Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the adding, dropping, and passing through of 100-Gbit/s word packets in a looped-back all-optical time-division-multiplexed (TDM) access node. Packets are routed with a 17-dB contrast ratio and demultiplexed with a 20-dB contrast ratio. This node uses short 100-Gbit/s words to demonstrate its potential to process data packets from multiple sources and to perform packet switching in a multinode ring network configuration. The ability to tolerate timing jitter as well as varying input signal characteristics is essential to an all-optical access node in a multinode network. For 2-ps input pulses, the header processor has a timing window of ∼5 ps, and the demultiplexer has a timing window of ∼5.5 ps. This allows for tolerance to bit-to-bit timing jitters or to an increase in the pulse width of as much as 3 ps. Packet-to-packet timing jitter is detected and compensated by the technique used to synchronize the local source to each packet. The key enabling technologies of an all-optical TDM packet add–drop multiplexer are discussed, including an erbium-doped fiber laser, a nonlinear optical loop mirror logic gate, self-synchronization to incoming packets with a fast-saturation/slow-recovery gain element followed by an intensity discriminator, a two-wavelength nonlinear optical loop mirror demultiplexer, and synchronization of new packets to the network packet rate with a phase-locked loop. The local source is automatically synchronized to the incoming packet, because it uses an extracted pulse from the packet, which has a contrast ratio of >20 dB to the rest of the packet. Finally, new packets are added by use of a local laser and a synchronization method, which gives a timing jitter of ∼1 ps. Using a statistical method of measuring Q value with picosecond resolution, we show that a header processor with two cascaded logic gates has a Q value of 7.1 with a 95% confidence level.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, New York, 1992).
  19. K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. M. Bethea, B. S. Duran, T. L. Boullion, “Statistical Methods for Engineers and Scientists (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).
  21. G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, J. D. Minelly, J. E. Caplen, “High-power single-mode fiber amplifiers using multimode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 39–40.

1999 (2)

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (5)

V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. Modiano, K. A. Rauschenbach, “Architectures and technologies for high-speed optical data networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2146–2168 (1998); R. A. Barry, V. W. S. Chan, K. L. Hall, E. S. Kintzer, J. D. Moores, K. A. Rauschenbach, E. A. Swanson, L. E. Adams, C. R. Doerr, S. G. Finn, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, W. S. Wong, M. Haner, “All-optical network consortium—ultrafast TDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 999–1013 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “100-Gbit/s bitwise logic,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1271–1273 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Toliver, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, K.-L. Deng, B. Y. Yu, P. R. Prucnal, “Routing of 100 Gb/s words in a packet-switched optical networking demonstration (POND) node,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2169–2180 (1998); S.-W. Seo, K. Bergman, P. R. Prucnal, “Transparent optical networks with time-division multiplexing,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1039–1051 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. G. Moodie, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion, A. D. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 291–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

B. Y. Yu, R. Runser, P. Toliver, K.-L. Deng, D. Zhou, T. Chang, S. W. Seo, K. I. Kang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Network demonstration of 100 Gbit/s optical packet switching with self-routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1401–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “Optical rate conversion for high-speed TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1277–1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, X. D. Cao, Y. Liang, B. C. Barnett, S. Chaikamnerd, M. N. Islam, “Cascadability and functionality of all-optical low-birefringent nonlinear optical loop mirror: experimental demonstration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1228–1236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Optical signal eye diagram measurement with subpicosecond resolution using optical sampling,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1399–1400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Barry, P. Guignard, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, M. Bernard, “A high-speed optical star network using tdma and all-optical demultiplexing techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1030–1038 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

D. Nesset, M. C. Tatham, L. D. Westbrook, D. Cotter, “Degenerate wavelength operation of an ultrafast all-optical ADD gate using four wave mixing in a semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1938–1940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Ahn, K. H.

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, X. D. Cao, Y. Liang, B. C. Barnett, S. Chaikamnerd, M. N. Islam, “Cascadability and functionality of all-optical low-birefringent nonlinear optical loop mirror: experimental demonstration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1228–1236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, J. K.

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, B. C.

Barry, L. P.

L. P. Barry, P. Guignard, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, M. Bernard, “A high-speed optical star network using tdma and all-optical demultiplexing techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1030–1038 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. G. Moodie, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion, A. D. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 291–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, M.

L. P. Barry, P. Guignard, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, M. Bernard, “A high-speed optical star network using tdma and all-optical demultiplexing techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1030–1038 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Bethea, R. M.

R. M. Bethea, B. S. Duran, T. L. Boullion, “Statistical Methods for Engineers and Scientists (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).

Boittin, R.

L. P. Barry, P. Guignard, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, M. Bernard, “A high-speed optical star network using tdma and all-optical demultiplexing techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1030–1038 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouchoule, S.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Boullion, T. L.

R. M. Bethea, B. S. Duran, T. L. Boullion, “Statistical Methods for Engineers and Scientists (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).

Boyraz, O.

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. D.

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, X. D. Cao, Y. Liang, B. C. Barnett, S. Chaikamnerd, M. N. Islam, “Cascadability and functionality of all-optical low-birefringent nonlinear optical loop mirror: experimental demonstration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1228–1236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.-D.

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J. E.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, J. D. Minelly, J. E. Caplen, “High-power single-mode fiber amplifiers using multimode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 39–40.

Chaikamnerd, S.

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, X. D. Cao, Y. Liang, B. C. Barnett, S. Chaikamnerd, M. N. Islam, “Cascadability and functionality of all-optical low-birefringent nonlinear optical loop mirror: experimental demonstration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1228–1236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

Chang, T.

B. Y. Yu, R. Runser, P. Toliver, K.-L. Deng, D. Zhou, T. Chang, S. W. Seo, K. I. Kang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Network demonstration of 100 Gbit/s optical packet switching with self-routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1401–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clausen, A. T.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Cotter, D.

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Nesset, M. C. Tatham, L. D. Westbrook, D. Cotter, “Degenerate wavelength operation of an ultrafast all-optical ADD gate using four wave mixing in a semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1938–1940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Daelk, M.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Darwish, A. M.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dasika, P.

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Debeau, J.

L. P. Barry, P. Guignard, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, M. Bernard, “A high-speed optical star network using tdma and all-optical demultiplexing techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1030–1038 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deng, K.-L.

Doran, N. J.

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. G. Moodie, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion, A. D. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 291–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duran, B. S.

R. M. Bethea, B. S. Duran, T. L. Boullion, “Statistical Methods for Engineers and Scientists (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).

Ellis, A. D.

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. G. Moodie, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion, A. D. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 291–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Evans, A. F.

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, J. D. Minelly, J. E. Caplen, “High-power single-mode fiber amplifiers using multimode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 39–40.

Franzen, D. L.

Galvanauskas, A.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, J. D. Minelly, J. E. Caplen, “High-power single-mode fiber amplifiers using multimode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 39–40.

Gamper, E.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Gini, E.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Glesk, I.

Gloag, A.

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. G. Moodie, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion, A. D. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 291–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guignard, P.

L. P. Barry, P. Guignard, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, M. Bernard, “A high-speed optical star network using tdma and all-optical demultiplexing techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1030–1038 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, P.

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

Harter, D.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, J. D. Minelly, J. E. Caplen, “High-power single-mode fiber amplifiers using multimode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 39–40.

Hawk, R. M.

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hess, R.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Ippen, E. P.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, X. D. Cao, Y. Liang, B. C. Barnett, S. Chaikamnerd, M. N. Islam, “Cascadability and functionality of all-optical low-birefringent nonlinear optical loop mirror: experimental demonstration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1228–1236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, K. S.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Jiang, M.

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamatani, O.

O. Kamatani, Y. Katagiri, S. Kawanishi, “100-Gbit/s optical TDM add/drop multiplexer based on photonic downconversion and four-wave mixing,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 112–113.

Kanada, T.

Kang, K. I.

B. Y. Yu, R. Runser, P. Toliver, K.-L. Deng, D. Zhou, T. Chang, S. W. Seo, K. I. Kang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Network demonstration of 100 Gbit/s optical packet switching with self-routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1401–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kao, Y.-H.

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Katagiri, Y.

O. Kamatani, Y. Katagiri, S. Kawanishi, “100-Gbit/s optical TDM add/drop multiplexer based on photonic downconversion and four-wave mixing,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 112–113.

Kawanishi, S.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Optical signal eye diagram measurement with subpicosecond resolution using optical sampling,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1399–1400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Kamatani, Y. Katagiri, S. Kawanishi, “100-Gbit/s optical TDM add/drop multiplexer based on photonic downconversion and four-wave mixing,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 112–113.

Lenz, G.

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, X. D. Cao, Y. Liang, B. C. Barnett, S. Chaikamnerd, M. N. Islam, “Cascadability and functionality of all-optical low-birefringent nonlinear optical loop mirror: experimental demonstration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1228–1236 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. W.

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lucek, J. K.

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Mikkelson, B.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Minelly, J. D.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, J. D. Minelly, J. E. Caplen, “High-power single-mode fiber amplifiers using multimode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 39–40.

Modiano, E.

Moodie, D. G.

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. G. Moodie, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion, A. D. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 291–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nesset, D.

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Nesset, M. C. Tatham, L. D. Westbrook, D. Cotter, “Degenerate wavelength operation of an ultrafast all-optical ADD gate using four wave mixing in a semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1938–1940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D. A.

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. S.

N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “Optical rate conversion for high-speed TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1277–1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, I. D.

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. G. Moodie, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion, A. D. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 291–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, H. N.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Prucnal, P. R.

Rauschenbach, K. A.

Rogers, D. C.

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Runser, R.

B. Y. Yu, R. Runser, P. Toliver, K.-L. Deng, D. Zhou, T. Chang, S. W. Seo, K. I. Kang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Network demonstration of 100 Gbit/s optical packet switching with self-routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1401–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Runser, R. J.

Said, A. A.

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Optical signal eye diagram measurement with subpicosecond resolution using optical sampling,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1399–1400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S. W.

B. Y. Yu, R. Runser, P. Toliver, K.-L. Deng, D. Zhou, T. Chang, S. W. Seo, K. I. Kang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Network demonstration of 100 Gbit/s optical packet switching with self-routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1401–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shabeer, M.

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stubkjaer, K. E.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Takara, H.

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Optical signal eye diagram measurement with subpicosecond resolution using optical sampling,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1399–1400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tatham, M. C.

D. Nesset, M. C. Tatham, L. D. Westbrook, D. Cotter, “Degenerate wavelength operation of an ultrafast all-optical ADD gate using four wave mixing in a semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1938–1940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

Vaa, M.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Vogt, W.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

Weidman, D. L.

M. Jiang, K. H. Ahn, X.-D. Cao, P. Dasika, Y. Liang, M. N. Islam, A. F. Evans, R. M. Hawk, D. A. Nolan, D. L. Weidman, “Synchronization of passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers and its application to optical communication networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 2020–2028 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, L. D.

D. Nesset, M. C. Tatham, L. D. Westbrook, D. Cotter, “Degenerate wavelength operation of an ultrafast all-optical ADD gate using four wave mixing in a semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1938–1940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T. J.

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. Y.

Zhou, D.

B. Y. Yu, R. Runser, P. Toliver, K.-L. Deng, D. Zhou, T. Chang, S. W. Seo, K. I. Kang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Network demonstration of 100 Gbit/s optical packet switching with self-routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1401–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

B. Y. Yu, R. Runser, P. Toliver, K.-L. Deng, D. Zhou, T. Chang, S. W. Seo, K. I. Kang, I. Glesk, P. R. Prucnal, “Network demonstration of 100 Gbit/s optical packet switching with self-routing,” Electron. Lett. 33, 1401–1403 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Cotter, J. K. Lucek, M. Shabeer, K. Smith, D. C. Rogers, D. Nesset, P. Gunning, “Self-routing of 100 Gbit/s packets using 6 bit ‘keyword’ address recognition,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2201–2202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Nesset, M. C. Tatham, L. D. Westbrook, D. Cotter, “Degenerate wavelength operation of an ultrafast all-optical ADD gate using four wave mixing in a semiconductor laser amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1938–1940 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takara, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, “Optical signal eye diagram measurement with subpicosecond resolution using optical sampling,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1399–1400 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. P. Agrawal, N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

L. P. Barry, P. Guignard, J. Debeau, R. Boittin, M. Bernard, “A high-speed optical star network using tdma and all-optical demultiplexing techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 1030–1038 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (5)

N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, K. A. Rauschenbach, “Optical rate conversion for high-speed TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1277–1279 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, Y. Liang, O. Boyraz, T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, M. N. Islam, “System performance measurements for an all-optical header processor using 100-Gb/s packets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 140–142 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y. Liang, K. H. Ahn, J. W. Lou, O. Boyraz, Y.-H. Kao, X. D. Cao, S. Chaikamnerd, J. K. Andersen, M. N. Islam, “All-optical packet-drop demonstration using 100-Gb/s words by integrating fiber-based components,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 153–155 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Xia, Y.-H. Kao, Y. Liang, J. W. Lou, K. H. Ahn, O. Boyraz, A. A. Said, M. N. Islam, “Novel self-synchronization scheme for high-speed packet TDM networks,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 269–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Phillips, A. Gloag, D. G. Moodie, N. J. Doran, I. Bennion, A. D. Ellis, “Drop and insert multiplexing with simultaneous clock recovery using an electroabsorption modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 291–293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, “Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers,” Opt. Commun. 111, 589–612 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

O. Kamatani, Y. Katagiri, S. Kawanishi, “100-Gbit/s optical TDM add/drop multiplexer based on photonic downconversion and four-wave mixing,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 112–113.

K. S. Jepsen, B. Mikkelson, M. Vaa, H. N. Poulsen, A. T. Clausen, K. E. Stubkjaer, R. Hess, M. Daelk, W. Vogt, E. Gamper, E. Gini, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, S. Bouchoule, “Simultaneous all-optical add and drop multiplexing of 40-Gbit/s OTDM signals using monolithically integrated Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 310–311.

R. M. Bethea, B. S. Duran, T. L. Boullion, “Statistical Methods for Engineers and Scientists (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, New York, 1992).

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, D. Harter, J. D. Minelly, J. E. Caplen, “High-power single-mode fiber amplifiers using multimode fibers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 39–40.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of slotted-TDM metropolitan area ring network.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of looped-back node. A self-synchronization unit generates the local clock sources used by the header processor and the synchronized local pulse source used by the demultiplexer. The header processor checks the addresses of the incoming packets and determines the direction of the routing. The demultiplexer is used to read the data in the packet. A synchronizer at the packet repetition rate is used to synchronize the local transmitter (new packet generator) to the network. The back-to-the-network port is looped back to the input.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of access node. PLL, phase-locked-loop; SPM, self-phase modulation. Fixed word encoders create 100-Gbit/s word packets from EDFL’s. The NOLM logic gate performs an xor function to compare the addresses of the incoming packets, and the output triggers the packet router. The 2λ NOLM demultiplexes the individual bits in the packet payload.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Digital scope traces of the control signal to the packet router for different address packets. To switch the packet router, a 6-V control signal is needed to drive the modulator. (a) Control signal to modulator when encoder 2 has a matching address and encoder 1 does not have a matching address. (b) Control signal to modulator when encoder 1 has a matching address and encoder 2 does not have a matching address.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cross correlation of packets at the back-to-the-network port immediately after the LiNbO3 packet router. Depending on the output of the header processor, an incoming packet may be routed back to the network or dropped to the demultiplexer. A new packet may also be added when the incoming packet is dropped. (a) Packet is passed-through (back to the network). (b) Packet is dropped with 17-dB contrast ratio. (c) New packet is added when incoming packet is dropped off the network.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross correlations of incoming packets and demultiplexed bits from the payload at the output of the demultiplexer. The pump leakage, which can be seen as residue in the 0 bit positions, may be attenuated with a bandpass filter. Contrast ratio is >20 dB between the demultiplexed 1’s and 0’s. (a) Incoming packet from encoder 1. (b)–(d) Demultiplexed payload of encoder 1. (e) Incoming packet from encoder 2. (f)–(h) Demultiplexed payload from encoder 2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup of Q-analysis technique. The master laser passes through the encoder producing 0001011100, and the slave laser passes through the clock producing 111. The output of the header processor, consisting of two NOLM’s, is sent to cross correlator 1 for measuring the eye diagram. Cross correlator 2 is used for environmental drift control. PLL, phase-locked-loop; PBS, polarization beam splitter.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Eye diagram of header processor. This is the trace of the eye diagrams taken with the setup of Fig. 7 where the trace is taken by means of moving an optical delay stage in cross correlator 1. It is an overlay of all the different possible combinations of the 3-bit incoming header and the two possible values of 0 or 1 for the local bit.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram of the self-synchronization scheme. It contains two elements: the fast-saturation/slow-recovery gain element and the intensity discriminator. G 0, unsaturated gain.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental setup for self-synchronization. A SOA is used as the fast-saturation/slow-recovery gain element. The intensity discriminator is a 40:60 unbalanced NOLM. PC, polarization controller; P, polarizer; DSF, dispersion-shifted fiber.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Cross-correlation results of the self-synchronization scheme. (a) Input data packet. (b) Output data packet from the SOA. (c) Extracted single pulse from the unbalanced loop mirror intensity discriminator. The extracted single pulse has a >20-dB contrast ratio to the rest of the bits in the input packet.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Autocorrelation and (b) spectra of the extracted pulse from the self-synchronization unit. There is minimal pulse distortion, and the slight wavelength shift is due to gain dispersion in the semiconductor optical amplifier.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Experimental setup for demonstration of two cascaded logic gates. PLL, phase-locked loop.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Cross correlation results of the header processor. (a) Input data packet. (b) Output of the inverter. (c) Output at the xor gate when the headers match. (d) Output at the xor gate when the headers do not match (the inverted incoming header is 010, and the local header is 100).

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental setup for 2λ-NOLM demonstration. The high-nonlinearity fiber has a length of 1.64 km, λ0 = 1530.5 nm, and a nonlinearity ∼4.5 times that of normal dispersion-shifted fibers. zemEDFL 1 (λ = 1535 nm) and EDFL 2 (λ = 1542 nm) are synchronized with a phase-locked loop (PLL).

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

(a) Switching timing window 2λ NOLM measured at 0.8-pJ/pulse switching energy. Circles, experimental data; solid curve, simulated result based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation without inclusion of timing jitter. (b) Nonlinear transmission of the 2λ NOLM measured as a function of switching energy. At a switching energy of 0.8 pJ/pulse, the nonlinear transmission is 90%.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Autocorrelation of the 2λ-NOLM input and output pulses. Note that there is minimal pulse distortion through the device.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Schematic of Er–Yb-doped fiber laser configuration. The dashed box shows the phase correction setup. SA, saturable absorber; P, polarizer.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

(a) Power spectra measured at the tenth harmonic of the laser fundamental. (b) Timing jitter of the laser calculated from the power spectra. PLL OFF indicates when the laser is free running, and PLL ON indicates when the laser is synchronized to an electronic synthesizer.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Schematic diagram of phase error detection. Solid lines, optical paths; dotted lines, electronic circuits. LPF, low-pass filter.

Equations (2)

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PIn-tn-1,1-α/2σnn < μ < In+tn-1,1-α/2σnn=1-α,
P(n-1)σn2χn-1,1-α/22 < σ2 < (n-1)σn2χn-1,α/22=1-α,

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