Abstract

An underlying assumption of data assimilation models is that the radiative transfer model used by them can simulate observed radiances with zero bias and small error. For practical reasons a fast parameterized radiative transfer model is used instead of a highly accurate line-by-line model. These fast models usually replace the spectral integration of the product of the transmittance and the Planck function with a monochromatic equivalent, namely, the product of a spectrally averaged transmittance and a spectrally averaged Planck function. The error of using this equivalent form is commonly assumed to be negligible. However, this error is not necessarily negligible and introduces a systematic height-dependent bias to the assimilation scheme. Although the bias could be corrected by a separate bias correction scheme, it is more effective to correct its source, the fast radiative transfer model. I examine the magnitude of error when the monochromatic-equivalent approach is used and demonstrate how a fast parameterized radiative model with Planck-weighted mean transmittances can effectively reduce if not eliminate these errors at source. I focus on channel 12 of the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-14 satellite that, among all the channels of this instrument, displays the largest error.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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2000 (1)

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

L. Garand, D. S. Turner, C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “A physical formulation of atmospheric transmittances for the massive assimilation of satellite infrared radiances,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 541–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

1998 (2)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Derber, W.-S. Wu, “The use of TOVS cloud-cleared radiances in the NCEP SSI analysis system,” Mon. Weather Rev. 126, 2287–2299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

1993 (1)

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Andersson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davies, “Line shape and the water continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1979 (1)

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Anderson, G. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwood, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Andersson, E.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Andersson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bates, J.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boulet, C.

Boulet, Ch.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, P.

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chetwood, J. H.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwood, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Chouinard, C.

L. Garand, D. S. Turner, C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “A physical formulation of atmospheric transmittances for the massive assimilation of satellite infrared radiances,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 541–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “The impact of TOVS radiances in the 3D variational analysis system,” in Technical Proceedings of the Tenth International TOVS Study Conference (Bureau of Metrology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia, 1999).

Chouinard, C. B.

D. S. Turner, C. B. Chouinard, “An attempt to understand and correct some of the errors of forward radiative transfer models,” in Technical Proceedings of the Ninth International TOVS Study Conference (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, UK, 1997), pp. 499–508.

Clough, S. A.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davies, “Line shape and the water continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwood, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Cousin, C.

Crone, L. J.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Davies, R. W.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davies, “Line shape and the water continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

de Souza-Machado, S.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Derber, J. C.

J. C. Derber, W.-S. Wu, “The use of TOVS cloud-cleared radiances in the NCEP SSI analysis system,” Mon. Weather Rev. 126, 2287–2299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ellingson, B.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eyre, J. R.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Andersson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garand, L.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Garand, D. S. Turner, C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “A physical formulation of atmospheric transmittances for the massive assimilation of satellite infrared radiances,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 541–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, M. D.

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hallé, J.

L. Garand, D. S. Turner, C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “A physical formulation of atmospheric transmittances for the massive assimilation of satellite infrared radiances,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 541–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “The impact of TOVS radiances in the 3D variational analysis system,” in Technical Proceedings of the Tenth International TOVS Study Conference (Bureau of Metrology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia, 1999).

Hartmann, J.-M.

Hayden, C. M.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Henry, A.

Jackson, D.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jedlovec, G.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, G. A.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Andersson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kleespies, T.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleespies, T. J.

Kneizys, F. X.

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davies, “Line shape and the water continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwood, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Lafferty, W. J.

Le Doucen, R.

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matricardi, M.

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McMillin, L. M.

McNally, A. P.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Andersson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Menoux, V.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, W. B.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Persson, A.

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Andersson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Planet, W. G.

W. G. Planet, “Data extraction and calibration of TIROS-N/NOAA radiometers,” (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1988).

Randel, D.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rayer, P.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rosenmann, L.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, E.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

Schmetz, J.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzkopf, D.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scott, N.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwood, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Soden, B.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Solodov, A. M.

Strow, L.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, F.

Tjemkes, S.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tobin, D.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. S.

L. Garand, D. S. Turner, C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “A physical formulation of atmospheric transmittances for the massive assimilation of satellite infrared radiances,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 541–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Turner, “Absorption coefficient estimation using a two dimensional interpolation procedure,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 633–637 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Turner, “A fast line-by-line radiative transfer model for TOVS radiance/transmittance studies,” in Technical Proceedings of the Eighth International TOVS Study Conference (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, UK, 1995), pp. 465–473.

D. S. Turner, C. B. Chouinard, “An attempt to understand and correct some of the errors of forward radiative transfer models,” in Technical Proceedings of the Ninth International TOVS Study Conference (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, UK, 1997), pp. 499–508.

van Delst, P.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wark, D. Q.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weber, A.

Wehr, T.

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, H. M.

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

Wu, W.-S.

J. C. Derber, W.-S. Wu, “The use of TOVS cloud-cleared radiances in the NCEP SSI analysis system,” Mon. Weather Rev. 126, 2287–2299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Atmos. Res. (1)

S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, R. W. Davies, “Line shape and the water continuum,” Atmos. Res. 23, 229–241 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

W. L. Smith, H. M. Woolf, C. M. Hayden, D. Q. Wark, L. M. McMillin, “The TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1177–1187 (1979).

B. Soden, S. Tjemkes, J. Schmetz, R. Saunders, J. Bates, B. Ellingson, R. Engelen, L. Garand, D. Jackson, G. Jedlovec, T. Kleespies, D. Randel, P. Rayer, E. Salathe, D. Schwarzkopf, N. Scott, B. Sohn, S. de Souza-Machado, L. Strow, D. Tobin, D. Turner, P. van Delst, T. Wehr, “An intercomparison of radiation codes for retrieving upper-tropospheric humidity in the 6.3-µm band: a report from the first GVaP workshop,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 81, 797–808 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

L. Garand, D. S. Turner, C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “A physical formulation of atmospheric transmittances for the massive assimilation of satellite infrared radiances,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 541–554 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

D. S. Turner, “Absorption coefficient estimation using a two dimensional interpolation procedure,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 53, 633–637 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J.-M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database and HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–710 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Weather Rev. (1)

J. C. Derber, W.-S. Wu, “The use of TOVS cloud-cleared radiances in the NCEP SSI analysis system,” Mon. Weather Rev. 126, 2287–2299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

R. Saunders, M. Matricardi, P. Brunel, “An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 1407–1425 (1999).

Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

J. R. Eyre, G. A. Kelly, A. P. McNally, E. Andersson, A. Persson, “Assimilation of TOVS radiance information through one-dimensional variational analysis,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 119, 1427–1463 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. S. Turner, “A fast line-by-line radiative transfer model for TOVS radiance/transmittance studies,” in Technical Proceedings of the Eighth International TOVS Study Conference (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, UK, 1995), pp. 465–473.

W. G. Planet, “Data extraction and calibration of TIROS-N/NOAA radiometers,” (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Washington, D.C., 1988).

D. S. Turner, C. B. Chouinard, “An attempt to understand and correct some of the errors of forward radiative transfer models,” in Technical Proceedings of the Ninth International TOVS Study Conference (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Shinfield Park, Reading, UK, 1997), pp. 499–508.

G. P. Anderson, S. A. Clough, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwood, E. P. Shettle, “AFGL atmospheric constituent profiles (0–120 km),” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1986).

C. Chouinard, J. Hallé, “The impact of TOVS radiances in the 3D variational analysis system,” in Technical Proceedings of the Tenth International TOVS Study Conference (Bureau of Metrology Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia, 1999).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scatterplot of the ΔBT (nadir view) of Eq. (6) for the 98 profiles as a function of pressure. In addition, the ΔBT profile specific to the U.S. Standard Atmosphere profile is plotted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Analogous to Fig. 1, except mean Planck-weighted TOA transmittances are used for ℱ̅ instead of ordinary transmittances.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 FLBL Pressure Levels (hPa)

Tables Icon

Table 2 HIRS Bias and Standard Deviation of ΔBT for Six Zenith Angles Assuming a Black Surface at 1000 hPa and Ordinary Transmittancesa

Tables Icon

Table 3 HIRS Bias and Standard Deviation of ΔBT for Six Zenith Angles Assuming a Black Surface at 1000 hPa and Planck-Weighted Transmittances

Tables Icon

Table 4 RTTOV-5 Model Pressure Levels (hPa)

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison of HIRS-12 Regression Models (constant angle) Derived from Ordinary and Planck-Weighted Transmittances with the FLBL BT’s

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

=Δν˜ ϕν˜Bsν˜, Tzsν˜, zsdν˜+Δν˜ ϕν˜zs Bν˜, Tzdν˜, zdν˜,
=Bss¯+ Bd¯Bs¯s¯+ B¯ d¯,
¯= ϕν˜ν˜dν˜, B¯= ϕν˜Bν˜, Tdν˜.
 B¯ d¯iBi¯¯i-1-¯i.
= ϕν˜Bν˜, BTdν˜
ΔBT=-1Bss¯+ Bd¯--1B¯s¯s+ B¯d¯.
ΔBT=-1Bd¯--1B¯d¯
¯jPW= ϕν˜Bν˜, Tjjν˜dν˜ ϕν˜Bν˜, Tjdν˜,
Xj1=δTj,Xj2=pδTj¯,Xj3=δqj,Xj4=pδqj¯,Xj5=δTjuj sec θ1/2,Xj6=δTj2uj sec θ1/2,Xj7=δqjuj sec θ1/2,Xj8=sec θ-1uj sec θ1/2,Xj9=sec θ-12uj sec θ1/2,δTj=½Tj-Tjref+Tj-1-Tj-1ref,δqj=½qj-qjref+qj-1+qj-1ref,uj=½qj+qj-1pj-pj-1,pδTj¯=2pj2l=1j plδTlpl-pl-1,pδqj¯=2pj2l=1j plδqlpl-pl-1,
ln j=ln j-1+sec θuj1/2k=19 aj,kXj,k.

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