Abstract

A simple fabrication technique for nonlinear polymeric optical waveguide patterns is introduced based on the two-beam interference method. We determined that the second-order nonlinearity of poled polymer films is erased by single-pulse ultraviolet (UV) laser irradiation. The erasure mechanism for second-order nonlinearity is discussed. To form a periodic structure in an optical polymer waveguide, two types of optical configuration of two-beam interference were arranged, and a single-pulse UV laser was exposed directly onto poled films. We prove that this method provides a simple way to fabricate volume-type and ridge-type periodically poled structures, i.e., χ(2) gratings, from the submicrometer to the millimeter range.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Kim, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond optical pulse generation using quasi-velocity-matched electrooptic phase modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 493–499 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18114–18118 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Direct electron-beam irradiation: a new technique for the erasure of second-order nonlinearity and the fabrication of channel waveguides by use of optical polymeric films,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1541–1543 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Fabrication of χ(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing,” Opt. Rev. 5, 9–11 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Aoyagi, K. Sano, S. Namba, “High spectroscopic qualities in blazed ion-etched holographic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 29, 253–255 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Meltz, W. W. Morey, W. H. Glenn, “Formation of Bragg gratings in optical fibers by a transverse holographic method,” Opt. Lett. 14, 823–825 (1989).
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “High reflectivity and narrow bandwidth fibre gratings written by a single excimer pulse,” Electron. Lett. 29, 28–29 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, P. L. Rochon, “Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836–8842 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Ultraviolet photobleaching process of azo dye doped polymer and silica films for fabrication of nonlinear optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1068–1073 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. J. Ilcisin, R. Fedosejevs, “Direct production of gratings on plastic substrates using 248-nm KrF laser radiation,” Appl. Opt. 26, 396–400 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).
  20. M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane–urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. G. Higgins, A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer-dye films oriented by corona-onset poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733–741 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane–urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, A. Yabe, “Application of excimer laser polymer ablation to alignment of liquid crystals: periodic microstructure on polyethersulfone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2225–L2227 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Th. Lippert, F. Zimmermann, A. Wokaun, “Surface analysis of excimer-laser-treated polyethylene-terephthalate by surface-enhanced Raman scattering and x-ray photoelectorn spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1931–1942 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  26. D. Knittel, W. Kesting, E. Schollmeyer, “Surface structuring of synthetic fibres by UV laser irradiation, Part I: Phenomenological report,” Polym. Int. 43, 231–239 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).
  29. Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (4)

S. Pelissier, D. Blanc, M. P. Andrews, S. I. Najafi, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, “Single-step UV recording of sinusoidal surface gratings in hybrid solgel glasses,” Appl. Opt. 38, 6744–6748 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Ultraviolet photobleaching process of azo dye doped polymer and silica films for fabrication of nonlinear optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1068–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Fabrication of χ(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing,” Opt. Rev. 5, 9–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Direct electron-beam irradiation: a new technique for the erasure of second-order nonlinearity and the fabrication of channel waveguides by use of optical polymeric films,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1541–1543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Knittel, W. Kesting, E. Schollmeyer, “Surface structuring of synthetic fibres by UV laser irradiation, Part I: Phenomenological report,” Polym. Int. 43, 231–239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (7)

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, P. L. Rochon, “Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836–8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane–urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane–urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond optical pulse generation using quasi-velocity-matched electrooptic phase modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 493–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18114–18118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “High reflectivity and narrow bandwidth fibre gratings written by a single excimer pulse,” Electron. Lett. 29, 28–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Th. Lippert, F. Zimmermann, A. Wokaun, “Surface analysis of excimer-laser-treated polyethylene-terephthalate by surface-enhanced Raman scattering and x-ray photoelectorn spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1931–1942 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

1988 (1)

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Y. Aoyagi, K. Sano, S. Namba, “High spectroscopic qualities in blazed ion-etched holographic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 29, 253–255 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

Aoyagi, Y.

Y. Aoyagi, K. Sano, S. Namba, “High spectroscopic qualities in blazed ion-etched holographic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 29, 253–255 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J.-L.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “High reflectivity and narrow bandwidth fibre gratings written by a single excimer pulse,” Electron. Lett. 29, 28–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barrett, C. J.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, P. L. Rochon, “Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836–8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, D.

Canto-Said, E. J.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18114–18118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Che, Y.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Comizzoli, R. B.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

Egami, C.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fedosejevs, R.

Feuer, B.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fujimura, H.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fukumura, H.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. J.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, T.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Goto, M.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. A.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, B. G.

Hikita, M.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, K.

M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Ultraviolet photobleaching process of azo dye doped polymer and silica films for fabrication of nonlinear optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1068–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Holland, W. R.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hoover, J. M.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ilcisin, K. J.

Ito, R.

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

Jager, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karim, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, R.

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

Katz, H. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, Y.

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, A. Yabe, “Application of excimer laser polymer ablation to alignment of liquid crystals: periodic microstructure on polyethersulfone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2225–L2227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, Y.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kesting, W.

D. Knittel, W. Kesting, E. Schollmeyer, “Surface structuring of synthetic fibres by UV laser irradiation, Part I: Phenomenological report,” Polym. Int. 43, 231–239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, G.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond optical pulse generation using quasi-velocity-matched electrooptic phase modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 493–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

Knittel, D.

D. Knittel, W. Kesting, E. Schollmeyer, “Surface structuring of synthetic fibres by UV laser irradiation, Part I: Phenomenological report,” Polym. Int. 43, 231–239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knoesen, A.

Kobayashi, T.

D. S. Kim, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond optical pulse generation using quasi-velocity-matched electrooptic phase modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 493–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

Kowel, S. T.

Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, S.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18114–18118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, G. A.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lippert, T.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lippert, Th.

Marowsky, G.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18114–18118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, E. W.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Miyata, S.

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

Mohlmann, G. R.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

Morimoto, A.

D. S. Kim, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond optical pulse generation using quasi-velocity-matched electrooptic phase modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 493–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

Najafi, S. I.

Nakanishi, M.

M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Ultraviolet photobleaching process of azo dye doped polymer and silica films for fabrication of nonlinear optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1068–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Fabrication of χ(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing,” Opt. Rev. 5, 9–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, H.

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Direct electron-beam irradiation: a new technique for the erasure of second-order nonlinearity and the fabrication of channel waveguides by use of optical polymeric films,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1541–1543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Namba, S.

Y. Aoyagi, K. Sano, S. Namba, “High spectroscopic qualities in blazed ion-etched holographic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 29, 253–255 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A. L.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, P. L. Rochon, “Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836–8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Fabrication of χ(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing,” Opt. Rev. 5, 9–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niino, H.

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, A. Yabe, “Application of excimer laser polymer ablation to alignment of liquid crystals: periodic microstructure on polyethersulfone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2225–L2227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nijhuis, S.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nishima, E.

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

Norwood, R. A.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, S.

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane–urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okada, A.

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane–urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane–urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, N.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Ultraviolet photobleaching process of azo dye doped polymer and silica films for fabrication of nonlinear optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1068–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Fabrication of χ(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing,” Opt. Rev. 5, 9–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Direct electron-beam irradiation: a new technique for the erasure of second-order nonlinearity and the fabrication of channel waveguides by use of optical polymeric films,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1541–1543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Ore, F. R.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, M.

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Parriaux, O.

Pasillas, P. L.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pelissier, S.

Reekie, L.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “High reflectivity and narrow bandwidth fibre gratings written by a single excimer pulse,” Electron. Lett. 29, 28–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rikken, G. L. J. A.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P. L.

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, P. L. Rochon, “Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836–8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sano, K.

Y. Aoyagi, K. Sano, S. Namba, “High spectroscopic qualities in blazed ion-etched holographic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 29, 253–255 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sauter, G. F.

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M. L.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schollmeyer, E.

D. Knittel, W. Kesting, E. Schollmeyer, “Surface structuring of synthetic fibres by UV laser irradiation, Part I: Phenomenological report,” Polym. Int. 43, 231–239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seppen, C. J. E.

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shuto, Y.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sieverdes, F.

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18114–18118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

St. J. Russell, P.

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “High reflectivity and narrow bandwidth fibre gratings written by a single excimer pulse,” Electron. Lett. 29, 28–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Ultraviolet photobleaching process of azo dye doped polymer and silica films for fabrication of nonlinear optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1068–1073 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Fabrication of χ(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing,” Opt. Rev. 5, 9–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Direct electron-beam irradiation: a new technique for the erasure of second-order nonlinearity and the fabrication of channel waveguides by use of optical polymeric films,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1541–1543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Tishchenko, A. V.

Tomaru, S.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchimori, M.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane–urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane–urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, O.

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane–urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane–urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Th. Lippert, F. Zimmermann, A. Wokaun, “Surface analysis of excimer-laser-treated polyethylene-terephthalate by surface-enhanced Raman scattering and x-ray photoelectorn spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1931–1942 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yabe, A.

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, A. Yabe, “Application of excimer laser polymer ablation to alignment of liquid crystals: periodic microstructure on polyethersulfone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2225–L2227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, F.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

T. Lippert, T. Gerber, A. Wokaun, D. J. Funk, H. Fukumura, M. Goto, “Single pulse nm-size grating formation in polymers using laser ablation with an irradiation wavelength of 355 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1018–1020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomaru, T. Watanabe, M. Hikita, M. Amano, Y. Shuto, I. Yokohama, T. Kaino, M. Asobe, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide with a periodic poled structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1760–1762 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, G. R. Mohlmann, “Comparison of quasi-phase-matching geometries for second-harmonic generation in poled polymer channel waveguides at 1.5 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1183–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. L. J. A. Rikken, C. J. E. Seppen, S. Nijhuis, E. W. Meijer, “Poled polymers for frequency doubling of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 435–437 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, “Second harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J.-L. Archambault, L. Reekie, P. St. J. Russell, “High reflectivity and narrow bandwidth fibre gratings written by a single excimer pulse,” Electron. Lett. 29, 28–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Shuto, T. Watanabe, S. Tomaru, I. Yokohama, M. Hikita, M. Amano, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in diazo-dye-substituted polymer channel waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 349–357 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. S. Kim, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, “Femtosecond optical pulse generation using quasi-velocity-matched electrooptic phase modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 493–499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. M. Hayden, G. F. Sauter, F. R. Ore, P. L. Pasillas, J. M. Hoover, G. A. Lindsay, R. A. Henry, “Second-order nonlinear optical measurements in guest–host and side-chain polymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 456–465 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

O. Watanabe, M. Tsuchimori, A. Okada, “Two-step refractive index changes by photoisomerization and photobleaching processes in the films of nonlinear optical polyurethanes and a urethane–urea copolymer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 1487–1492 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

C. J. Barrett, A. L. Natansohn, P. L. Rochon, “Mechanism of optically inscribed high-efficiency diffraction gratings in azo polymer films,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 8836–8842 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, S. Ogata, A. Okada, “Stable second-order optical nonlinearity of urethane–urea copolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L444–L446 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Che, O. Sugihara, C. Egami, H. Fujimura, Y. Kawata, N. Okamoto, M. Tsuchimori, O. Watanabe, “Fabrication of surface relief grating with second-order nonlinearity using urethane–urea copolymer films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 6316–6320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Niino, Y. Kawabata, A. Yabe, “Application of excimer laser polymer ablation to alignment of liquid crystals: periodic microstructure on polyethersulfone,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, L2225–L2227 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt. (2)

E. Nishima, R. Katayama, T. Kondo, R. Ito, J. Kim, T. Watanabe, S. Miyata, “Design and fabrication of organic waveguiding devices for quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic-generation,” Nonlinear Opt. 22, 433–436 (1999).

M. Ozawa, H. Nakayama, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, K. Hirota, “Guest–host polymer films for stable and large second-order nonlinearity,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 171–174 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Aoyagi, K. Sano, S. Namba, “High spectroscopic qualities in blazed ion-etched holographic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 29, 253–255 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

X. Ni, M. Nakanishi, O. Sugihara, N. Okamoto, “Fabrication of χ(2) grating in poled polymer waveguide based on direct laser beam writing,” Opt. Rev. 5, 9–11 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. Marowsky, E. J. Canto-Said, S. Lehmann, F. Sieverdes, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 18114–18118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Int. (1)

D. Knittel, W. Kesting, E. Schollmeyer, “Surface structuring of synthetic fibres by UV laser irradiation, Part I: Phenomenological report,” Polym. Int. 43, 231–239 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for creation of χ(2) gratings by a two-beam interference method: (a) optical system with which to fabricate the χ(2) grating with a period from λ/2 to tens of micrometers and (b) optical system suitable for a χ(2) grating with a period of greater than tens of micrometers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Chemical structure of T-AP and the urethane–urea copolymer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Decay and recovery of second-harmonic intensity as a function of UV energy density in DR1/T-AP film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change of absorption spectrum of DR1/T-AP film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Second-harmonic intensity as a function of lateral position of the χ(2) grating with a period of 70 µm in DR1/T-AP film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photograph and (b) fringe of second-harmonic intensity of the fabricated χ(2) grating with a 2-mm period in urethane–urea copolymer film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Etching depth as a function of UV energy density in DR1/PMMA film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Microscopic photograph of the fabricated χ(2) grating with a 5-µm period in DR1/PMMA film.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Atomic force microscope photographs of the fabricated grating with an 0.8-µm period (a) before and (b) after corona poling in urethane–urea copolymer film.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 NLO Coefficients and Linear Absorption Coefficients

Metrics