observed by the APD detector and (b) its temporal spectrum.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Front panel of the acquisition of the virtual instrument permitting measurement of the three moduli of the object intensity spectrum and the phase-closure term. This example is that of a pointlike source. The different moduli are close to 1, and the phase closure is equal to 0. The software includes an averaging process with 30 acquisitions.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental result of image reconstruction for the first object (see Table 2): (a) real image provided by the CCD camera, (b) reconstructed image.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Experimental result of image reconstruction for the second object (see Table 3): (a) real image provided by the CCD camera, (b) reconstructed image.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Summary of Specifications of the Experimental End-to-End Imaging Demonstrator and Justification of Options Selected

Tables Icon

Table 2 Structuring Elements of Object 1 (Positions and Intensities)a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Structuring Elements of Object 2 (Positions and Intensities)a

Equations (2)

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F3=V12exp cos2πλ(p1+p2)t+a-c+ϕ12,
Vobj=VexpVphVinst.

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