Abstract

Three independent ocean color sampling methodologies are compared to assess the potential impact of instrumental characteristics and environmental variability on shipboard remote-sensing reflectance observations from the Santa Barbara Channel, California. Results indicate that under typical field conditions, simultaneous determinations of incident irradiance can vary by 9–18%, upwelling radiance just above the sea surface by 8–18%, and remote-sensing reflectance by 12–24%. Variations in radiometric determinations can be attributed to a variety of environmental factors such as Sun angle, cloud cover, wind speed, and viewing geometry; however, wind speed is isolated as the major source of uncertainty. The above-water approach to estimating water-leaving radiance and remote-sensing reflectance is highly influenced by environmental factors. A model of the role of wind on the reflected sky radiance measured by an above-water sensor illustrates that, for clear-sky conditions and wind speeds greater than 5 m/s, determinations of water-leaving radiance at 490 nm are undercorrected by as much as 60%. A data merging procedure is presented to provide sky radiance correction parameters for above-water remote-sensing reflectance estimates. The merging results are consistent with statistical and model findings and highlight the importance of multiple field measurements in developing quality coastal oceanographic data sets for satellite ocean color algorithm development and validation.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999

1998

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, G. E. Terrie, S. D. Ladner, C. G. Wood, “Remote-sensing technique for determination of the volume absorption coefficient of turbid water,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4944–4950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, J. Aiken, “Calibration evaluation and radiometric testing of field radiometers with the SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 995–1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. J. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “A comparison of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll and CZCS pigment algorithms using optical data from the 1992 JGOFS Equatorial Pacific Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 44, 1907–1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Sydor, R. A. Arnone, “Effect of suspended and dissolved organic matter on remote sensing of coastal and riverine waters,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6905–6912 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1992

H. R. Gordon, K. Y. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography 3, 18–21 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1955

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Some problems in optical oceanography,” J. Mar. Res. 14, 63–78 (1955).

Aiken, J.

S. B. Hooker, J. Aiken, “Calibration evaluation and radiometric testing of field radiometers with the SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 995–1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez-Borrego, S.

J. L. Mueller, J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, E. Valdez, H. Maske, S. Alvarez-Borrego, R. Lara-Lara, “Remote sensing reflectance: preliminary comparisons between in-water and above-water measurements, and estimates modeled from measured inherent optical properties,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2693, 502–507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, R. A.

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signals of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis, SIO Tech. Ref. 74-10, 2.1-2.20 (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974).

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, “Volume 25 of Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, Revision 1,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Bailey, S.

T. Riley, S. Bailey, “The Sixth SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-6) August–December 1997,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1998).

Baker, K. S.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Analysis of ocean optical data II,” in Ocean Optics VIII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE637, 95–107 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Irradiance transmittance through the air-water interface,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 556–565 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Barnes, W.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Bates, N.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Booth, C. R.

C. R. Booth, R. C. Smith, “Moorable spectroradiometers in the BIOWATT experiment,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 176–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brody, E. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Brown, J. W.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Close, A. R.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Cox, C.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Some problems in optical oceanography,” J. Mar. Res. 14, 63–78 (1955).

Davis, C. O.

W. J. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “A comparison of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll and CZCS pigment algorithms using optical data from the 1992 JGOFS Equatorial Pacific Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 44, 1907–1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Characterization of downwelling spectral irradiance fluctuations,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 67–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ding, K. Y.

H. R. Gordon, K. Y. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dow, R. L.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Doyle, A.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Endres, D.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Esaias, W. E.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Evans, R. H.

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fields, E.

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. Fields, BBOP Data Processing and Sampling Procedures, Version 1, (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1995).

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, C.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, K. Y. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Gould, R. W.

Guenther, B.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Gundersen, K.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Hallman, R.

A. Weidemann, R. Hallman, M. Wilcox, B. Linzell, “Calculation of near-surface attenuation coefficients: the influence of wave focusing,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 492–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Hooker, S.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, J. Aiken, “Calibration evaluation and radiometric testing of field radiometers with the SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 995–1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, S. Maritorena, “An evaluation of oceanographic radiometers and deployment methodologies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (to be published).

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Howse, F. A.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Johnson, R. J.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Kahru, M.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knap, A. H.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Konnoff, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. Fields, BBOP Data Processing and Sampling Procedures, Version 1, (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1995).

Ladner, S. D.

Lara-Lara, R.

J. L. Mueller, J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, E. Valdez, H. Maske, S. Alvarez-Borrego, R. Lara-Lara, “Remote sensing reflectance: preliminary comparisons between in-water and above-water measurements, and estimates modeled from measured inherent optical properties,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2693, 502–507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lazin, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, M. R.

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography 3, 18–21 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Linzell, B.

A. Weidemann, R. Hallman, M. Wilcox, B. Linzell, “Calculation of near-surface attenuation coefficients: the influence of wave focusing,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 492–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, S. Maritorena, “An evaluation of oceanographic radiometers and deployment methodologies,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (to be published).

Maske, H.

J. L. Mueller, J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, E. Valdez, H. Maske, S. Alvarez-Borrego, R. Lara-Lara, “Remote sensing reflectance: preliminary comparisons between in-water and above-water measurements, and estimates modeled from measured inherent optical properties,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2693, 502–507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

McLean, S.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Menzies, D. W.

M. C. O’Brien, D. W. Menzies, D. A. Siegel, R. C. Smith, SeaWiFS Post Launch Technical Report Series: Calibration History of Several Marine Environmental Radiometers (MERs), NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999) (to be published).

Meywerk, J.

J. Meywerk, V. Ramanathan, Observations of the Spectral Clear-Sky Aerosol Forcing over the Tropical Indian Ocean, Indian Ocean Experiment Pub. 22 (Indian Ocean Experiment International Project Office, La Jolla, Calif., 1998).

Michaels, A. F.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Mitchell, B. G.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, G.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

Mobley, C. D.

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7442–7455 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, New York, 1994).

Morel, A.

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J.

J. Mueller, Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing, San Diego State University, San Diego, Calif. (personal communication, 1998).

Mueller, J. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Mueller, R. W. Austin, “Volume 25 of Ocean Optics Protocols for SeaWiFS Validation, Revision 1,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds., (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

J. L. Mueller, J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, E. Valdez, H. Maske, S. Alvarez-Borrego, R. Lara-Lara, “Remote sensing reflectance: preliminary comparisons between in-water and above-water measurements, and estimates modeled from measured inherent optical properties,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2693, 502–507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Munk, W.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Some problems in optical oceanography,” J. Mar. Res. 14, 63–78 (1955).

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, M. C.

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. Fields, BBOP Data Processing and Sampling Procedures, Version 1, (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1995).

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

M. C. O’Brien, D. W. Menzies, D. A. Siegel, R. C. Smith, SeaWiFS Post Launch Technical Report Series: Calibration History of Several Marine Environmental Radiometers (MERs), NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999) (to be published).

O’Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, S.

J. L. Mueller, J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, E. Valdez, H. Maske, S. Alvarez-Borrego, R. Lara-Lara, “Remote sensing reflectance: preliminary comparisons between in-water and above-water measurements, and estimates modeled from measured inherent optical properties,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2693, 502–507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

Preisendorfer, W.

W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Radke, L. F.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ramanathan, V.

J. Meywerk, V. Ramanathan, Observations of the Spectral Clear-Sky Aerosol Forcing over the Tropical Indian Ocean, Indian Ocean Experiment Pub. 22 (Indian Ocean Experiment International Project Office, La Jolla, Calif., 1998).

Rhea, W. J.

W. J. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “A comparison of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll and CZCS pigment algorithms using optical data from the 1992 JGOFS Equatorial Pacific Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 44, 1907–1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

Ricchiazzi, P.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riley, T.

T. Riley, S. Bailey, “The Sixth SeaWiFS/SIMBIOS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-6) August–December 1997,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1998).

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. O’Brien, D. W. Menzies, D. A. Siegel, R. C. Smith, SeaWiFS Post Launch Technical Report Series: Calibration History of Several Marine Environmental Radiometers (MERs), NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999) (to be published).

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. Fields, BBOP Data Processing and Sampling Procedures, Version 1, (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1995).

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Characterization of downwelling spectral irradiance fluctuations,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 67–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel are preparing a manuscript to be called “Diagnosis of ocean color variability in the Santa Barbara Channel.”

Smith, R. C.

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography 3, 18–21 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Booth, R. C. Smith, “Moorable spectroradiometers in the BIOWATT experiment,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 176–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. C. O’Brien, D. W. Menzies, D. A. Siegel, R. C. Smith, SeaWiFS Post Launch Technical Report Series: Calibration History of Several Marine Environmental Radiometers (MERs), NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999) (to be published).

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Irradiance transmittance through the air-water interface,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 556–565 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Analysis of ocean optical data II,” in Ocean Optics VIII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE637, 95–107 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, J. C.

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. Fields, BBOP Data Processing and Sampling Procedures, Version 1, (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1995).

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. A. Brody, J. L. Mueller, C. O. Davis, W. J. Rhea, S. B. Hooker, Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-94), S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1995).

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Sowle, D.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steward, R. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, J. L. Mueller, “Remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2963, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sydor, M.

Terrie, G. E.

Toole, D. A.

D. A. Toole, D. A. Siegel are preparing a manuscript to be called “Diagnosis of ocean color variability in the Santa Barbara Channel.”

Valdez, E.

J. L. Mueller, J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, E. Valdez, H. Maske, S. Alvarez-Borrego, R. Lara-Lara, “Remote sensing reflectance: preliminary comparisons between in-water and above-water measurements, and estimates modeled from measured inherent optical properties,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2693, 502–507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waterhouse, T.

A. H. Knap, A. F. Michaels, R. L. Dow, R. J. Johnson, K. Gundersen, J. C. Sorensen, A. R. Close, F. A. Howse, M. Hammer, N. Bates, A. Doyle, T. Waterhouse, Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study, BATS Method Manual—Version 3 (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1993).

Waters, K. J.

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography 3, 18–21 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weidemann, A.

A. Weidemann, R. Hallman, M. Wilcox, B. Linzell, “Calculation of near-surface attenuation coefficients: the influence of wave focusing,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 492–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, M.

A. Weidemann, R. Hallman, M. Wilcox, B. Linzell, “Calculation of near-surface attenuation coefficients: the influence of wave focusing,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 492–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wood, C. G.

Yang, S. R.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. L. Mueller, J. R. V. Zaneveld, S. Pegau, E. Valdez, H. Maske, S. Alvarez-Borrego, R. Lara-Lara, “Remote sensing reflectance: preliminary comparisons between in-water and above-water measurements, and estimates modeled from measured inherent optical properties,” in Ocean Optics XIII, S. G. Ackleson, ed., Proc. SPIE2693, 502–507 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

S. B. Hooker, G. Zibordi, G. Lazin, S. McLean, The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1999).

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc.

P. Ricchiazzi, S. R. Yang, C. Gautier, D. Sowle, “SBDART: a research and teaching software tool for plane-parallel radiative transfer in the Earth’s atmosphere,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 79, 2101–2114 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. II

W. J. Rhea, C. O. Davis, “A comparison of the SeaWiFS chlorophyll and CZCS pigment algorithms using optical data from the 1992 JGOFS Equatorial Pacific Time Series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 44, 1907–1925 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

S. B. Hooker, J. Aiken, “Calibration evaluation and radiometric testing of field radiometers with the SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM),” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 995–1007 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

T. Nakajima, M. D. King, J. D. Spinhirne, L. F. Radke, “Determination of the optical thickness and effective particle radius of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. Part II: Marine stratocumulus observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 48, 728–750 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24,937–24,953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10,909–10,924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Some problems in optical oceanography,” J. Mar. Res. 14, 63–78 (1955).

J. Phys. Oceanogr.

W. Preisendorfer, C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16, 1293–1316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

H. R. Gordon, K. Y. Ding, “Self-shading of in-water optical instruments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 491–500 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oceanography

K. J. Waters, R. C. Smith, M. R. Lewis, “Avoiding ship-induced light-field perturbation in the determination of oceanic optical properties,” Oceanography 3, 18–21 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Mueller, Center for Hydro-Optics and Remote Sensing, San Diego State University, San Diego, Calif. (personal communication, 1998).

D. A. Siegel, M. C. O’Brien, J. C. Sorensen, D. A. Konnoff, E. Fields, BBOP Data Processing and Sampling Procedures, Version 1, (U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study Planning and Coordination Office, Woods Hole, Mass., 1995).

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “The determination of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of sea water using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Austin, “Inherent spectral radiance signals of the ocean surface,” in Ocean Color Analysis, SIO Tech. Ref. 74-10, 2.1-2.20 (Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., 1974).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Analysis of ocean optical data II,” in Ocean Optics VIII, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE637, 95–107 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Irradiance transmittance through the air-water interface,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 556–565 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, T. D. Dickey, “Characterization of downwelling spectral irradiance fluctuations,” in Ocean Optics IX, M. A. Blizard, ed., Proc. SPIE925, 67–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Weidemann, R. Hallman, M. Wilcox, B. Linzell, “Calculation of near-surface attenuation coefficients: the influence of wave focusing,” in Ocean Optics X, R. W. Spinrad, ed., Proc. SPIE1302, 492–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. Hooker, G. Mitchell, R. Barnes, “Volume 3 of Calibration and Validation Plan for SeaWiFS,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sky radiance reflectance ratios L sky(λ)/E d (0+, λ) (sr-1). The ratios are separated into diffuse days characterized by greater than or equal to 7 okta cloud coverage with the remaining days designated as clear. (a) The sky radiance reflectance ratios for diffuse cases are generally spectrally white. The cases that deviate from this have only 7 okta coverage where a clear portion of the sky might have been sampled. (b) The same ratios are clearly not spectrally flat for clear-sky conditions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observations of PRR R rs(0+, λ) (sr-1) versus ASD R rs(0+, λ) (sr-1) determinations for all wavelengths. Plusses denote high wind-speed cases, circles are for low wind conditions, and the line denotes the one-to-one relationship. (a) ASD R rs(0+, λ) determinations processed following SeaWiFS protocols [Eq. (2)] which include the 750-nm offset term. (b) ASD R rs(0+, λ) determinations not offset by the magnitude of the signal remaining at 750 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeled distributions of the locations that are sampled by a stationary foreoptic with a viewing geometry of θ = 45° and ϕ = 90°. The square denotes the position of the foreoptic. (a) Wind speed equals 1 m/s. (b) Wind speed equals 10 m/s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modeled sky radiance distributions for 490 nm (W m-2 µm-1 sr-1) with θSun = 30°. (a) The clear-sky radiance distribution was modeled assuming a maritime atmosphere, oceanic aerosols, midlatitude water vapor and ozone, and 30-km visibility. (b) The diffuse sky radiance distribution was modeled assuming a cloud optical thickness of 25 and an effective droplet radius of 10 µm.37

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Deviations between the reflected sky radiance assuming a flat sea surface ρ(θ0)L sky(λ, θ0) versus those modeled by merging the modeled sky distributions and the modeled rough sea surface 〈ρ[θ(t)]L sky[λ, θ(t)]〉. The deviations are normalized by ρ(θ0)L sky(λ, θ0). The solid curve denotes a zenith Sun, the dotted curve denotes θSun = 30°, and the dashed curve denotes θSun = 60°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Above-water ASD R rs(0+, λ) (sr-1) spectra processed with (a) the SeaWiFS protocols and (b) the presented data merging procedure.

Tables (8)

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Table 1 Radiometric Measurements for Intercomparison

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Table 2 E d (0+, λ) Intercomparison Resultsa

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Table 3 L u (0+, λ) Intercomparison Resultsa

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Table 4 R rs(0+, λ) Intercomparison Resultsa

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Table 5 R rs(0+, 490) Intercomparison Results Separated by Environmental Conditions

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Table 6 High Wind-Speed (>5-m/s) Intercomparison Results by Wavelength (n = 28)

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Table 7 Mean-Fit Fresnel Reflectance Factors, Standard Deviations (in parentheses), and Offset Factors from Data Merging Procedure Separated by Sky State

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Table 8 Correlation Coefficients Between In Situ Water Column Properties and the Merged Above-Water Determinations

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Rrs0+, λ=Lu0+, λEd0+, λ.
Rrs0+, λ=Loceanλ-ρθLskyλπLplλ/ρplλ-residual750,
Rrs0+, λ=Locean0+, λEd0+, λ-ρθLsky0+, λEd0+, λ-residual750,
ρθt=ρθ0+ρθt,
Rˆrs0+, λ=Locean0+, λEd0+, λ-c1ρθLsky0+, λEd0+, λ-c2.

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