Abstract

Scattering characteristics of multilayer fluoride coatings for 193 nm deposited by ion beam sputtering and the related interfacial roughnesses are investigated. Quarter- and half-wave stacks of MgF2 and LaF3 with increasing thickness are deposited onto CaF2 and fused silica and are systematically characterized. Roughness measurements carried out by atomic force microscopy reveal the evolution of the power spectral densities of the interfaces with coating thickness. Backward-scattering measurements are presented, and the results are compared with theoretical predictions that use different models for the statistical correlation of interfacial roughnesses.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,” in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily ed., SPIE Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Papers Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213–231.
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    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Gliech, J. Steinert, A. Duparré, “VUV light scattering measurement of optical components for lithography applications,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Dupparé, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 213–231 (2000).
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2000 (2)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1988 (2)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

Amra, C.

Apel, O.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Arens, W.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Basting, D.

U. Stamm, R. Paetzel, I. Bragin, J. Kleinschmidt, D. Basting, F. Voss, “Recent developments in industrial excimer laser technology,” in XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, D. R. Hall, H. J. Baker, eds., Proc. SPIE3092, 485–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. M.

Berger, M.

E. Quesnel, M. Berger, J. Cigna, D. Duca, C. Pellé, F. Pierre, “Near-UV to IR optical characterization of YF3 thin films deposited by evaporation and ion beam processes,” in Developments in Optical Component Coatings, I. Reid, ed., Proc. SPIE2776, 366–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernitzki, H.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Bosch, S.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bousquet, P.

Bragin, I.

U. Stamm, R. Paetzel, I. Bragin, J. Kleinschmidt, D. Basting, F. Voss, “Recent developments in industrial excimer laser technology,” in XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, D. R. Hall, H. J. Baker, eds., Proc. SPIE3092, 485–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Church, E. L.

Cigna, J.

E. Quesnel, M. Berger, J. Cigna, D. Duca, C. Pellé, F. Pierre, “Near-UV to IR optical characterization of YF3 thin films deposited by evaporation and ion beam processes,” in Developments in Optical Component Coatings, I. Reid, ed., Proc. SPIE2776, 366–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deumie, C.

Dijon, J.

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, J. Hue, “High damage threshold fluoride UV mirrors made by ion beam sputtering,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Symposium, Boulder, 1997, Proc. SPIE3244, 406–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duca, D.

E. Quesnel, M. Berger, J. Cigna, D. Duca, C. Pellé, F. Pierre, “Near-UV to IR optical characterization of YF3 thin films deposited by evaporation and ion beam processes,” in Developments in Optical Component Coatings, I. Reid, ed., Proc. SPIE2776, 366–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Duparré, A.

P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Jakobs, A. Duparré, H. Truckenbrodt, “Interfacial roughness and related scatter in ultraviolet optical coatings: a systematic experimental approach,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1180–1193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, H.-G. Walther, “Surface smoothing and roughening by dielectric thin film deposition,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1393–1395 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Gliech, J. Steinert, A. Duparré, “VUV light scattering measurement of optical components for lithography applications,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Dupparé, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 213–231 (2000).

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Günter, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 273–304.

E. Quesnel, A. Petit dit Dariel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Steinert, “DUV light scattering and morphology of ion beam sputtered fluoride coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 410–416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,” in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily ed., SPIE Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Papers Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213–231.

A. Duparré, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. Mann, E. Eva, “Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV-litography applications,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1048–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Elson, J. M.

Eva, E.

A. Duparré, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. Mann, E. Eva, “Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV-litography applications,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1048–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferré-Borrull, J.

E. Quesnel, A. Petit dit Dariel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Steinert, “DUV light scattering and morphology of ion beam sputtered fluoride coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 410–416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

Garrec, P.

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, J. Hue, “High damage threshold fluoride UV mirrors made by ion beam sputtering,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Symposium, Boulder, 1997, Proc. SPIE3244, 406–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gliech, S.

P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Gliech, “Total light scattering measurement from the VUV to IR spectral region,” Ph.D. dissertation (University ofIlmenau, Ilmenau, Germany) (in preparation).

S. Gliech, J. Steinert, A. Duparré, “VUV light scattering measurement of optical components for lithography applications,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Dupparé, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 213–231 (2000).

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heyer, H.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Hue, J.

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, J. Hue, “High damage threshold fluoride UV mirrors made by ion beam sputtering,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Symposium, Boulder, 1997, Proc. SPIE3244, 406–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, D.

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jakobs, S.

S. Jakobs, A. Duparré, H. Truckenbrodt, “Interfacial roughness and related scatter in ultraviolet optical coatings: a systematic experimental approach,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1180–1193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. Mann, E. Eva, “Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV-litography applications,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1048–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jolie, C.

Kadkhoda, P.

Kaiser, N.

A. Duparré, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. Mann, E. Eva, “Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV-litography applications,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1048–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Kessler, H.

Kiriakidis, G.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kleinschmidt, J.

U. Stamm, R. Paetzel, I. Bragin, J. Kleinschmidt, D. Basting, F. Voss, “Recent developments in industrial excimer laser technology,” in XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, D. R. Hall, H. J. Baker, eds., Proc. SPIE3092, 485–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lauth, H.

P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Lindström, T.

Mann, K.

A. Duparré, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. Mann, E. Eva, “Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV-litography applications,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1048–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Masetti, E.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mattsson, L.

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

Müller, A.

Notni, G.

A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,” in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily ed., SPIE Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Papers Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213–231.

Paetzel, R.

U. Stamm, R. Paetzel, I. Bragin, J. Kleinschmidt, D. Basting, F. Voss, “Recent developments in industrial excimer laser technology,” in XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, D. R. Hall, H. J. Baker, eds., Proc. SPIE3092, 485–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peiró, F.

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pellé, C.

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, J. Hue, “High damage threshold fluoride UV mirrors made by ion beam sputtering,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Symposium, Boulder, 1997, Proc. SPIE3244, 406–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, M. Berger, J. Cigna, D. Duca, C. Pellé, F. Pierre, “Near-UV to IR optical characterization of YF3 thin films deposited by evaporation and ion beam processes,” in Developments in Optical Component Coatings, I. Reid, ed., Proc. SPIE2776, 366–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Petit dit Dariel, A.

E. Quesnel, A. Petit dit Dariel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Steinert, “DUV light scattering and morphology of ion beam sputtered fluoride coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 410–416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, F.

E. Quesnel, M. Berger, J. Cigna, D. Duca, C. Pellé, F. Pierre, “Near-UV to IR optical characterization of YF3 thin films deposited by evaporation and ion beam processes,” in Developments in Optical Component Coatings, I. Reid, ed., Proc. SPIE2776, 366–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Quesnel, E.

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, M. Berger, J. Cigna, D. Duca, C. Pellé, F. Pierre, “Near-UV to IR optical characterization of YF3 thin films deposited by evaporation and ion beam processes,” in Developments in Optical Component Coatings, I. Reid, ed., Proc. SPIE2776, 366–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, A. Petit dit Dariel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Steinert, “DUV light scattering and morphology of ion beam sputtered fluoride coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 410–416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, J. Hue, “High damage threshold fluoride UV mirrors made by ion beam sputtering,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Symposium, Boulder, 1997, Proc. SPIE3244, 406–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, J. P.

Reng, N.

Ribbing, C. G.

Ristau, D.

P. Kadkhoda, A. Müller, D. Ristau, A. Duparré, S. Gliech, H. Lauth, U. Schuhmann, N. Reng, M. Tilsch, R. Schuhmann, C. Amra, C. Deumie, C. Jolie, H. Kessler, T. Lindström, C. G. Ribbing, J. M. Bennett, “International round-robin experiment to test the International Organization for Standardization total scattering draft standard,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3321–3332 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Roche, P.

Rolland, B.

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, J. Hue, “High damage threshold fluoride UV mirrors made by ion beam sputtering,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Symposium, Boulder, 1997, Proc. SPIE3244, 406–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruppe, C.

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schippel, S.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Schuhmann, R.

Schuhmann, U.

Stamm, U.

U. Stamm, R. Paetzel, I. Bragin, J. Kleinschmidt, D. Basting, F. Voss, “Recent developments in industrial excimer laser technology,” in XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, D. R. Hall, H. J. Baker, eds., Proc. SPIE3092, 485–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Steinert, J.

S. Gliech, J. Steinert, A. Duparré, “VUV light scattering measurement of optical components for lithography applications,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Dupparé, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 213–231 (2000).

E. Quesnel, A. Petit dit Dariel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Steinert, “DUV light scattering and morphology of ion beam sputtered fluoride coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 410–416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thielsch, R.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

A. Duparré, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. Mann, E. Eva, “Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV-litography applications,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1048–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonravov, A. V.

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tilsch, M.

Truckenbrodt, H.

Ullmann, J.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Voss, F.

U. Stamm, R. Paetzel, I. Bragin, J. Kleinschmidt, D. Basting, F. Voss, “Recent developments in industrial excimer laser technology,” in XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, D. R. Hall, H. J. Baker, eds., Proc. SPIE3092, 485–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.-G.

Zaczek, C.

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Thin Solid Films (2)

C. Ruppe, A. Duparré, “Roughness analysis of optical films and substrates by atomic force microscopy,” Thin Solid Films 288, 8–13 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Jacob, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, D. Ristau, “Microstructure and composition of MgF2 optical coatings grown on Si substrate by PVD and IBS processes,” Thin Solid Films 360, 133–138 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

A. Duparré, S. Gliech, “Quality assessment from supersmooth to rough surfaces by multiple-wavelength light scattering measurement,” in Scattering and Surface Roughness, Z. Gu, A. A. Maradudin, eds., Proc. SPIE3141, 57–64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, G. Notni, “Multi-type surface and thin film characterization using light scattering, scanning force microscopy and white light interferometry,” in Optical Metrology, G. A. Al-Jumaily ed., SPIE Vol. CR 72 of SPIE Critical Review Papers Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1999), pp. 213–231.

International Organization for Standardization, Working Group 6, Subcommittee 9, Technical Committee 172, “Optics and optical instruments—test methods for radiation scattered by optical components,” (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1999).

S. Gliech, J. Steinert, A. Duparré, “VUV light scattering measurement of optical components for lithography applications,” in Optical Metrology Roadmap for the Semiconductor, Optical, and Data Storage Industries, G. A. Al-Jumaily, A. Dupparé, B. Singh, eds., Proc. SPIE4099, 213–231 (2000).

S. Gliech, “Total light scattering measurement from the VUV to IR spectral region,” Ph.D. dissertation (University ofIlmenau, Ilmenau, Germany) (in preparation).

J. M. Bennett, L. Mattsson, Introduction to Surface Roughness and Scattering, 2nd ed. (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999).

U. Stamm, R. Paetzel, I. Bragin, J. Kleinschmidt, D. Basting, F. Voss, “Recent developments in industrial excimer laser technology,” in XI International Symposium on Gas Flow and Chemical Lasers and High-Power Laser Conference, D. R. Hall, H. J. Baker, eds., Proc. SPIE3092, 485–492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Ristau, W. Arens, S. Bosch, A. Duparré, E. Masetti, D. Jacob, G. Kiriakidis, F. Peiró, E. Quesnel, A. V. Tikhonravov, “UV-Optical and microstructural Properties of MgF2 coatings deposited by IBS and PVD processes,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 436–445 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, S. Jakobs, K. Mann, E. Eva, “Surface finish and optical quality of CaF2 for UV-litography applications,” in Optical Microlithography XI, L. Van den Hove ed., Proc. SPIE3334, 1048–1054 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Arens, D. Ristau, J. Ullmann, C. Zaczek, R. Thielsch, N. Kaiser, A. Duparré, O. Apel, K. Mann, H. Lauth, H. Bernitzki, J. Ebert, S. Schippel, H. Heyer, “Properties of fluoride DUV-excimer laser optics: influence of the number of dielectric layers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 250–259 (2000).

J. Dijon, E. Quesnel, B. Rolland, P. Garrec, C. Pellé, J. Hue, “High damage threshold fluoride UV mirrors made by ion beam sputtering,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials Symposium, Boulder, 1997, Proc. SPIE3244, 406–416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, A. Petit dit Dariel, A. Duparré, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Steinert, “DUV light scattering and morphology of ion beam sputtered fluoride coatings,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, H. Macleod, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 410–416 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Quesnel, M. Berger, J. Cigna, D. Duca, C. Pellé, F. Pierre, “Near-UV to IR optical characterization of YF3 thin films deposited by evaporation and ion beam processes,” in Developments in Optical Component Coatings, I. Reid, ed., Proc. SPIE2776, 366–372 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Duparré, “Light scattering of thin dielectric films,” in Thin films for Optical Coatings, R. E. Hummel, K. H. Günter, eds., Vol. 1 of Handbook of Optical Properties Series (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995), pp. 273–304.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection spectra for different stacks (first set on FS substrates).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PSD functions of the substrates used in the experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

AFM top view image of a QW MgF2 single layer deposited on FS.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM top view image of L–H–L design deposited on CF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM top view image of a 2L–2H–2L coating deposited on FS.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Selected PSD functions for the samples with QW designs.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

AFM top view image of the (L–H)10 sample deposited on FS.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Selected PSD functions for samples with HW designs.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diagram of setup for TS measurement. For the measurements in this study backscatter configuration was used. A similar setup for measurements at 157 nm is placed in a vacuum chamber and uses excimer laser or deuterium lamp radiation. 2D, two dimensional.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of measured and calculated TS for samples with expected scattering higher than the sensitivity of the measurement setup.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Designs of the Samples Studied

Tables Icon

Table 2 Overview of the Stacks Investigated and Their Reflectance (in percent) at 193 nm

Tables Icon

Table 3 Roughness Values of the Substrates Used in the Experiments

Tables Icon

Table 4 Roughness Values of the Produced Coatings

Tables Icon

Table 5 Minimum Measurable Values of TS (Sensitivity) for the Samples with QW Designs

Tables Icon

Table 6 Measured Values of Total Scattering at 193 nm

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σrms2=2π fminfmax PSDf fdf,
f=sinθ/λ,
dPP0dΩ=i=0pj=0p CiCj*gijθ,
hix, y=hi-1x, y+ξix, y.
gij=gii,  where i=minimumi, j.
TS=θminθmax02πdPP0dΩ,
SBeam=SSiRSiR1+R21-R121-R1R2,

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