Abstract

Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston–liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Sherrington, E. H. Smith, “Experimental methods for measuring the oil-film thickness between the piston rings and cylinder wall of internal combustion engines,” Tribol. Int. 18, 315–320 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. L. Ting, “Development of laser fluorescence techniques for measuring piston ring oil film thickness,” J. Lubr. Technol. 102, 165–171 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. E. Richardson, G. L. Borman, “Using fiber optics and laser fluorescence for measuring thin oil films with application to engines,” SAE paper 912388 (Society of Automotive Engineers International, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).
  4. D. Sagario, P. Mead, “Axial and angular displacement fiber-optic sensor,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6748–6754 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. S. Greek, H. G. Schulze, C. A. Haynes, M. W. Blades, R. F. B. Turner, “Rational design of fiber-optic probes for visible and pulsed-ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4086–4095 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Y. Zhu, M. C. Yappert, “Determination of effective depth and equivalent path length for a single-fiber fluorometric sensor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 912–918 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Y. Zhu, M. C. Yappert, “Determination of effective depth for double-fiber fluorometric sensors,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 919–924 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. J. D’Sa, S. E. Lohrenz, “Theoretical treatment of fluorescence detection by a dual-fiber-optic sensor with consideration of sampling variability and package effects associated with particles,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2524–2535 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. A. Krohn, Fiber Optic Sensors—Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed. (Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1992).
  11. D. E. Richardson, “The development and implementation of theoretical and experimental methods for studying oil films in engine cylinders,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 1990).
  12. G. M. Ostroski, “The use of a dual-fiber probe and the laser-induced fluorescence technique to study oil consumption in a Diesel engine,” MS thesis (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 1998).
  13. R. J. Donahue, D. O. Ducu, J. B. Ghandhi, “Developments of the capacitance technique for oil film thickness measurements between the piston ring and liner,” ASME paper 99-ICE-197, 1999 Spring Technical Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1999), ICE-Vol. 32-2.
  14. S. W. Allison, G. T. Gillies, “Remote thermometry with thermographic phosphors: instrumentation and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2615–2650 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Bai, L. A. Melton, “High-temperature, oxygen-resistant molecular fluorescence thermometers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1276–1280 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

S. W. Allison, G. T. Gillies, “Remote thermometry with thermographic phosphors: instrumentation and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2615–2650 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Bai, L. A. Melton, “High-temperature, oxygen-resistant molecular fluorescence thermometers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 51, 1276–1280 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1992 (2)

1985 (1)

I. Sherrington, E. H. Smith, “Experimental methods for measuring the oil-film thickness between the piston rings and cylinder wall of internal combustion engines,” Tribol. Int. 18, 315–320 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. L. Ting, “Development of laser fluorescence techniques for measuring piston ring oil film thickness,” J. Lubr. Technol. 102, 165–171 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Allison, S. W.

S. W. Allison, G. T. Gillies, “Remote thermometry with thermographic phosphors: instrumentation and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2615–2650 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bai, F.

Blades, M. W.

Borman, G. L.

D. E. Richardson, G. L. Borman, “Using fiber optics and laser fluorescence for measuring thin oil films with application to engines,” SAE paper 912388 (Society of Automotive Engineers International, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

D’Sa, E. J.

Donahue, R. J.

R. J. Donahue, D. O. Ducu, J. B. Ghandhi, “Developments of the capacitance technique for oil film thickness measurements between the piston ring and liner,” ASME paper 99-ICE-197, 1999 Spring Technical Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1999), ICE-Vol. 32-2.

Ducu, D. O.

R. J. Donahue, D. O. Ducu, J. B. Ghandhi, “Developments of the capacitance technique for oil film thickness measurements between the piston ring and liner,” ASME paper 99-ICE-197, 1999 Spring Technical Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1999), ICE-Vol. 32-2.

Ghandhi, J. B.

R. J. Donahue, D. O. Ducu, J. B. Ghandhi, “Developments of the capacitance technique for oil film thickness measurements between the piston ring and liner,” ASME paper 99-ICE-197, 1999 Spring Technical Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1999), ICE-Vol. 32-2.

Gillies, G. T.

S. W. Allison, G. T. Gillies, “Remote thermometry with thermographic phosphors: instrumentation and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2615–2650 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greek, L. S.

Haynes, C. A.

Krohn, D. A.

D. A. Krohn, Fiber Optic Sensors—Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed. (Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1992).

Lohrenz, S. E.

McCreery, R. L.

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mead, P.

Melton, L. A.

Ostroski, G. M.

G. M. Ostroski, “The use of a dual-fiber probe and the laser-induced fluorescence technique to study oil consumption in a Diesel engine,” MS thesis (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 1998).

Richardson, D. E.

D. E. Richardson, G. L. Borman, “Using fiber optics and laser fluorescence for measuring thin oil films with application to engines,” SAE paper 912388 (Society of Automotive Engineers International, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

D. E. Richardson, “The development and implementation of theoretical and experimental methods for studying oil films in engine cylinders,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 1990).

Sagario, D.

Schulze, H. G.

Schwab, S. D.

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sherrington, I.

I. Sherrington, E. H. Smith, “Experimental methods for measuring the oil-film thickness between the piston rings and cylinder wall of internal combustion engines,” Tribol. Int. 18, 315–320 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. H.

I. Sherrington, E. H. Smith, “Experimental methods for measuring the oil-film thickness between the piston rings and cylinder wall of internal combustion engines,” Tribol. Int. 18, 315–320 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ting, L. L.

L. L. Ting, “Development of laser fluorescence techniques for measuring piston ring oil film thickness,” J. Lubr. Technol. 102, 165–171 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Turner, R. F. B.

Yappert, M. C.

Zhu, Z. Y.

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. D. Schwab, R. L. McCreery, “Versatile, efficient Raman sampling with fiber optics,” Anal. Chem. 56, 2199–2204 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (3)

J. Lubr. Technol. (1)

L. L. Ting, “Development of laser fluorescence techniques for measuring piston ring oil film thickness,” J. Lubr. Technol. 102, 165–171 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. W. Allison, G. T. Gillies, “Remote thermometry with thermographic phosphors: instrumentation and applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2615–2650 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tribol. Int. (1)

I. Sherrington, E. H. Smith, “Experimental methods for measuring the oil-film thickness between the piston rings and cylinder wall of internal combustion engines,” Tribol. Int. 18, 315–320 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

D. E. Richardson, G. L. Borman, “Using fiber optics and laser fluorescence for measuring thin oil films with application to engines,” SAE paper 912388 (Society of Automotive Engineers International, Warrendale, Pa., 1991).

D. A. Krohn, Fiber Optic Sensors—Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed. (Instrument Society of America, Research Triangle Park, N.C., 1992).

D. E. Richardson, “The development and implementation of theoretical and experimental methods for studying oil films in engine cylinders,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 1990).

G. M. Ostroski, “The use of a dual-fiber probe and the laser-induced fluorescence technique to study oil consumption in a Diesel engine,” MS thesis (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., 1998).

R. J. Donahue, D. O. Ducu, J. B. Ghandhi, “Developments of the capacitance technique for oil film thickness measurements between the piston ring and liner,” ASME paper 99-ICE-197, 1999 Spring Technical Conference (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1999), ICE-Vol. 32-2.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the dual-fiber probe.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results for the single-fiber probe: (a) modified collection solid angle as a function of distance from the fiber face, (b) collapse of data from choosing the appropriate nondimensional scaling, (c) cumulative signal, (d) cumulative signal for small distances compared with a linear response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modified collection solid angle for a dual-fiber probe: (a) δ̃ r = 0.5 and θ̃ = 1, (b) = 1 and θ̃ = 1, (c) = 1 and δ̃ r = 0.5, (d) for the probe assembly used in the engine experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cumulative signal for the dual-fiber probe: (a) δ̃ r = 0.5 and θ̃ = 1, (b) = 1 and θ̃ = 1, (c) = 1 and δ̃ r = 0.5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the measured and the predicted dual-fiber response. Measured results obtained from a thin oil film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical layout showing PMT’s, photomultiplier tubes; DM’s, dichroic mirrors; BP’s, bandpass filters; MO’s, microscope objectives.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Engine data acquired during the compression stroke of the engine. Piston terminology is shown in the inductance data.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Engine data acquired during the exhaust stroke of the engine.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

zeq=1.076 r1tan θ1,
zeff=9 r1tan θ1
dSi=IdV dσdΩ ηXNΩ,
dSi=A3ĖA3zdA3dzσabsϕ4π ηXN×AidAicos βδ*R2,
Si= dSi=0 ĖσabsϕηXNΩi*zdz,
Ωi*z1A3A3dA3AidAicos βδ*4πR2
z˜z tan θ1r1.
Ωref,i=14πR202πdϕ 0θi R2 sin θdθ=121-cos θi,
Ω˜izΩi*zΩref,i.
Si=ĖσabsϕηXNr1tan θ1 Ωref,i0 Ω˜idz˜,
Ĩiz˜0z˜ Ω˜idz˜*.
zeq=0.993 r1tan θ1,
zeff=7.031 r1tan θ1.
r˜r2r1,
δ˜rΔrr1,
θ˜θ2θ1.

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