Abstract

We report on what we believe to be the first use of toroidally bent crystals to record two-dimensional, spatially resolved, monochromatic images of laser-produced fusion plasmas combined with a 34-ps fast x-ray framing camera. An array of five toroidal silicon (311) and five toroidal germanium (311) crystals was developed. The imaging properties of the geometries are checked by a ray-tracing program and are compared with experimental results. The total imaging system (crystal and detector) provides an experimentally measured spatial resolution better than 15 µm. Time histories for the hydrogenlike argon emission and the heliumlike argon emission of fusion pellets driven with the GEKKO XII glass laser system are presented.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  3. A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
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  6. B. Yaakobi, F. Marshall, D. Bradley, “Pinhole-array x-ray spectrometer for laser-fusion experiments,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8074–8080 (1998).
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  12. I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Gäbel, G. Hölzer, M. Ensslen, “X-ray reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystals in Bragg-geometry,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 405–412 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Koch, O. L. Landen, T. W. Barbee, P. Celliers, L. B. Da Silva, S. G. Glendinning, B. A. Hammel, D. H. Kalantar, C. Brown, J. Seely, G. R. Bennett, W. Hsing, “High-energy x-ray microscopy techniques for laser-fusion plasma research at the National Ignition Facility,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1784–1795 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Takagi, T. Norimatsu, T. Yamanaka, S. Nakai, “Development of deuterium polysterene shells for laser fusion by means of a density-matched emulsion method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2145–214 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.
  21. J. Koch, O. Landen, Y. Aglitzky, C. Brown, “Curved Bragg crystal for high-energy, high resolution x-ray imaging applications at the National Ignition Facility,” presented at the workshop Methods and Applications of Curved Crystal X-ray Optics, Weimar, Germany, 4–7 October 1999.

2000 (1)

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, G. Jenke, D. von der Linde, “Monochromatic focusing of subpicosecond x-ray pulses in the keV-range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1288–1299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Gäbel, G. Hölzer, M. Ensslen, “X-ray reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystals in Bragg-geometry,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 405–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Particle Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Takagi, T. Norimatsu, T. Yamanaka, S. Nakai, “Development of deuterium polysterene shells for laser fusion by means of a density-matched emulsion method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2145–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Aglitzky, Y.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Koch, O. Landen, Y. Aglitzky, C. Brown, “Curved Bragg crystal for high-energy, high resolution x-ray imaging applications at the National Ignition Facility,” presented at the workshop Methods and Applications of Curved Crystal X-ray Optics, Weimar, Germany, 4–7 October 1999.

Back, C.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Barbee, T. W.

Bennett, G. R.

Bodner, S.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bourke, P.

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D.

Brown, C.

J. Koch, O. L. Landen, T. W. Barbee, P. Celliers, L. B. Da Silva, S. G. Glendinning, B. A. Hammel, D. H. Kalantar, C. Brown, J. Seely, G. R. Bennett, W. Hsing, “High-energy x-ray microscopy techniques for laser-fusion plasma research at the National Ignition Facility,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1784–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Koch, O. Landen, Y. Aglitzky, C. Brown, “Curved Bragg crystal for high-energy, high resolution x-ray imaging applications at the National Ignition Facility,” presented at the workshop Methods and Applications of Curved Crystal X-ray Optics, Weimar, Germany, 4–7 October 1999.

Butzbach, R.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Celliers, P.

Chenais-Popovics, C.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

Deckmann, H.

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Delameter, N. D.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delettrez, J.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Dirksmöller, M.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ensslen, M.

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Gäbel, G. Hölzer, M. Ensslen, “X-ray reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystals in Bragg-geometry,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 405–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, U.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Förster, E.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, G. Jenke, D. von der Linde, “Monochromatic focusing of subpicosecond x-ray pulses in the keV-range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1288–1299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Gäbel, G. Hölzer, M. Ensslen, “X-ray reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystals in Bragg-geometry,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 405–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Particle Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Fujita, K.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Fukao, M.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gäbel, K.

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Gäbel, G. Hölzer, M. Ensslen, “X-ray reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystals in Bragg-geometry,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 405–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Particle Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, K.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glendinning, S. G.

Golovkin, I.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Griem, H. R.

A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hammel, B. A.

J. Koch, O. L. Landen, T. W. Barbee, P. Celliers, L. B. Da Silva, S. G. Glendinning, B. A. Hammel, D. H. Kalantar, C. Brown, J. Seely, G. R. Bennett, W. Hsing, “High-energy x-ray microscopy techniques for laser-fusion plasma research at the National Ignition Facility,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1784–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hauer, A.

A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hölzer, G.

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Gäbel, G. Hölzer, M. Ensslen, “X-ray reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystals in Bragg-geometry,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 405–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, C. F.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hsing, W.

Izumi, N.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jenke, G.

T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, G. Jenke, D. von der Linde, “Monochromatic focusing of subpicosecond x-ray pulses in the keV-range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1288–1299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalantar, D. H.

Kania, D. R.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, T.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keane, C. J.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kepple, P. C.

A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kilkenny, J. D.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kiso, T.

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klein, L.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Koch, J.

J. Koch, O. L. Landen, T. W. Barbee, P. Celliers, L. B. Da Silva, S. G. Glendinning, B. A. Hammel, D. H. Kalantar, C. Brown, J. Seely, G. R. Bennett, W. Hsing, “High-energy x-ray microscopy techniques for laser-fusion plasma research at the National Ignition Facility,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1784–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Koch, O. Landen, Y. Aglitzky, C. Brown, “Curved Bragg crystal for high-energy, high resolution x-ray imaging applications at the National Ignition Facility,” presented at the workshop Methods and Applications of Curved Crystal X-ray Optics, Weimar, Germany, 4–7 October 1999.

Kondo, K.

K. Kondo, “X-ray framing camera with microchannel plate gating technique,” (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan, 1995), pp. 173–174.

Landen, O.

J. Koch, O. Landen, Y. Aglitzky, C. Brown, “Curved Bragg crystal for high-energy, high resolution x-ray imaging applications at the National Ignition Facility,” presented at the workshop Methods and Applications of Curved Crystal X-ray Optics, Weimar, Germany, 4–7 October 1999.

Landen, O. L.

Lee, R.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Lee, R. W.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lehecka, T.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mancini, R.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Mancini, R. C.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, F.

McCrory, R. L.

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mima, K.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, H. Takabe, K. Mima, “Mixing analysis of lower modes by 2-D code coupled with spectroscopy code,” presented at the XXV European Conference of Laser Interaction with Matter, Formia, Italy, 4–8 May 1998.

Missalla, T.

T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, G. Jenke, D. von der Linde, “Monochromatic focusing of subpicosecond x-ray pulses in the keV-range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1288–1299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Mitchell, K. B.

A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nakai, S.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Takagi, T. Norimatsu, T. Yamanaka, S. Nakai, “Development of deuterium polysterene shells for laser fusion by means of a density-matched emulsion method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2145–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Naruo, S.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, H. Takabe, K. Mima, “Mixing analysis of lower modes by 2-D code coupled with spectroscopy code,” presented at the XXV European Conference of Laser Interaction with Matter, Formia, Italy, 4–8 May 1998.

Niki, I.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Nishimura, H.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Norimatsu, T.

M. Takagi, T. Norimatsu, T. Yamanaka, S. Nakai, “Development of deuterium polysterene shells for laser fusion by means of a density-matched emulsion method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2145–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Obenschain, S.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ochi, Y.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

Osterheld, A. L.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pawley, C.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rancu, O.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Renaudin, P.

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J.

J. Koch, O. L. Landen, T. W. Barbee, P. Celliers, L. B. Da Silva, S. G. Glendinning, B. A. Hammel, D. H. Kalantar, C. Brown, J. Seely, G. R. Bennett, W. Hsing, “High-energy x-ray microscopy techniques for laser-fusion plasma research at the National Ignition Facility,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1784–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Serlin, V.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sethian, J.

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shiraga, H.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skupsky, S.

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Soures, J. M.

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sunahara, A.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, H. Takabe, K. Mima, “Mixing analysis of lower modes by 2-D code coupled with spectroscopy code,” presented at the XXV European Conference of Laser Interaction with Matter, Formia, Italy, 4–8 May 1998.

Suter, L. J.

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takabe, H.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, H. Takabe, K. Mima, “Mixing analysis of lower modes by 2-D code coupled with spectroscopy code,” presented at the XXV European Conference of Laser Interaction with Matter, Formia, Italy, 4–8 May 1998.

Takagi, M.

M. Takagi, T. Norimatsu, T. Yamanaka, S. Nakai, “Development of deuterium polysterene shells for laser fusion by means of a density-matched emulsion method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2145–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tan, T. H.

A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Taupin, D.

D. Taupin, “Theorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayon X par les cristaux déformes,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris, Paris, 1964).

Uschmann, I.

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, G. Jenke, D. von der Linde, “Monochromatic focusing of subpicosecond x-ray pulses in the keV-range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1288–1299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Gäbel, G. Hölzer, M. Ensslen, “X-ray reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystals in Bragg-geometry,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 405–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Particle Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

van Hulsteyn, D. B.

A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Vollbrecht, M.

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, G. Jenke, D. von der Linde, “Monochromatic focusing of subpicosecond x-ray pulses in the keV-range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1288–1299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yaakobi, B.

B. Yaakobi, F. Marshall, D. Bradley, “Pinhole-array x-ray spectrometer for laser-fusion experiments,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8074–8080 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

M. Takagi, T. Norimatsu, T. Yamanaka, S. Nakai, “Development of deuterium polysterene shells for laser fusion by means of a density-matched emulsion method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2145–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Appl. Crystallogr. (1)

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Gäbel, G. Hölzer, M. Ensslen, “X-ray reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystals in Bragg-geometry,” J. Appl. Crystallogr. 26, 405–412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

M. Vollbrecht, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, K. Fujita, Y. Ochi, H. Nishimura, K. Mima, “Five channel x-ray imaging of laser fusion plasmas,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 58, 965–974 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, N. Izumi, A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, T. Kawamura, M. Fukao, H. Shiraga, H. Takabe, K. Mima, S. Nakai, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, “Time- and space resolved x-ray spectroscopy for observation of the hot compressed core region in a laser driven implosion,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 65, 393–404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

M. Takagi, T. Norimatsu, T. Yamanaka, S. Nakai, “Development of deuterium polysterene shells for laser fusion by means of a density-matched emulsion method,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 2145–214 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laser Particle Beams (1)

E. Förster, K. Gäbel, I. Uschmann, “X-ray microscopy of laser-produced plasmas with the use of bent crystals,” Laser Particle Beams 9, 135–148 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Dirksmöller, O. Rancu, I. Uschmann, P. Renaudin, C. Chenais-Popovics, J. C. Gauthier, E. Förster, “Time resolved x-ray monochromatic imaging of a laser-produced plasma at 0.6635 nm wavelength,” Opt. Commun. 118, 379–387 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids B (1)

C. J. Keane, B. A. Hammel, D. R. Kania, J. D. Kilkenny, R. W. Lee, A. L. Osterheld, L. J. Suter, R. C. Mancini, C. F. Hooper, N. D. Delameter, “X-ray spectroscopy of high-energy density inertial confinement fusion plasmas,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 3328–3336 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

H. Nishimura, T. Kiso, H. Shiraga, T. Endo, K. Fujita, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Study of indirectly driven implosion by x-ray spectroscopic measurements,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 2063–2074 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. Yaakobi, S. Skupsky, R. L. McCrory, C. F. Hooper, H. Deckmann, P. Bourke, J. M. Soures, “Symmetric laser compression of argon-filled glass shells to densities 4–6 g/cm3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1072–1075 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Hauer, K. B. Mitchell, D. B. van Hulsteyn, T. H. Tan, P. C. Kepple, H. R. Griem, “Spectroscopic measurement of high-density CO2-laser-driven implosion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1495–1498 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

C. Brown, J. Seely, U. Feldmann, S. Obenschain, S. Bodner, C. Pawley, K. Gerber, V. Serlin, J. Sethian, Y. Aglitzky, T. Lehecka, G. Holland, “X-ray imaging of targets irradiated by the Nike KeF laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1, 1099–1102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Uschmann, E. Förster, H. Nishimura, K. Fujita, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, “Temperature mapping of compressed fusion pellets obtained by monochromatic imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 734–736 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, G. Jenke, D. von der Linde, “Monochromatic focusing of subpicosecond x-ray pulses in the keV-range,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 1288–1299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. Taupin, “Theorie dynamique de la diffraction des rayon X par les cristaux déformes,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Paris, Paris, 1964).

A. Sunahara, S. Naruo, H. Takabe, K. Mima, “Mixing analysis of lower modes by 2-D code coupled with spectroscopy code,” presented at the XXV European Conference of Laser Interaction with Matter, Formia, Italy, 4–8 May 1998.

K. Kondo, “X-ray framing camera with microchannel plate gating technique,” (Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan, 1995), pp. 173–174.

I. Golovkin, R. Mancini, Y. Ochi, K. Fujita, I. Niki, H. Nishimura, I. Uschmann, R. Butzbach, E. Förster, R. Lee, C. Back, T. Missalla, L. Klein, J. Delettrez, “Spectroscopic analysis of plasma gradients in ICF imploded cores,” poster session presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of Plasma Physics, Seattle, Wash., 15–19 November 1999.

J. Koch, O. Landen, Y. Aglitzky, C. Brown, “Curved Bragg crystal for high-energy, high resolution x-ray imaging applications at the National Ignition Facility,” presented at the workshop Methods and Applications of Curved Crystal X-ray Optics, Weimar, Germany, 4–7 October 1999.

K. Mima, “Recent experiments and theoretical activities on new ignition concepts of laser fusion”; D. H. Kalantar, B. A. Remington, E. A. Chandler, J. D. Colvin, “X-ray driven solid state hydrodynamic instability experiments on the NOVA laser”; T. R. Boehly, “Laser-uniformity and hydrodynamic-stability experiments at the OMEGA laser facility,” presented at the XXV European Conference of Laser Interaction with Matter, Formia, Italy, 4–8 May 1998.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Geometry of the x-ray optical system for time-resolved monochromatic x-ray imaging, (b) image of the crystal mounting used at the GEKKO XII facility.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Point-spread function for the toroidally bent germanium (311) crystal reflecting line radiation calculated by ray-tracing simulation; image size related to the object plane, 50 µm. (b) Point-spread function compared with the spherically bent crystal, image size related to the object plane, 200 µm. Crystal size for both, 7 mm × 7 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray imaging test of a germanium (311) crystal backlighting a gold grid of spacing 500 lines/in. with the x rays of the M-shell continuum from gold plasma. A CCD detector yields a spatial resolution of 6.2 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-resolved monochromatic images of the compressed fusion plasma for the argon Heβ and the argon Lyβ lines.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of the Bent Crystal X-Ray System used for Monochromatic Imaging of the Fusion Plasma

Equations (9)

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fh=Rh2sin ΘB,  fv=Rv2 sin ΘB.
f=fh=fv,
Rv/Rh=sin2 ΘB.
Δλλ k-1k+1ΔScrystalRh tan ΘB,
ΔEEk-1k+1ΔScrystalRh tan ΘB.
ErefEem=2k2k2-1ΔhcrystalRintRh sin ΘB.
k=-cos2 Θ+sin4 Θ+c2Rh sin Θ21/2+c2(Rh sin Θ)2-2 cos2 Θsin4 Θ + c2Rh sin Θ21/2-2 cos2 Θ sin2 Θ1/2.
sin Θ=sin Θ0 cos δ.
ΔΘ=tan Θ0Δλ/λ.

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