Abstract

New, improved-performance InSb power–irradiance meters have been developed and characterized to maintain the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) spectral responsivity scale between 2 and 5.1 µm. The InSb radiometers were calibrated against the transfer-standard cryogenic bolometer that is tied to the primary-standard cryogenic radiometer of the NIST. The InSb radiometers serve as easy-to-use working standards for routine spectral power and irradiance responsivity calibrations. The spectral irradiance responsivities were derived from the spectral power responsivities by use of the measured area of the apertures in front of the InSb detectors.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. H. Nettleton, T. R. Prior, T. H. Ward, “Improved spectral responsivity scales at the NPL, 400 nm to 20 µm,” Metrologia 30, 425–432 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L.-P. Boivin, “Properties of indium antimonide detectors for use as transfer standards for detector calibrations,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1924–1929 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Migdall, G. Eppeldauer, “Realization of an infrared spectral radiant power response scale on a cryogenic bolometer,” Metrologia 35, 307–315 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, L. M. Hanssen, “InSb working standard radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 485–490 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, C. L. Cromer, “A cryogenic silicon resistance bolometer for use as an infrared transfer standard detector,” in Thermal Phenomena at Molecular and in Cryogenic Infrared Detectors, M. Kaviany, D. A. Kaminski, A. Majumdar, P. E. Phelan, M. M. Yovanovich, Z. M. Zhang, eds., book H00908-1994 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York), pp. 63–67.
  6. G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, T. R. Gentile, C. L. Cromer, “Absolute response calibration of a transfer standard cryogenic bolometer,” in Photodetectors and Power Meters II, K. Muray, K. J. Kaufmann, eds., Proc. SPIE2550, 36–46 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Identification of commercial equipment to specify adequately an experimental problem does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the NIST, nor does it imply that the equipment identified is necessarily the best available for the purpose.
  8. A. L. Migdall, G. P. Eppeldauer, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. III. Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998).
  9. G. P. Eppeldauer, “Noise-optimized silicon radiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 209–219 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. I. Ultraviolet Detectors; II. Visible and Near-Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 35.
  11. B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1994).
  12. American National Standards Institute/National Conference of Standards Laboratories, “American National Standard for Expressing Uncertainty–U.S. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement,” (National Conference of Standards Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1998).
  13. Commission International d’Eclairage, “Methods of characterizing the performance of radiometers and photometers,” (CIE, Vienna, Austria, 1982).

2000

G. P. Eppeldauer, “Noise-optimized silicon radiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

L.-P. Boivin, “Properties of indium antimonide detectors for use as transfer standards for detector calibrations,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1924–1929 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Migdall, G. Eppeldauer, “Realization of an infrared spectral radiant power response scale on a cryogenic bolometer,” Metrologia 35, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, L. M. Hanssen, “InSb working standard radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 485–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. H. Nettleton, T. R. Prior, T. H. Ward, “Improved spectral responsivity scales at the NPL, 400 nm to 20 µm,” Metrologia 30, 425–432 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.-P.

Bruce, S. S.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. I. Ultraviolet Detectors; II. Visible and Near-Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 35.

Cromer, C. L.

G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, T. R. Gentile, C. L. Cromer, “Absolute response calibration of a transfer standard cryogenic bolometer,” in Photodetectors and Power Meters II, K. Muray, K. J. Kaufmann, eds., Proc. SPIE2550, 36–46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eppeldauer, G.

A. Migdall, G. Eppeldauer, “Realization of an infrared spectral radiant power response scale on a cryogenic bolometer,” Metrologia 35, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, T. R. Gentile, C. L. Cromer, “Absolute response calibration of a transfer standard cryogenic bolometer,” in Photodetectors and Power Meters II, K. Muray, K. J. Kaufmann, eds., Proc. SPIE2550, 36–46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eppeldauer, G. P.

G. P. Eppeldauer, “Noise-optimized silicon radiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, L. M. Hanssen, “InSb working standard radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 485–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Migdall, G. P. Eppeldauer, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. III. Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998).

Gentile, T. R.

G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, T. R. Gentile, C. L. Cromer, “Absolute response calibration of a transfer standard cryogenic bolometer,” in Photodetectors and Power Meters II, K. Muray, K. J. Kaufmann, eds., Proc. SPIE2550, 36–46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanssen, L. M.

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, L. M. Hanssen, “InSb working standard radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 485–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuyatt, C. E.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Larason, T. C.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. I. Ultraviolet Detectors; II. Visible and Near-Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 35.

Migdall, A.

A. Migdall, G. Eppeldauer, “Realization of an infrared spectral radiant power response scale on a cryogenic bolometer,” Metrologia 35, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A. L.

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, L. M. Hanssen, “InSb working standard radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 485–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, T. R. Gentile, C. L. Cromer, “Absolute response calibration of a transfer standard cryogenic bolometer,” in Photodetectors and Power Meters II, K. Muray, K. J. Kaufmann, eds., Proc. SPIE2550, 36–46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Migdall, G. P. Eppeldauer, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. III. Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998).

Nettleton, D. H.

D. H. Nettleton, T. R. Prior, T. H. Ward, “Improved spectral responsivity scales at the NPL, 400 nm to 20 µm,” Metrologia 30, 425–432 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Parr, A. C.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. I. Ultraviolet Detectors; II. Visible and Near-Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 35.

Prior, T. R.

D. H. Nettleton, T. R. Prior, T. H. Ward, “Improved spectral responsivity scales at the NPL, 400 nm to 20 µm,” Metrologia 30, 425–432 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, B. N.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1994).

Ward, T. H.

D. H. Nettleton, T. R. Prior, T. H. Ward, “Improved spectral responsivity scales at the NPL, 400 nm to 20 µm,” Metrologia 30, 425–432 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

G. P. Eppeldauer, “Noise-optimized silicon radiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 105, 209–219 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

A. Migdall, G. Eppeldauer, “Realization of an infrared spectral radiant power response scale on a cryogenic bolometer,” Metrologia 35, 307–315 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, L. M. Hanssen, “InSb working standard radiometers,” Metrologia 35, 485–490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Nettleton, T. R. Prior, T. H. Ward, “Improved spectral responsivity scales at the NPL, 400 nm to 20 µm,” Metrologia 30, 425–432 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, C. L. Cromer, “A cryogenic silicon resistance bolometer for use as an infrared transfer standard detector,” in Thermal Phenomena at Molecular and in Cryogenic Infrared Detectors, M. Kaviany, D. A. Kaminski, A. Majumdar, P. E. Phelan, M. M. Yovanovich, Z. M. Zhang, eds., book H00908-1994 (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York), pp. 63–67.

G. Eppeldauer, A. L. Migdall, T. R. Gentile, C. L. Cromer, “Absolute response calibration of a transfer standard cryogenic bolometer,” in Photodetectors and Power Meters II, K. Muray, K. J. Kaufmann, eds., Proc. SPIE2550, 36–46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Identification of commercial equipment to specify adequately an experimental problem does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the NIST, nor does it imply that the equipment identified is necessarily the best available for the purpose.

A. L. Migdall, G. P. Eppeldauer, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. III. Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998).

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, A. C. Parr, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements. I. Ultraviolet Detectors; II. Visible and Near-Infrared Detectors, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 35.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1994).

American National Standards Institute/National Conference of Standards Laboratories, “American National Standard for Expressing Uncertainty–U.S. Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement,” (National Conference of Standards Laboratories, Boulder, Colo., 1998).

Commission International d’Eclairage, “Methods of characterizing the performance of radiometers and photometers,” (CIE, Vienna, Austria, 1982).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mechanical-optical construction of the second-generation (long-snout) InSb radiometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical-mechanical scheme of the Ambient Infrared Spectral Comparator Facility.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency-dependent signal responsivity curves of the InSb-1 radiometer at transimpedances of 10, 20, and 30 kΩ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Horizontal and vertical response scans of the InSb-1 radiometer. The curves show the response differences relative to the response in the detector center.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral responsivity curves of the first-generation (InSb-0) and second-generation (InSb-1) radiometers are shown. The responsivities measured at the 4.2-µm absorption band are shown where the curves become thinner. The theoretical limit of the responsivity is the 100% EQE curve. The two curves at the bottom are the uncertainties (scaled on the right-hand Y axis).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainties of Power Responsivity Calibration with the Working-Standard InSb-1 Radiometer Outside the Atmospheric and Dewar Absorption Bands

Tables Icon

Table 2 Uncertainties of Irradiance Responsivity Calibration with the Working-Standard InSb-1 Radiometer

Metrics