Abstract

A method has been developed for retrieving the scattering and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol from measurements of solar transmission, aureole, and angular distribution of the scattered and polarized sky light in the solar principal plane. Numerical simulations of measurements have been used to investigate the feasibility of the method and to test the algorithm’s performance. It is shown that the absorption and scattering properties of an aerosol, i.e., the single-scattering albedo, the phase function, and the polarization for single scattering of incident unpolarized light, can be obtained by use of radiative transfer calculations to correct the values of scattered radiance and polarized radiance for multiple scattering, Rayleigh scattering, and the influence of ground. The method requires only measurement of the aerosol’s optical thickness and an estimate of the ground’s reflectance and does not need any specific assumption about properties of the aerosol. The accuracy of the retrieved phase function and polarization of the aerosols is examined at near-infrared wavelengths (e.g., 0.870 µm). The aerosol’s microphysical properties (size distribution and complex refractive index) are derived in a second step. The real part of the refractive index is a strong function of the polarization, whereas the imaginary part is strongly dependent on the sky’s radiance and the retrieved single-scattering albedo. It is demonstrated that inclusion of polarization data yields the real part of the refractive index.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999

1998

C. Devaux, A. Vermeulen, J. L. Deuzé, P. Dubuisson, M. Herman, R. Santer, M. Verbrugghe, “Retrieval of aerosol single-scattering albedo from ground-based measurements: application to observational data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, pp. 8753–8761 (1998).

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, “Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212–1227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth observing system AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16971–16988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Wendisch, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Possibility of refractive index determination of atmospheric aerosol particles by ground-based solar extinction and scattering measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 785–792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1989

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transfer 41, 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, D. Tanré, “Saharan aerosols over the south of France: characterization derived from satellite data and ground based measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 680–686 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Gac, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984

1983

1979

1978

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distribution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. E. Hansen, J. M. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. Eiden, “Determination of the complex index of refraction of spherical aerosol particles,” Appl. Opt. 10, 749–754 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, “The effect of atmospheric aerosols on scattered sunlight,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419–428 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, “Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. II. Sunlight reflected by terrestrial water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1957

Ackerman, T. P.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, “Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212–1227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balois, J. Y.

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boi, P.

Box, M. A.

Bréon, F. M.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Browning, S. R.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, “The effect of atmospheric aerosols on scattered sunlight,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419–428 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buriez, J. C.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, E. E. Russell, “An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, R. A. Chipman, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 383–393 (1997).

Carlson, B. E.

B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, E. E. Russell, “An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, R. A. Chipman, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 383–393 (1997).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1950) [Dover, New York, (1960)].

Collatz, G. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth observing system AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curran, R. J.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, “The effect of atmospheric aerosols on scattered sunlight,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419–428 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D’Almeida, G. A.

G. A. D’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols, Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Deepak, A.

Deschamps, P. Y.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J. L.

C. Devaux, A. Vermeulen, J. L. Deuzé, P. Dubuisson, M. Herman, R. Santer, M. Verbrugghe, “Retrieval of aerosol single-scattering albedo from ground-based measurements: application to observational data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, pp. 8753–8761 (1998).

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transfer 41, 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, D. Tanré, “Saharan aerosols over the south of France: characterization derived from satellite data and ground based measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 680–686 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, C.

C. Devaux, A. Vermeulen, J. L. Deuzé, P. Dubuisson, M. Herman, R. Santer, M. Verbrugghe, “Retrieval of aerosol single-scattering albedo from ground-based measurements: application to observational data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, pp. 8753–8761 (1998).

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, D. Tanré, “Saharan aerosols over the south of France: characterization derived from satellite data and ground based measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 680–686 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Gac, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Diner, D. J.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, “Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212–1227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dubuisson, P.

C. Devaux, A. Vermeulen, J. L. Deuzé, P. Dubuisson, M. Herman, R. Santer, M. Verbrugghe, “Retrieval of aerosol single-scattering albedo from ground-based measurements: application to observational data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, pp. 8753–8761 (1998).

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eiden, R.

El Saleous, N. Z.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, R. S.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frouin, R.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gac, J. Y.

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Gac, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ganor, E.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gitelson, A.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, L.

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, “Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212–1227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Retrieval of the columnar aerosol phase function and single scattering albedo from sky radiance over the ocean: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4598–4609, (1993).

Grassl, H.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, J. M. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, “Multiple scattering of polarized light in planetary atmospheres. II. Sunlight reflected by terrestrial water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1400–1426 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, R. J. Curran, “The effect of atmospheric aerosols on scattered sunlight,” J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 419–428 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

C. Devaux, A. Vermeulen, J. L. Deuzé, P. Dubuisson, M. Herman, R. Santer, M. Verbrugghe, “Retrieval of aerosol single-scattering albedo from ground-based measurements: application to observational data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, pp. 8753–8761 (1998).

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16971–16988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transfer 41, 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, D. Tanré, “Saharan aerosols over the south of France: characterization derived from satellite data and ground based measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 680–686 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Gac, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Santer, M. Herman, “Particle size distribution from forward scattered light using the Chahine inversion scheme,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2294–2302 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herring, D. D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth observing system AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B.

Holben, B. N.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. M.

J. E. Hansen, J. M. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Justice, C. O.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, R. A.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, “Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212–1227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Karnieli, A.

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y.

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth observing system AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16971–16988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

G. A. D’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols, Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Lacis, A. A.

B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, E. E. Russell, “An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, R. A. Chipman, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 383–393 (1997).

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, P.

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martonchik, J. V.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, “Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212–1227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mattoo, S.

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16971–16988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McArthur, B.

Miller, J. R.

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, G. Tonna, R. Rao, P. Boi, Y. Kaufman, B. Holben, “Use of sky brightness measurements from ground for remote sensing of particulate dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2672–2686 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Gitelson, A. Karnieli, E. Ganor, R. S. Fraser, T. Nakajima, S. Mattoo, B. N. Holben, “Size distribution and scattering phase function of aerosol particles retrieved from sky brightness measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 10341–10356 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima, M. Tanaka, T. Yamauchi, “Retrieval of the optical properties of aerosols from aureole and extinction data,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2951–2959 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Neill, N. T.

Pinty, B.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, “Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212–1227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Podaire, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ranson, K. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth observing system AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rao, R.

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Aerosol size distributions obtained by inversion of spectral optical depth measurements,” J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 2153–2167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roger, J. C.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, P.

Royer, A.

Russell, E. E.

B. Cairns, B. E. Carlson, A. A. Lacis, E. E. Russell, “An analysis of ground-based polarimetric sky radiance measurements,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing, R. A. Chipman, D. H. Goldstein, eds., Proc. SPIE3121, 383–393 (1997).

Santer, R.

C. Devaux, A. Vermeulen, J. L. Deuzé, P. Dubuisson, M. Herman, R. Santer, M. Verbrugghe, “Retrieval of aerosol single-scattering albedo from ground-based measurements: application to observational data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, pp. 8753–8761 (1998).

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, M. Herman, R. Santer, “Fourier series expansion of the transfer equation in the atmosphere–ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transfer 41, 483–494 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, D. Tanré, “Saharan aerosols over the south of France: characterization derived from satellite data and ground based measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 680–686 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Gac, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Santer, M. Herman, “Particle size distribution from forward scattered light using the Chahine inversion scheme,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2294–2302 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekera, Z.

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sèze, G.

P. Y. Deschamps, F. M. Bréon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, G. Sèze, “The POLDER mission: instrument characteristics and scientific objectives,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598–615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

Shettle, E. P.

G. A. D’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols, Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1991).

Slutsker, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Tanré, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Herman, S. Mattoo, “Remote sensing of aerosol properties over oceans using the MODIS/EOS spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16971–16988 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Bréon, D. Tanré, P. Lecomte, M. Herman, “Polarized reflectance of bare soils and vegetation: measurements and models,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33, 487–499 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, D. Tanré, “Saharan aerosols over the south of France: characterization derived from satellite data and ground based measurements,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 27, 680–686 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanré, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Gac, “Radiative properties of desert aerosols by optical ground-based measurements at solar wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 14223–14231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Teillet, P. M.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanré, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tonna, G.

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Twitty, J. T.

J. T. Twitty, “The inversion of aureole measurements to derive aerosol size distribution,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 584–591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Verbrugghe, M.

C. Devaux, A. Vermeulen, J. L. Deuzé, P. Dubuisson, M. Herman, R. Santer, M. Verbrugghe, “Retrieval of aerosol single-scattering albedo from ground-based measurements: application to observational data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, pp. 8753–8761 (1998).

Vermeulen, A.

C. Devaux, A. Vermeulen, J. L. Deuzé, P. Dubuisson, M. Herman, R. Santer, M. Verbrugghe, “Retrieval of aerosol single-scattering albedo from ground-based measurements: application to observational data,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, pp. 8753–8761 (1998).

A. Vermeulen, “Caractérisation des aérosols à partir de mesures optiques passives au sol: apport des luminances totale et polarisée dans le plan principal,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Lille, France1996).

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanré, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

E. F. Vermote, N. Z. El Saleous, C. O. Justice, Y. J. Kaufman, L. Remer, J. C. Roger, D. Tanré, “Atmospheric correction of visible to middle infrared EOS-MODIS data over land surface, background, operational algorithm and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17131–17141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verstraete, M. E.

J. V. Martonchik, D. J. Diner, R. A. Kahn, T. P. Ackerman, M. E. Verstraete, B. Pinty, H. R. Gordon, “Techniques for the retrieval of aerosol properties over land and ocean using multiangle imaging,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1212–1227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verwaerde, C.

J. L. Deuzé, C. Devaux, M. Herman, R. Santer, J. Y. Balois, L. Gonzalez, P. Lecomte, C. Verwaerde, “Photopolarimetric observations of aerosols and cloud from balloon,” Remote Sens. Environ. 29, 93–110 (1989).
[CrossRef]

von Hoyningen-Huene, W.

M. Wendisch, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Possibility of refractive index determination of atmospheric aerosol particles by ground-based solar extinction and scattering measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 785–792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wendisch, M.

M. Wendisch, W. von Hoyningen-Huene, “Possibility of refractive index determination of atmospheric aerosol particles by ground-based solar extinction and scattering measurements,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 785–792 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, T.

Appl. Opt.

G. E. Shaw, “Inversion of optical scattering and spectral extinction measurements to recover aerosol size spectra,” Appl. Opt. 18, 988–993 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

True aerosol phase function, the phase function of the bimodal log-normal model, compared with the phase function of the Junge model, taken as the first guess pA*(Θ) in the retrieval scheme. The retrieved phase function pAR(Θ) is also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1 but for the polarized phase function.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Effect of aerosol scattering, molecular scattering, and ground reflectance on the sky radiance. Radiance L g ) is calculated for typical experimental conditions (τ A = 0.1 and ω0 = 0.85 at λ = 0.870 µm; θ s = 65°). The radiance is compared with calculations with ρ g = 0 [L(0)], with calculations with ρ g = 0 and τ M =0 [L Aer(0)], and with ρ g = 0 and τ A = 0 [L Rayl(0)]. The result corresponds to observations in the solar principal plane, and is shown as a function of the view’s zenith angle. This figure shows that the molecular scattering and the radiance reflected by the ground and rescattered into the radiometer’s field of view can contribute significantly to the radiance and polarized radiance measurements. (b) Same conditions as in (a): atmospheric (i.e., molecules and aerosols) polarized radiance (L p ), polarized radiance that is due solely to molecules (L p,Rayl), and polarized radiance that is due solely to aerosols (L p,Aer). The large influence of molecular scattering on polarized light is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative contribution of single scattering to total radiance [L (1)/L] and to polarized radiance [Lp(1)/L p ], showing that the influence of multiple scattering is significant in the radiance and to a lesser extent in the polarized radiance, especially toward large scattering angles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic description of the method for retrieving the aerosol scattering properties. The method uses measurements and calculations to retrieve the aerosol phase function, the polarized phase function, and the single-scattering albedo. A more-detailed description is given in Subsection 2.B.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Flow chart of the retrieval of aerosol properties.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relative difference between the retrieved phase function and the true phase function for ±10% error in the radiance and in the aerosol optical thickness.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Relative difference between the retrieved polarized phase function and the true polarized phase function for ±10% error in the polarized radiance and in the aerosol optical thickness.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Contribution (in percent) of each size interval to the phase function from 2° to 130°. Particles smaller than 0.1 µm (class 1) or with radii of 0.10 to 0.5 µm (classes 2–5) contribute the most to the phase function at large angles; large particles, above 0.8 µm (above class 8), contribute exclusively to the forward scattering.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Volume size distributions derived from the inversion of the retrieved phase function for various real refractive indices, including the true refractive index. The true size distribution (the Junge model) is also shown.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

True polarized phase function compared with calculations that correspond to various choices of m r when the size distribution is inverted. The best fit between measurements and calculations yields the correct value of m r .

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Same as Fig. 10 but the true size distribution here corresponding to that of the bimodal log-normal model.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

n(r) has been retrieved from p A (Θ) with m r = 1.30, 1.40, 1.50. In each case, given n(r), we calculated the polarized phase functions for m r = 1.30, 1.40, 1.50, as shown. The three lowest curves show polarized phase functions that correspond to Mie computations with three values of m r with n(r) obtained with m r of 1.50. The three middle (upper) curves correspond to Mie computations with n(r) obtained with m r of 1.40 (1.30), and 3 values of m r .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 rms Relative Deviation (×100) between Measured and Retrieved Phase Function σp, Spectral Optical Thickness στ, and Polarized Phase Function σ q as a Function of the Real Part of the Refractive Index Used in the Inversion of n(r)

Equations (26)

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Θmax=θS+θVmax,
P11ΘP12Θ00P12ΘP22Θ0000P33ΘP34Θ00P34ΘP44Θ.
L=πL*/E,
L1Θ=14 cos θvτMpMΘ+ω0τApAΘ,
Lp1Θ=14 cos θvτMqMΘ+ω0τAqAΘ,
ω0= ω0pAΘsin ΘdΘ/2,
ΔL*=L*-L0*.
ω0τApA+τMpM/4 cos θvL-ΔL*=ω0*τA*pA*+τMpM/4 cos θvL0*,
ω0τApA=L-ΔL*L0* ω0*τA*pA*+L-L*L0* τMpM.
ω0ω0* pA=L-ΔL*L0* pA*+L-L*L0*τMω0*τA* pM.
Yω0*=0πL-ΔL*L0* pA*+L-L*L0*τMω0*τA* pMsinΘdΘ,
pAR=L-ΔL*ω0RL0*ω0R pA*+L-L*ω0RL0*ω0RτMω0RτA* pM.
qAR=LpLp*ω0R qA*+Lp-Lp*ω0RLp*ω0RτMω0RτA* qM.
nr=N2πrσexp-ln r-ln r¯22σ2,
0 πr2Qscar, λ, mnrdr=1.
pAΘj=rminrmax πr2Qscar, λ, mpΘj, r, λ, mnrdr,
nr=hrfr,
pAΘj=i=1N frir1-Δri/2ri+Δri/2 πr2QscapΘjhrdr=i=1N Ajifri.
pA=Af+ε,
np+1ri=nprifri.
n0r=Cr-v0,
pA*=A*f+ε,
pA*Θj=pAΘj/Āj,  Aji*=Aji/Āj,  Āj=i Aji.
σp=1Kj=1KpAΘj-pAretΘjpAΘj21/2,
στ=1Nj=1NτAλj-τAcalλjτAλj21/2,
σq=1Nj=1NqAΘj-qAcalΘjqAΘj21/2,

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