Abstract

Smart-pixel architectures, which use the cells of field-programmable gate arrays to provide electronic functionality and intraplane communication, offer a general-purpose approach to exploiting new application areas that would benefit from this kind of structure. One such area, that of the encryption of digital data, is discussed here. Some of the characteristics exhibited by encryption algorithms and ways in which these are applicable to smart-pixel technology are described. The implementation of an algorithm in current use, the SAFER K-64, and its interfacing to an electronic host are then considered in detail. It is shown that this encryption algorithm maps well onto smart-pixel technology because it involves only parallel data transfers, simple regular operations, and interconnections plus a relatively low rate of transfer to the host.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Beyzavi, D. S. Kim, C. P. Chao, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, “A cascadable InGaAsPInP optoelectronic smart pixel with low switching energy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1162–1164 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Progress in optoelectronic–VLSI smart pixel technology based on GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 181–198 (1997).
  4. R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. S. Sherif, S. K. Griebel, A. Au, D. Hui, T. H. Szymanski, H. S. Hinton, “Field-programmable smart-pixel arrays: design, VLSI implementation, and applications,” Appl. Opt. 38, 838–846 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, K. Singh, “Optical encryption system that uses phase conjugation in a photorefractive crystal,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8181–8186 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Larger, J.-P. Goedgebuer, F. Delorme, “Optical encryption system using hyperchaos generated by an optoelectronic wavelength oscillator,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6618–6624 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  13. J. L. Massey, “SAFER K-64: one year later,” in Fast Software Encryption, Second International Workshop (LNCS 1008), B. Preneel, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 212–241.
  14. L. R. Knudsen, “A key-schedule weakness in SAFER K-64,” in Advances in Cryptology—Crypto’95 (LNCS 963), D. Coppersmith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 274–286.
  15. K. M. Bell, “Simulation and applications for optical smart-pixel computation,” M.Ph. thesis (Manchester University, Manchester, UK, 1999).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

L. Larger, J.-P. Goedgebuer, F. Delorme, “Optical encryption system using hyperchaos generated by an optoelectronic wavelength oscillator,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6618–6624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Unnikrishnan, J. Joseph, K. Singh, “Optical encryption system that uses phase conjugation in a photorefractive crystal,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8181–8186 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Progress in optoelectronic–VLSI smart pixel technology based on GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 181–198 (1997).

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

K. Beyzavi, D. S. Kim, C. P. Chao, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, “A cascadable InGaAsPInP optoelectronic smart pixel with low switching energy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1162–1164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Refregier, B. Javidi, “Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding,” Opt. Lett. 20, 767–769 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Au, A.

Bell, K. M.

K. M. Bell, “Simulation and applications for optical smart-pixel computation,” M.Ph. thesis (Manchester University, Manchester, UK, 1999).

Beyzavi, K.

K. Beyzavi, D. S. Kim, C. P. Chao, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, “A cascadable InGaAsPInP optoelectronic smart pixel with low switching energy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1162–1164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

K. Beyzavi, D. S. Kim, C. P. Chao, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, “A cascadable InGaAsPInP optoelectronic smart pixel with low switching energy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1162–1164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chao, C. P.

K. Beyzavi, D. S. Kim, C. P. Chao, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, “A cascadable InGaAsPInP optoelectronic smart pixel with low switching energy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1162–1164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Delorme, F.

L. Larger, J.-P. Goedgebuer, F. Delorme, “Optical encryption system using hyperchaos generated by an optoelectronic wavelength oscillator,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6618–6624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Focht, M. W.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

K. Beyzavi, D. S. Kim, C. P. Chao, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, “A cascadable InGaAsPInP optoelectronic smart pixel with low switching energy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1162–1164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Freund, J. M.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Geib, K. M.

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goedgebuer, J.-P.

L. Larger, J.-P. Goedgebuer, F. Delorme, “Optical encryption system using hyperchaos generated by an optoelectronic wavelength oscillator,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6618–6624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Progress in optoelectronic–VLSI smart pixel technology based on GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 181–198 (1997).

Griebel, S. K.

Guth, G. D.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, E. M.

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hinton, H. S.

Hoanca, B.

Hou, H. Q.

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hui, D.

Javidi, B.

Joseph, J.

Jurrat, R.

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

K. Beyzavi, D. S. Kim, C. P. Chao, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, “A cascadable InGaAsPInP optoelectronic smart pixel with low switching energy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1162–1164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, L. R.

L. R. Knudsen, “A key-schedule weakness in SAFER K-64,” in Advances in Cryptology—Crypto’95 (LNCS 963), D. Coppersmith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 274–286.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Progress in optoelectronic–VLSI smart pixel technology based on GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 181–198 (1997).

Kuznia, C. B.

Larger, L.

L. Larger, J.-P. Goedgebuer, F. Delorme, “Optical encryption system using hyperchaos generated by an optoelectronic wavelength oscillator,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6618–6624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A. W.

Massey, J. L.

J. L. Massey, “SAFER K-64: a byte-oriented block-ciphering algorithm,” in Fast Software Encryption Cambridge Security Workshop (LNCS 809), R. Anderson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 1–17.

J. L. Massey, “SAFER K-64: one year later,” in Fast Software Encryption, Second International Workshop (LNCS 1008), B. Preneel, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 212–241.

Menezes, A. J.

A. J. Menezes, P. C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. S.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pu, R.

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Sawchuk, A. A.

Sherif, S. S.

Singh, K.

Smith, L. E.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stork, W.

Stucke, G.

Szymanski, T. H.

Unnikrishnan, G.

van Oorschot, P. C.

A. J. Menezes, P. C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).
[CrossRef]

Vanstone, S. A.

A. J. Menezes, P. C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilmslen, C. W.

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-M.

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, E. J. Laskowski, S. S. Pei, T. K. Woodward, A. L. Lentine, R. E. Leibenguth, M. W. Focht, J. M. Freund, G. D. Guth, L. E. Smith, “Batch fabrication and operation of GaAs–AlGaAs field effect transistor–self-electro-optic effect device (FET-SEED) smart pixel arrays,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 670–676 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Beyzavi, D. S. Kim, C. P. Chao, P. E. Burrows, S. R. Forrest, “A cascadable InGaAsPInP optoelectronic smart pixel with low switching energy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1162–1164 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Pu, E. M. Hayes, R. Jurrat, C. W. Wilmslen, K. D. Choquette, H. Q. Hou, K. M. Geib, “VCSEL’s bonded directly to foundry fabricated GaAs smart pixel arrays,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1622–1624 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, “Progress in optoelectronic–VLSI smart pixel technology based on GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 11, 181–198 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

L. Larger, J.-P. Goedgebuer, F. Delorme, “Optical encryption system using hyperchaos generated by an optoelectronic wavelength oscillator,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 6618–6624 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. J. Menezes, P. C. van Oorschot, S. A. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1996).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Massey, “SAFER K-64: a byte-oriented block-ciphering algorithm,” in Fast Software Encryption Cambridge Security Workshop (LNCS 809), R. Anderson, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), pp. 1–17.

J. L. Massey, “SAFER K-64: one year later,” in Fast Software Encryption, Second International Workshop (LNCS 1008), B. Preneel, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 212–241.

L. R. Knudsen, “A key-schedule weakness in SAFER K-64,” in Advances in Cryptology—Crypto’95 (LNCS 963), D. Coppersmith, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 274–286.

K. M. Bell, “Simulation and applications for optical smart-pixel computation,” M.Ph. thesis (Manchester University, Manchester, UK, 1999).

Xilinx, Programmable Logic Data Book (Xilinx Inc., San Jose, Calif., 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Processing text blocks.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Round-based processing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Round processing in SAFER K-64.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Data arrangement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Core processing for SAFER K-64.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pixel processing at the transform stage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Processing the test vector.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cipher-block chaining.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Interfacing to electronics.

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