Abstract

Heterodyne submillimeter detection techniques represent an important development in the field of remote sensing of atmospheric composition. The disclosure of this wavelength region by new low-noise detectors and multichannel high-resolution spectrometers leads to expectations of improved accuracy and vertical resolution of the vertical composition profiles derived from these measurements. Because of the low-noise levels of newly developed receivers, special care is required to ensure that fundamental limitations of the components used do not contribute to systematic errors exceeding the random errors. Operated in an upward-looking geometry, the sensitivity of the retrieval algorithm to noise and instrumental errors can be rather high, and hence instrumental limitations could induce large uncertainties in the derived atmospheric information. Instrumental uncertainties typical for a passive heterodyne sounder are quantified, and their effects on the accuracy of the derived vertical mixing ratio profiles are presented.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).
  2. J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).
  3. U. Raffalski, U. Klein, J. Langer, G. Schwaab, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Künzi, “Stratospheric O3 and chlorine monoxide and tropospheric water vapor,” in Proceedings of the 18th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (International Ozone Commission, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 579–582.
  4. L. K. Emmons, D. T. Shindell, J. M. Reeves, R. L. de Zafra, “Stratospheric ClO profiles from McMurdo Station, Antartica, spring 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D2, 3049–3055 (1995).
  5. M. Kuntz, G. Kopp, H. Berg, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Joint retrieval of atmospheric constituent profiles from ground-based millimetre wave measurements: ClO, HNO3, N2O, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D11, 13981–13992 (1999).
  6. D. T. Shindell, R. L. de Zafra, “Chlorine monoxide in the Antarctic spring vortex,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D1, 1475–1487 (1996).
  7. Ph. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, R. Lauqué, “Analysis of stratospheric ClO measurements recorded by a ground-based radiometer located at the Plateau de Bure, France,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D1, 1423–1439 (1997).
  8. J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. L. Kleipool, “Characterization and application of a sub-millimeter atmospheric sounder,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2000).
  10. G. Evans, RF Radiometer Handbook (Artec House, Norwood, Mass., 1977).
  11. D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–231 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. R. Birch, “The far infrared optical constants of some common polymers,” (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, UK, 1991).
  13. J. R. Birch, “An intercomparison of measurement techniques for the determination of the dielectric properties of solids at near-millimeter wavelengths,” (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, UK, 1991).
  14. J. R. Birch, K. Ping, “Temperature dependence of the FIR optical constants of low density polyethylene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 673–677 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Keen, R. Spurett, R. Wylde, “An absolute blackbody source for radiometer calibration at sub-millimeter wavelengths,” in Proceedings of the ESA Workship on Millimeter Wave Techniques and Applications (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 4.2.1–4.2.10.
  16. K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory database SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 447–457 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. L. Poynter, H. M. Pickett, E. Cohen, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2235–2240 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 61–88 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, D5, 5587–5595 (1990).
  21. C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and PracticeWorld Scientific, Singapore, 2000).
  22. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1986).
  23. G. W. Hart, Multidimensional Analysis (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995).
  24. J. Brillet, “A theoretical study of ozone measurements made with ground-based microwave sensors,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, D10, 12833–12850 (1989).
  25. M. Kuntz, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Retrieval of ozone mixing ratio profiles from ground-based millimeter wave measurements disturbed by standing waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D18, 21965–21975 (1997).

1999 (1)

M. Kuntz, G. Kopp, H. Berg, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Joint retrieval of atmospheric constituent profiles from ground-based millimetre wave measurements: ClO, HNO3, N2O, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D11, 13981–13992 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).

1997 (2)

Ph. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, R. Lauqué, “Analysis of stratospheric ClO measurements recorded by a ground-based radiometer located at the Plateau de Bure, France,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D1, 1423–1439 (1997).

M. Kuntz, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Retrieval of ozone mixing ratio profiles from ground-based millimeter wave measurements disturbed by standing waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D18, 21965–21975 (1997).

1996 (2)

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

D. T. Shindell, R. L. de Zafra, “Chlorine monoxide in the Antarctic spring vortex,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D1, 1475–1487 (1996).

1995 (3)

L. K. Emmons, D. T. Shindell, J. M. Reeves, R. L. de Zafra, “Stratospheric ClO profiles from McMurdo Station, Antartica, spring 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D2, 3049–3055 (1995).

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Birch, K. Ping, “Temperature dependence of the FIR optical constants of low density polyethylene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 673–677 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory database SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 447–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, D5, 5587–5595 (1990).

1989 (1)

J. Brillet, “A theoretical study of ozone measurements made with ground-based microwave sensors,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, D10, 12833–12850 (1989).

1984 (1)

1976 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 61–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–231 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–231 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, B. H.

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 61–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Avallone, L.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Baron, P.

J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).

Berg, H.

M. Kuntz, G. Kopp, H. Berg, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Joint retrieval of atmospheric constituent profiles from ground-based millimetre wave measurements: ClO, HNO3, N2O, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D11, 13981–13992 (1999).

Birch, J. R.

J. R. Birch, K. Ping, “Temperature dependence of the FIR optical constants of low density polyethylene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 673–677 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Birch, “The far infrared optical constants of some common polymers,” (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, UK, 1991).

J. R. Birch, “An intercomparison of measurement techniques for the determination of the dielectric properties of solids at near-millimeter wavelengths,” (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, UK, 1991).

Brillet, J.

J. Brillet, “A theoretical study of ozone measurements made with ground-based microwave sensors,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, D10, 12833–12850 (1989).

Burke, J.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Chance, K.

K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory database SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 447–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cofield, R.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Cohen, E.

Crewell, S.

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de la Noë, J.

J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).

Ph. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, R. Lauqué, “Analysis of stratospheric ClO measurements recorded by a ground-based radiometer located at the Plateau de Bure, France,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D1, 1423–1439 (1997).

de Lange, G.

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Zafra, R.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

de Zafra, R. L.

D. T. Shindell, R. L. de Zafra, “Chlorine monoxide in the Antarctic spring vortex,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D1, 1475–1487 (1996).

L. K. Emmons, D. T. Shindell, J. M. Reeves, R. L. de Zafra, “Stratospheric ClO profiles from McMurdo Station, Antartica, spring 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D2, 3049–3055 (1995).

Emmons, L. K.

L. K. Emmons, D. T. Shindell, J. M. Reeves, R. L. de Zafra, “Stratospheric ClO profiles from McMurdo Station, Antartica, spring 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D2, 3049–3055 (1995).

Evans, G.

G. Evans, RF Radiometer Handbook (Artec House, Norwood, Mass., 1977).

Fishbein, E.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1986).

Flower, D.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Froidevaux, L.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Guillemin, G.

J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).

Hardy, J.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Hart, G. W.

G. W. Hart, Multidimensional Analysis (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995).

Hochschild, G.

M. Kuntz, G. Kopp, H. Berg, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Joint retrieval of atmospheric constituent profiles from ground-based millimetre wave measurements: ClO, HNO3, N2O, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D11, 13981–13992 (1999).

M. Kuntz, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Retrieval of ozone mixing ratio profiles from ground-based millimeter wave measurements disturbed by standing waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D18, 21965–21975 (1997).

Jarnot, R.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Johnson, D. G.

K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory database SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 447–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory database SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 447–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keen, N.

N. Keen, R. Spurett, R. Wylde, “An absolute blackbody source for radiometer calibration at sub-millimeter wavelengths,” in Proceedings of the ESA Workship on Millimeter Wave Techniques and Applications (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 4.2.1–4.2.10.

Klein, U.

U. Raffalski, U. Klein, J. Langer, G. Schwaab, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Künzi, “Stratospheric O3 and chlorine monoxide and tropospheric water vapor,” in Proceedings of the 18th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (International Ozone Commission, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 579–582.

Kleipool, Q. L.

Q. L. Kleipool, “Characterization and application of a sub-millimeter atmospheric sounder,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2000).

Kopp, G.

M. Kuntz, G. Kopp, H. Berg, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Joint retrieval of atmospheric constituent profiles from ground-based millimetre wave measurements: ClO, HNO3, N2O, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D11, 13981–13992 (1999).

Krupa, R.

M. Kuntz, G. Kopp, H. Berg, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Joint retrieval of atmospheric constituent profiles from ground-based millimetre wave measurements: ClO, HNO3, N2O, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D11, 13981–13992 (1999).

M. Kuntz, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Retrieval of ozone mixing ratio profiles from ground-based millimeter wave measurements disturbed by standing waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D18, 21965–21975 (1997).

Kuipers, J.

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuntz, M.

M. Kuntz, G. Kopp, H. Berg, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Joint retrieval of atmospheric constituent profiles from ground-based millimetre wave measurements: ClO, HNO3, N2O, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D11, 13981–13992 (1999).

M. Kuntz, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Retrieval of ozone mixing ratio profiles from ground-based millimeter wave measurements disturbed by standing waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D18, 21965–21975 (1997).

Künzi, K.

U. Raffalski, U. Klein, J. Langer, G. Schwaab, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Künzi, “Stratospheric O3 and chlorine monoxide and tropospheric water vapor,” in Proceedings of the 18th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (International Ozone Commission, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 579–582.

Langer, J.

U. Raffalski, U. Klein, J. Langer, G. Schwaab, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Künzi, “Stratospheric O3 and chlorine monoxide and tropospheric water vapor,” in Proceedings of the 18th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (International Ozone Commission, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 579–582.

Laqué, R.

J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).

Lauqué, R.

Ph. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, R. Lauqué, “Analysis of stratospheric ClO measurements recorded by a ground-based radiometer located at the Plateau de Bure, France,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D1, 1423–1439 (1997).

Lezeaux, O.

J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).

Lungu, T.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Mees, J.

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, L.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Nett, H.

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Panhuyzen, R.

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perun, V.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Pickett, H. M.

Ping, K.

J. R. Birch, K. Ping, “Temperature dependence of the FIR optical constants of low density polyethylene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 673–677 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poynter, R. L.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1986).

Raffalski, U.

U. Raffalski, U. Klein, J. Langer, G. Schwaab, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Künzi, “Stratospheric O3 and chlorine monoxide and tropospheric water vapor,” in Proceedings of the 18th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (International Ozone Commission, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 579–582.

Read, W.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Reeves, J. M.

L. K. Emmons, D. T. Shindell, J. M. Reeves, R. L. de Zafra, “Stratospheric ClO profiles from McMurdo Station, Antartica, spring 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D2, 3049–3055 (1995).

Ricaud, P.

J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).

Ricaud, Ph.

Ph. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, R. Lauqué, “Analysis of stratospheric ClO measurements recorded by a ground-based radiometer located at the Plateau de Bure, France,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D1, 1423–1439 (1997).

Ridenoure, B.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Rodgers, C. D.

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, D5, 5587–5595 (1990).

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and PracticeWorld Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

Schwaab, G.

U. Raffalski, U. Klein, J. Langer, G. Schwaab, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Künzi, “Stratospheric O3 and chlorine monoxide and tropospheric water vapor,” in Proceedings of the 18th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (International Ozone Commission, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 579–582.

Shindell, D.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Shindell, D. T.

D. T. Shindell, R. L. de Zafra, “Chlorine monoxide in the Antarctic spring vortex,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D1, 1475–1487 (1996).

L. K. Emmons, D. T. Shindell, J. M. Reeves, R. L. de Zafra, “Stratospheric ClO profiles from McMurdo Station, Antartica, spring 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D2, 3049–3055 (1995).

Shippony, Z.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Sinnhuber, B-M.

U. Raffalski, U. Klein, J. Langer, G. Schwaab, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Künzi, “Stratospheric O3 and chlorine monoxide and tropospheric water vapor,” in Proceedings of the 18th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (International Ozone Commission, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 579–582.

Spurett, R.

N. Keen, R. Spurett, R. Wylde, “An absolute blackbody source for radiometer calibration at sub-millimeter wavelengths,” in Proceedings of the ESA Workship on Millimeter Wave Techniques and Applications (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 4.2.1–4.2.10.

Stachnik, R.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1986).

Thurstans, R.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Toohey, D.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Traub, W. A.

K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory database SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 447–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van der Stadt, H.

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1986).

Waters, J. W.

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

Wylde, R.

N. Keen, R. Spurett, R. Wylde, “An absolute blackbody source for radiometer calibration at sub-millimeter wavelengths,” in Proceedings of the ESA Workship on Millimeter Wave Techniques and Applications (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 4.2.1–4.2.10.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. Mees, S. Crewell, H. Nett, G. de Lange, H. van der Stadt, J. Kuipers, R. Panhuyzen, “ASUR—An airborne SIS receiver for atmospheric measurements of trace gases at 625 to 760 GHz,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2543–2548 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

J. R. Birch, K. Ping, “Temperature dependence of the FIR optical constants of low density polyethylene,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 673–677 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

C. D. Rodgers, “Characterization and error analysis of profiles retrieved from remote sounding measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, D5, 5587–5595 (1990).

J. W. Waters, W. Read, L. Froidevaux, T. Lungu, V. Perun, R. Stachnik, R. Jarnot, R. Cofield, E. Fishbein, D. Flower, J. Burke, J. Hardy, L. Nakamura, B. Ridenoure, Z. Shippony, R. Thurstans, L. Avallone, D. Toohey, R. de Zafra, D. Shindell, “Validation of uars microwave limb sounder clo measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D6, 10091–10127 (1996).

J. de la Noë, O. Lezeaux, G. Guillemin, R. Laqué, P. Baron, P. Ricaud, “A ground-based microwave radiometer dedicated to stratospheric ozone monitoring,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, D17, 22147–22161 (1998).

L. K. Emmons, D. T. Shindell, J. M. Reeves, R. L. de Zafra, “Stratospheric ClO profiles from McMurdo Station, Antartica, spring 1992,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, D2, 3049–3055 (1995).

M. Kuntz, G. Kopp, H. Berg, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Joint retrieval of atmospheric constituent profiles from ground-based millimetre wave measurements: ClO, HNO3, N2O, and O3,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D11, 13981–13992 (1999).

D. T. Shindell, R. L. de Zafra, “Chlorine monoxide in the Antarctic spring vortex,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, D1, 1475–1487 (1996).

Ph. Ricaud, J. de la Noë, R. Lauqué, “Analysis of stratospheric ClO measurements recorded by a ground-based radiometer located at the Plateau de Bure, France,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D1, 1423–1439 (1997).

J. Brillet, “A theoretical study of ozone measurements made with ground-based microwave sensors,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, D10, 12833–12850 (1989).

M. Kuntz, G. Hochschild, R. Krupa, “Retrieval of ozone mixing ratio profiles from ground-based millimeter wave measurements disturbed by standing waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, D18, 21965–21975 (1997).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

K. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory database SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 447–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Armstrong, “Spectrum line profiles: the Voigt function,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 7, 61–88 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54, 221–231 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. R. Birch, “The far infrared optical constants of some common polymers,” (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, UK, 1991).

J. R. Birch, “An intercomparison of measurement techniques for the determination of the dielectric properties of solids at near-millimeter wavelengths,” (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, UK, 1991).

N. Keen, R. Spurett, R. Wylde, “An absolute blackbody source for radiometer calibration at sub-millimeter wavelengths,” in Proceedings of the ESA Workship on Millimeter Wave Techniques and Applications (European Space Research and Technology Center, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 4.2.1–4.2.10.

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and PracticeWorld Scientific, Singapore, 2000).

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1986).

G. W. Hart, Multidimensional Analysis (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995).

U. Raffalski, U. Klein, J. Langer, G. Schwaab, B-M. Sinnhuber, K. Künzi, “Stratospheric O3 and chlorine monoxide and tropospheric water vapor,” in Proceedings of the 18th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (International Ozone Commission, L’Aquila, Italy, 1996), pp. 579–582.

Q. L. Kleipool, “Characterization and application of a sub-millimeter atmospheric sounder,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2000).

G. Evans, RF Radiometer Handbook (Artec House, Norwood, Mass., 1977).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics