Abstract

A distributed-feedback InGaAs laser diode emitting near 1.393 µm is used in conjunction with an optical multipass cell that is open to the atmosphere to yield ambient water-vapor measurements by infrared absorption spectroscopy. To obtain the high dynamic range for the measurements that is required for continuous water-vapor monitoring in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere, we used a simple circuit that combined differential and direct detection. Furthermore, the laser emission wavelength was tuned to balance the steep decrease in H2O concentration with altitude by sweeping molecular transitions of stronger line strengths. The technique was implemented by use of the Spectromètre à Diodes Laser Accordables (SDLA), a tunable diode laser spectrometer operated from a stratospheric balloon. Absorption spectra of H2O in the 5–30-km altitude range obtained at 1-s intervals during recent balloon flights are reported. Water-vapor mixing ratios were retrieved from the absorption spectra by a fit to the full molecular line shape in conjunction with in situ pressure and temperature measurements, with a precision error ranging from 5% to 10%.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. World Meteorological Organization, “Stratospheric processes and their role in climate,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1998).
  2. K. P. Sinha, A. Sinha, “Sensitivity of the Earth’s climate to height-dependent changes in water vapour mixing ratio,” Nature (London) 354, 382–384 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Sinha, J. E. Harries, “Water vapour and greenhouse trapping: the role of far-infrared absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2147–2150 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Teitelbaum, J. Ovarlez, H. Kelder, F. Lott, “Some observations of gravity-wave-induced structure in ozone and water vapour during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1483–1486 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Ovarlez, P. Velthoven, H. Schlager, “Water vapor measurements from the troposphere to the lowermost stratosphere: some signatures of troposphere to stratosphere exchanges,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16,973–16,978 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 239–318.
  9. K. Uehara, H. Tai, “Remote detection of methane with a 1.66-µm diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 809–814 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. C. Hovde, C. A. Parsons, “Wavelength modulation detection of water vapor using a vertical cavity emitting laser,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1135–1138 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. L. Upschulte, D. M. Sonnenfroh, M. G. Allen, “Measurements of CO, CO2, OH, and H2O in room-temperature and combustion gases by use of a broadly current-tuned multisection InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1506–1512 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. M. Mihalcea, D. S. Baer, R. K. Hanson, “Diode laser sensor for measurements of CO, CO2, and CH4 in combustion flows,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8745–8752 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Cancio, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Sensitive detection of ammonia absorption by using a 1.65 µm distributed feedback InGaAsP diode laser,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 987–993 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Durry, G. Megie, “Atmospheric CH4 and H2O monitoring with near-infrared InGaAs laser diodes by the SDLA, a balloonborne spectrometer for tropospheric and stratospheric in situ measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7342–7354 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “Line intensities in the ν1 + 2ν2, 2ν2 + ν3, 2ν1, ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, and ν1 + ν2 + ν3 - ν2 band of H216O between 6300 and 7900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 118, 96–102 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. A. Toth, “Extensive measurements of H216O line frequencies and strengths: 5750 to 7965 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4851–4867 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. A. Toth, J. S. Margolis, “Line positions of H2O in the 1.33 to 1.45 micron region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 55, 229–251 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1999

1997

1996

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

A. Sinha, J. E. Harries, “Water vapour and greenhouse trapping: the role of far-infrared absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Cancio, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Sensitive detection of ammonia absorption by using a 1.65 µm distributed feedback InGaAsP diode laser,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 987–993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. Teitelbaum, J. Ovarlez, H. Kelder, F. Lott, “Some observations of gravity-wave-induced structure in ozone and water vapour during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1483–1486 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, “Extensive measurements of H216O line frequencies and strengths: 5750 to 7965 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4851–4867 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Uehara, H. Tai, “Remote detection of methane with a 1.66-µm diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 809–814 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

K. P. Sinha, A. Sinha, “Sensitivity of the Earth’s climate to height-dependent changes in water vapour mixing ratio,” Nature (London) 354, 382–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “Line intensities in the ν1 + 2ν2, 2ν2 + ν3, 2ν1, ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, and ν1 + ν2 + ν3 - ν2 band of H216O between 6300 and 7900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 118, 96–102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. A. Toth, J. S. Margolis, “Line positions of H2O in the 1.33 to 1.45 micron region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 55, 229–251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M. G.

Baer, D. S.

Bechara, J.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 239–318.

Benner, D. Chris

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “Line intensities in the ν1 + 2ν2, 2ν2 + ν3, 2ν1, ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, and ν1 + ν2 + ν3 - ν2 band of H216O between 6300 and 7900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 118, 96–102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cancio, P.

P. Cancio, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Sensitive detection of ammonia absorption by using a 1.65 µm distributed feedback InGaAsP diode laser,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 987–993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. Y.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chevillard, J.-P.

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “Line intensities in the ν1 + 2ν2, 2ν2 + ν3, 2ν1, ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, and ν1 + ν2 + ν3 - ν2 band of H216O between 6300 and 7900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 118, 96–102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Corsi, C.

P. Cancio, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Sensitive detection of ammonia absorption by using a 1.65 µm distributed feedback InGaAsP diode laser,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 987–993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Durry, G.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “Line intensities in the ν1 + 2ν2, 2ν2 + ν3, 2ν1, ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, and ν1 + ν2 + ν3 - ν2 band of H216O between 6300 and 7900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 118, 96–102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M. R.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

Harries, J. E.

A. Sinha, J. E. Harries, “Water vapour and greenhouse trapping: the role of far-infrared absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hovde, D. C.

Irion, F. W.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kelder, H.

H. Teitelbaum, J. Ovarlez, H. Kelder, F. Lott, “Some observations of gravity-wave-induced structure in ozone and water vapour during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1483–1486 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lott, F.

H. Teitelbaum, J. Ovarlez, H. Kelder, F. Lott, “Some observations of gravity-wave-induced structure in ozone and water vapour during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1483–1486 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 239–318.

Malathy Devi, V.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “Line intensities in the ν1 + 2ν2, 2ν2 + ν3, 2ν1, ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, and ν1 + ν2 + ν3 - ν2 band of H216O between 6300 and 7900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 118, 96–102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, J. S.

R. A. Toth, J. S. Margolis, “Line positions of H2O in the 1.33 to 1.45 micron region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 55, 229–251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, R. U.

P. Cancio, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Sensitive detection of ammonia absorption by using a 1.65 µm distributed feedback InGaAsP diode laser,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 987–993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

Menna, R. J.

P. Cancio, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Sensitive detection of ammonia absorption by using a 1.65 µm distributed feedback InGaAsP diode laser,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 987–993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, H. A.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, R. M.

Moyer, E. J.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nagaraju, R.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Newchurch, M. J.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ovarlez, J.

J. Ovarlez, P. Velthoven, H. Schlager, “Water vapor measurements from the troposphere to the lowermost stratosphere: some signatures of troposphere to stratosphere exchanges,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16,973–16,978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Teitelbaum, J. Ovarlez, H. Kelder, F. Lott, “Some observations of gravity-wave-induced structure in ozone and water vapour during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1483–1486 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Parsons, C. A.

Pavone, F. S.

P. Cancio, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Sensitive detection of ammonia absorption by using a 1.65 µm distributed feedback InGaAsP diode laser,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 987–993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 239–318.

Schlager, H.

J. Ovarlez, P. Velthoven, H. Schlager, “Water vapor measurements from the troposphere to the lowermost stratosphere: some signatures of troposphere to stratosphere exchanges,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16,973–16,978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, A.

A. Sinha, J. E. Harries, “Water vapour and greenhouse trapping: the role of far-infrared absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Sinha, A. Sinha, “Sensitivity of the Earth’s climate to height-dependent changes in water vapour mixing ratio,” Nature (London) 354, 382–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, K. P.

K. P. Sinha, A. Sinha, “Sensitivity of the Earth’s climate to height-dependent changes in water vapour mixing ratio,” Nature (London) 354, 382–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

Stiller, G. P.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tai, H.

Teitelbaum, H.

H. Teitelbaum, J. Ovarlez, H. Kelder, F. Lott, “Some observations of gravity-wave-induced structure in ozone and water vapour during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1483–1486 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

R. A. Toth, “Extensive measurements of H216O line frequencies and strengths: 5750 to 7965 cm-1,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4851–4867 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Toth, J. S. Margolis, “Line positions of H2O in the 1.33 to 1.45 micron region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 55, 229–251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, K.

Upschulte, B. L.

Velthoven, P.

J. Ovarlez, P. Velthoven, H. Schlager, “Water vapor measurements from the troposphere to the lowermost stratosphere: some signatures of troposphere to stratosphere exchanges,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16,973–16,978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

A. Sinha, J. E. Harries, “Water vapour and greenhouse trapping: the role of far-infrared absorption,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2147–2150 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, M. R. Gunson, R. J. Salawitch, M. J. Newchurch, R. Zander, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, “ATMOS measurements of H2O + 2CH4 and total reactive nitrogen in the November 1994 Antarctic stratosphere: dehydration and denitrification in the vortex,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2397–2400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Abbas, H. A. Michelsen, M. R. Gunson, M. C. Abrams, M. J. Newchurch, R. J. Salawitch, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, G. L. Manney, E. J. Moyer, R. Nagaraju, C. P. Rinsland, G. P. Stiller, R. Zander, “Seasonal variations of water vapor in the lower stratosphere inferred from ATMOS/ATLAS-3 measurements of H2O and CH4,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2401–2404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Teitelbaum, J. Ovarlez, H. Kelder, F. Lott, “Some observations of gravity-wave-induced structure in ozone and water vapour during EASOE,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1483–1486 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol.

P. Cancio, C. Corsi, F. S. Pavone, R. U. Martinelli, R. J. Menna, “Sensitive detection of ammonia absorption by using a 1.65 µm distributed feedback InGaAsP diode laser,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 987–993 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. Ovarlez, P. Velthoven, H. Schlager, “Water vapor measurements from the troposphere to the lowermost stratosphere: some signatures of troposphere to stratosphere exchanges,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 16,973–16,978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

R. A. Toth, J. S. Margolis, “Line positions of H2O in the 1.33 to 1.45 micron region,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 55, 229–251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Mandin, J.-P. Chevillard, C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, “Line intensities in the ν1 + 2ν2, 2ν2 + ν3, 2ν1, ν1 + ν3, 2ν3, and ν1 + ν2 + ν3 - ν2 band of H216O between 6300 and 7900 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 118, 96–102 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. Chris Benner, V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

K. P. Sinha, A. Sinha, “Sensitivity of the Earth’s climate to height-dependent changes in water vapour mixing ratio,” Nature (London) 354, 382–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other

World Meteorological Organization, “Stratospheric processes and their role in climate,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, 1998).

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed., Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis Series (Wiley, New York, 1994), pp. 239–318.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation of the water-vapor absorption spectrum over the laser tunability range. The DFB InGaAs laser diode at 1.393 µm can be tuned over several transitions of the ν 1 + ν 3 overtone band of H2O. (a) In the troposphere, from ground levels to 10 km, the absorption lines at 7185.6 and 7183.0 cm-1 are used to monitor H2O. (b) In the stratosphere, from 10 to 30 km, the laser scans a stronger transition at 7181.17 cm-1 to balance the decrease in water-vapor concentration. The mixing ratios, pressures, and temperatures were obtained from the U.S. Standard 76 Atmosphere; the molecular parameters, from the HITRAN database. Here and in subsequent figures, L is the optical path length, P is pressure, and T is temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the SDLA. The SDLA is based on an optical multipass cell open to the atmosphere. A near-infrared DFB InGaAs laser diode is connected by an optical fiber to the multipass cell. The water-vapor measurement uses four spectra, S ref, B o , A o T(σ), and S Δ. Reference spectrum S ref is measured at the output of an 8-cm closed cell. Signal B o is taken with a beam splitter at the input of the multipass cell. Direct spectrum A o T(σ) is recorded at the output of the optical cell. T(σ) is the molecular transmission that is due to ambient H2O. A o is what the laser flux would be in the absence of an absorber in the cell. The analogical difference A o T(σ) - B o is taken, amplified, and digitized to yield the differential spectrum S Δ. The spectra are recorded within 10 ms by ramping of the laser driving current. G and G 1 are variable electronic gains used to construct the differential signal S Δ. Z represents altitude given by a global positioning system (GPS). See text for more details.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Atmospheric water-vapor spectrum recorded in the stratosphere during the SDLA balloon flight in southern France on 10 May 1999. (a) Reference spectrum S ref, (b) direct spectrum A o T(σ) and (c) differential spectrum S Δ (see Fig. 2) are displayed. The spectra feature the 3, 0, 3 (J, K a , K c ) → 2, 0, 2 (J′, K a ′, K c ′) transition of the ν 1 + ν 3 overtone band of H2O at 7181.172 cm-1. At 16.52 km, ∼3% of the laser energy is absorbed in the optical multipass cell. The spectra are recorded within 10 ms and averaged over 40 successive laser scans.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Water-vapor absorption measurements obtained by the SDLA during the balloon flight in southern France on 10 May 1999. (a) In the troposphere, the laser scans the H2O transition at 7185.6 cm-1 (T Laser ∼ 26 °C). The molecular absorption is retrieved from the direct-absorption spectrum. At 8.2 km, ∼35% of the laser energy is absorbed in the optical cell by ambient water vapor. (b) At tropopause altitude levels, the laser sweeps the H2O transition at 7183.0 cm-1 (T Laser ∼ 32 °C). (c) In the stratosphere, the laser is tuned over a stronger transition at 7181.17 cm-1 (T Laser ∼ 36 °C). The molecular absorption was extracted from differential spectrum S Δ of Fig. 3(c). At 16.5 km, only ∼3% of the laser energy is absorbed in the optical cell. The mixing ratios were retrieved by a nonlinear least-squares fit to the full line shape (with a Voigt modeling) in conjunction with the in situ pressure and temperature measurements. See text for more details.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Water-vapor vertical concentration profiles of H2O in the UT and the LS obtained by the SDLA in 1999 at northern latitudes (in Sweden) in the Arctic Vortex and at mid-latitudes (in southern France) in springtime. In the troposphere, the laser diode is scanned over the H2O transitions at 7185.6 cm-1 and at 7183.0 cm-1. In the stratosphere the laser is tuned over the absorption line at 7181.1 cm-1. The altitudes at which the laser sweeps the transitions at 7125.6, 7183.0, and 7181.1 cm-1 are indicated, respectively, by [1], [2], and [3]. The H2O profile yielded by a balloonborne P, T, U (humidity) meteorological sonde that was launched from Kiruna on the day of the flight is also displayed. The complete processing of the 10,000 absorption spectra obtained during both flights is still under way. See text for a more comprehensive discussion.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relationship of Simulated Absorption Depth and Linewidth (FWHM) to Altitude for Water Vapora

Tables Icon

Table 2 Positions and Line Strengths for Tropospheric Water Vapor

Metrics