Abstract

The measurement of dynamic changes in the blood oxygenation of tumor vasculature could be valuable for tumor prognosis and optimizing tumor treatment plans. In this study we employed near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure changes in the total hemoglobin concentration together with the degree of hemoglobin oxygenation in the vascular bed of breast and prostate tumors implanted in rats. Measurements were made while inhaled gas was alternated between 33% oxygen and carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2). Significant dynamic changes in tumor oxygenation were observed to accompany respiratory challenge, and these changes could be modeled with two exponential components, yielding two time constants. Following the Fick principle, we derived a simplified model to relate the time constants to tumor blood-perfusion rates. This study demonstrates that the NIRS technology can provide an efficient, real-time, noninvasive means of monitoring the vascular oxygenation dynamics of tumors and facilitate investigations of tumor vascular perfusion. This may have prognostic value and promises insight into tumor vascular development.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999 (5)

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fenton, S. F. Paoni, J. Lee, C. J. Koch, E. M. Lord, “Quantification of tumor vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 464–471 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumor oxygenation reported by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, C. L. Matson, K. Lau, R. R. Mapakshi, “Experimental validation of a backpropagation algorithm for three-dimensional breast tumor localization,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1049–1057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. P. J. van der Sanden, A. Heerschap, A. W. Simonetti, P. J. F. W. Rijken, H. P. W. Peters, G. Stuben, A. J. van der Kogel, “Characterization and validation on noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44, 649–658 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

S. Hunjan, R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, P. Pescheke, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, “Regional tumor oximetry: 19F NMR spectroscopy of hexafluorobenzene,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41, 161–171 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Robinson, F. A. Howe, L. M. Rodrigues, M. Stubbs, J. R. Griffiths, “Magnetic resonance imaging techniques for monitoring changes in tumor oxygenation and blood flow,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 8, 198–207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti, R. Thomas, “A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, noninvasively, with light,” Opt. Express 2, 411–423 (1998), http://www.epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .

1997 (5)

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “In vivo measurements of the wavelength dependence of tissue-scattering coefficients between 760 and 900 nm measured with time-resolved spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 386–396 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Fenton, “Effects of carbogen plus fractionated irradiation on KHT tumor oxygenation,” Radiother. Oncol. 44, 183–190 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, H. Liu, X. Li, B. Chance, “Low-cost frequency-domain photon migration instrument for tissue spectroscopy, oximetry, and imaging,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1562–1569 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Steinberg, H. J. Röhrborn, T. Otto, K. M. Scheufler, C. Streffer, “NIR reflection measurements of hemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 in healthy tissue and tumors,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 69–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, “Quantification in tissue near-infrared spectroscopy,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 952, 649–659 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (7)

M. Fabiani, G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, “Noninvasive near-infrared optical imaging of human brain function with subsecond temporal resolution,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 387–398 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 399–404 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

T. Y. Reynolds, S. Rockwell, P. M. Glazer, “Genetic instability induced by the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Res. 56, 5754–5757 (1996).
[PubMed]

S. A. Vinogradov, L.-W. Lo, W. T. Jenkins, S. M. Evans, C. Koch, D. F. Wilson, “Noninvasive imaging of the distribution of oxygen in tissues in vivo using near-infrared phosphors,” Biophys. J. 70, 1609–1617 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Homma, T. Fukunaga, A. Kagaya, “Influence of adipose tissue thickness on near-infrared spectroscopic signals in the measurement of human muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 418–424 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Watabe, M. Itoh, V. Cunningham, A. A. Lammertsma, P. Bloomfield, M. Mejia, T. Fujiwara, A. K. P. Johes, T. Johes, T. Nakamura, “Noninvasive quantification of rCBF using positron emission tomography,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

H. J. J. A. Bernsen, P. F. J. W. Rijken, T. Oostendorp, A. J. van der Kogel, “Vascularity and perfusion of human gliomas xenografted in the athymic nude mouse,” Br. J. Cancer 71, 721–726 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, B. Chance, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. O’Hara, F. Goda, K. J. Liu, G. Bacic, P. J. Hoopes, H. M. Swartz, “The pO2 in a murine tumor after irradiation: an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Radiat. Res. 144, 222–229 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Mason, P. P. Antich, E. E. Babcock, A. Constantinescu, P. Peschke, E. W. Hahn, “Noninvasive determination of tumor oxygen tension and local variation with growth,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29, 95–103 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. Van Der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884–1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Fishkin, E. Gratton, “Propagation of photon-density waves in strongly scattering media containing an absorbing semi-infinite plane bounded by a straight edge,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 127–140 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, L. Carraresi, R. A. De Blasi, G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of the human forearm,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 16, 141–153 (1992).

1991 (3)

H. D. Sostman, S. Rockwell, A. L. Sylva, D. Madwed, G. Cofer, H. C. Charles, R. Negro-Villar, D. Moore, “Evaluation of BA 1112 rhabdomyosarcoma oxygenation with microelectrodes, optical spectrometry, radiosensitivity, and MRS,” Magn. Reson. Med. 20, 253–267 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, W. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest, “Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin,” Clin. Chem. 37, 1633–1638 (1991).
[PubMed]

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195, 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “A system for long-term measurement of cerebral blood and tissue oxygenation in newborn infants by near-infrared transillumination,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289–294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

S. S. Kety, “Cerebral circulation and its measurement by inert diffusible racers,” Israel J. Med. Sci. 23, 3–7 (1987).

1953 (1)

L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951 (1)

S. S. Kety, “The theory and applications of the exchange of inert gas at the lungs and tissue,” Pharmacol. Rev. 3, 1–41 (1951).
[PubMed]

Anday, E.

Antich, P. P.

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hunjan, R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, P. Pescheke, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, “Regional tumor oximetry: 19F NMR spectroscopy of hexafluorobenzene,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41, 161–171 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Mason, P. P. Antich, E. E. Babcock, A. Constantinescu, P. Peschke, E. W. Hahn, “Noninvasive determination of tumor oxygen tension and local variation with growth,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29, 95–103 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (to be published).

Aral, B.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Babcock, E. E.

R. P. Mason, P. P. Antich, E. E. Babcock, A. Constantinescu, P. Peschke, E. W. Hahn, “Noninvasive determination of tumor oxygen tension and local variation with growth,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29, 95–103 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacic, G.

J. A. O’Hara, F. Goda, K. J. Liu, G. Bacic, P. J. Hoopes, H. M. Swartz, “The pO2 in a murine tumor after irradiation: an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Radiat. Res. 144, 222–229 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ballesteros, J. R.

H. Y. Ma, Q. Xu, J. R. Ballesteros, V. Ntziachristors, Q. Zhang, B. Chance, “Quantitative study of hypoxia stress in piglet brain by IQ phase modulation oximetry,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 642–649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, B.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, B. Barbieri, V. Quaresima, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bernarding, J.

R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 399–404 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernsen, H. J. J. A.

H. J. J. A. Bernsen, P. F. J. W. Rijken, T. Oostendorp, A. J. van der Kogel, “Vascularity and perfusion of human gliomas xenografted in the athymic nude mouse,” Br. J. Cancer 71, 721–726 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

Bloomfield, P.

H. Watabe, M. Itoh, V. Cunningham, A. A. Lammertsma, P. Bloomfield, M. Mejia, T. Fujiwara, A. K. P. Johes, T. Johes, T. Nakamura, “Noninvasive quantification of rCBF using positron emission tomography,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blum, C.

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M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, B. Barbieri, V. Quaresima, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
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M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, B. Barbieri, V. Quaresima, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
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B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
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S. Homma, T. Fukunaga, A. Kagaya, “Influence of adipose tissue thickness on near-infrared spectroscopic signals in the measurement of human muscle,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 418–424 (1996).
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J. A. O’Hara, F. Goda, K. J. Liu, G. Bacic, P. J. Hoopes, H. M. Swartz, “The pO2 in a murine tumor after irradiation: an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Radiat. Res. 144, 222–229 (1995).
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L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
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S. P. Robinson, F. A. Howe, L. M. Rodrigues, M. Stubbs, J. R. Griffiths, “Magnetic resonance imaging techniques for monitoring changes in tumor oxygenation and blood flow,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 8, 198–207 (1998).
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E. L. Hull, D. L. Conover, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen-induced changes in rat mammary tumor oxygenation reported by near-infrared spectroscopy,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 1709–1716 (1999).
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R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–245 (1999).
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S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (to be published).

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H. Liu, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, B. Chance, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
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H. Watabe, M. Itoh, V. Cunningham, A. A. Lammertsma, P. Bloomfield, M. Mejia, T. Fujiwara, A. K. P. Johes, T. Johes, T. Nakamura, “Noninvasive quantification of rCBF using positron emission tomography,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 311–319 (1996).
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B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
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B. M. Fenton, S. F. Paoni, J. Lee, C. J. Koch, E. M. Lord, “Quantification of tumor vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 464–471 (1999).
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H. Watabe, M. Itoh, V. Cunningham, A. A. Lammertsma, P. Bloomfield, M. Mejia, T. Fujiwara, A. K. P. Johes, T. Johes, T. Nakamura, “Noninvasive quantification of rCBF using positron emission tomography,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 311–319 (1996).
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R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–245 (1999).
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H. Long, G. Lech, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, B. Chance, “CW imaging of human muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. G. Fujimoto, M. S. Patterson, eds., Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 256–259.

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B. M. Fenton, S. F. Paoni, J. Lee, C. J. Koch, E. M. Lord, “Quantification of tumor vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 464–471 (1999).
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E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195, 330–351 (1991).
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Li, X.

Y. Yang, H. Liu, X. Li, B. Chance, “Low-cost frequency-domain photon migration instrument for tissue spectroscopy, oximetry, and imaging,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1562–1569 (1997).
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H. Liu, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, B. Chance, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, K. J.

J. A. O’Hara, F. Goda, K. J. Liu, G. Bacic, P. J. Hoopes, H. M. Swartz, “The pO2 in a murine tumor after irradiation: an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Radiat. Res. 144, 222–229 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lo, L.-W.

S. A. Vinogradov, L.-W. Lo, W. T. Jenkins, S. M. Evans, C. Koch, D. F. Wilson, “Noninvasive imaging of the distribution of oxygen in tissues in vivo using near-infrared phosphors,” Biophys. J. 70, 1609–1617 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, H.

H. Long, G. Lech, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, B. Chance, “CW imaging of human muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. G. Fujimoto, M. S. Patterson, eds., Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 256–259.

Lord, E. M.

B. M. Fenton, S. F. Paoni, J. Lee, C. J. Koch, E. M. Lord, “Quantification of tumor vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 464–471 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H. Y.

H. Y. Ma, Q. Xu, J. R. Ballesteros, V. Ntziachristors, Q. Zhang, B. Chance, “Quantitative study of hypoxia stress in piglet brain by IQ phase modulation oximetry,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 642–649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Madwed, D.

H. D. Sostman, S. Rockwell, A. L. Sylva, D. Madwed, G. Cofer, H. C. Charles, R. Negro-Villar, D. Moore, “Evaluation of BA 1112 rhabdomyosarcoma oxygenation with microelectrodes, optical spectrometry, radiosensitivity, and MRS,” Magn. Reson. Med. 20, 253–267 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandeville, J.

A. M. Siegel, J. A. Marota, J. Mandeville, B. Rosen, D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical tomography of rat brain function,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 252–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mapakshi, R. R.

H. Liu, C. L. Matson, K. Lau, R. R. Mapakshi, “Experimental validation of a backpropagation algorithm for three-dimensional breast tumor localization,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1049–1057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maris, M.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195, 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marota, J. A.

A. M. Siegel, J. A. Marota, J. Mandeville, B. Rosen, D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical tomography of rat brain function,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 252–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mason, R. P.

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hunjan, R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, P. Pescheke, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, “Regional tumor oximetry: 19F NMR spectroscopy of hexafluorobenzene,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41, 161–171 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Mason, P. P. Antich, E. E. Babcock, A. Constantinescu, P. Peschke, E. W. Hahn, “Noninvasive determination of tumor oxygen tension and local variation with growth,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29, 95–103 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (to be published).

Matcher, S. J.

Matson, C. L.

H. Liu, C. L. Matson, K. Lau, R. R. Mapakshi, “Experimental validation of a backpropagation algorithm for three-dimensional breast tumor localization,” IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1049–1057 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCully, K.

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meeuwsen-van der Roest, W. P.

W. G. Zijlstra, A. Buursma, W. P. Meeuwsen-van der Roest, “Absorption spectra of human fetal and adult oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and methemoglobin,” Clin. Chem. 37, 1633–1638 (1991).
[PubMed]

Mejia, M.

H. Watabe, M. Itoh, V. Cunningham, A. A. Lammertsma, P. Bloomfield, M. Mejia, T. Fujiwara, A. K. P. Johes, T. Johes, T. Nakamura, “Noninvasive quantification of rCBF using positron emission tomography,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitze, M.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Moore, D.

H. D. Sostman, S. Rockwell, A. L. Sylva, D. Madwed, G. Cofer, H. C. Charles, R. Negro-Villar, D. Moore, “Evaluation of BA 1112 rhabdomyosarcoma oxygenation with microelectrodes, optical spectrometry, radiosensitivity, and MRS,” Magn. Reson. Med. 20, 253–267 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, K.

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murray, T.

Nakamura, T.

H. Watabe, M. Itoh, V. Cunningham, A. A. Lammertsma, P. Bloomfield, M. Mejia, T. Fujiwara, A. K. P. Johes, T. Johes, T. Nakamura, “Noninvasive quantification of rCBF using positron emission tomography,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Negro-Villar, R.

H. D. Sostman, S. Rockwell, A. L. Sylva, D. Madwed, G. Cofer, H. C. Charles, R. Negro-Villar, D. Moore, “Evaluation of BA 1112 rhabdomyosarcoma oxygenation with microelectrodes, optical spectrometry, radiosensitivity, and MRS,” Magn. Reson. Med. 20, 253–267 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nioka, S.

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti, R. Thomas, “A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, noninvasively, with light,” Opt. Express 2, 411–423 (1998), http://www.epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195, 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, S. Nioka, J. Kent, K. McCully, M. Fountain, R. Greenfield, G. Holtom, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of hemoglobin and myoglobin in resting and ischemic muscle,” Anal. Biochem. 174, 698–707 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Long, G. Lech, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, B. Chance, “CW imaging of human muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, J. G. Fujimoto, M. S. Patterson, eds., Vol. 21 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 256–259.

Ntziachristors, V.

H. Y. Ma, Q. Xu, J. R. Ballesteros, V. Ntziachristors, Q. Zhang, B. Chance, “Quantitative study of hypoxia stress in piglet brain by IQ phase modulation oximetry,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 642–649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. A.

J. A. O’Hara, F. Goda, K. J. Liu, G. Bacic, P. J. Hoopes, H. M. Swartz, “The pO2 in a murine tumor after irradiation: an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Radiat. Res. 144, 222–229 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Obrig, H.

R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 399–404 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oostendorp, T.

H. J. J. A. Bernsen, P. F. J. W. Rijken, T. Oostendorp, A. J. van der Kogel, “Vascularity and perfusion of human gliomas xenografted in the athymic nude mouse,” Br. J. Cancer 71, 721–726 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Otto, T.

F. Steinberg, H. J. Röhrborn, T. Otto, K. M. Scheufler, C. Streffer, “NIR reflection measurements of hemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 in healthy tissue and tumors,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 69–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ovetsky, Y.

Paoni, S. F.

B. M. Fenton, S. F. Paoni, J. Lee, C. J. Koch, E. M. Lord, “Quantification of tumor vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements,” Br. J. Cancer 79, 464–471 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Pescheke, P.

S. Hunjan, R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, P. Pescheke, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, “Regional tumor oximetry: 19F NMR spectroscopy of hexafluorobenzene,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 41, 161–171 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peschke, P.

R. P. Mason, A. Constantinescu, S. Hunjan, D. Le, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, C. Blum, P. Peschke, “Regional tumor oxygenation and measurement of dynamic changes,” Radiat. Res. 152, 239–245 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Mason, P. P. Antich, E. E. Babcock, A. Constantinescu, P. Peschke, E. W. Hahn, “Noninvasive determination of tumor oxygen tension and local variation with growth,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 29, 95–103 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. W. Hahn, P. Peschke, R. P. Mason, E. E. Babcock, P. P. Antich, “Isolated tumor growth in a surgically formed skin pedicle in the rat: a new tumor model for NMR studies,” Magn. Reson. Imaging. 11, 1007–1017 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, H. P. W.

B. P. J. van der Sanden, A. Heerschap, A. W. Simonetti, P. J. F. W. Rijken, H. P. W. Peters, G. Stuben, A. J. van der Kogel, “Characterization and validation on noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44, 649–658 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pidikiti, D.

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

Quaresima, V.

M. Ferrari, R. A. De Blasi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, B. Barbieri, V. Quaresima, E. Gratton, “Cerebral and muscle oxygen saturation measurement by a frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopic technique,” in Optical Tomography, Photon Migration, and Spectroscopy of Tissue and Model Media: Theory, Human Studies, and Instrumentation, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, eds., Proc. SPIE2389, 868–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, E. O. R.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. Van Der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884–1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

Reynolds, T. Y.

T. Y. Reynolds, S. Rockwell, P. M. Glazer, “Genetic instability induced by the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Res. 56, 5754–5757 (1996).
[PubMed]

Richardson, C.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. Van Der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884–1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

Rijken, P. F. J. W.

H. J. J. A. Bernsen, P. F. J. W. Rijken, T. Oostendorp, A. J. van der Kogel, “Vascularity and perfusion of human gliomas xenografted in the athymic nude mouse,” Br. J. Cancer 71, 721–726 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rijken, P. J. F. W.

B. P. J. van der Sanden, A. Heerschap, A. W. Simonetti, P. J. F. W. Rijken, H. P. W. Peters, G. Stuben, A. J. van der Kogel, “Characterization and validation on noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44, 649–658 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, S. P.

S. P. Robinson, F. A. Howe, L. M. Rodrigues, M. Stubbs, J. R. Griffiths, “Magnetic resonance imaging techniques for monitoring changes in tumor oxygenation and blood flow,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 8, 198–207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rockwell, S.

T. Y. Reynolds, S. Rockwell, P. M. Glazer, “Genetic instability induced by the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Res. 56, 5754–5757 (1996).
[PubMed]

H. D. Sostman, S. Rockwell, A. L. Sylva, D. Madwed, G. Cofer, H. C. Charles, R. Negro-Villar, D. Moore, “Evaluation of BA 1112 rhabdomyosarcoma oxygenation with microelectrodes, optical spectrometry, radiosensitivity, and MRS,” Magn. Reson. Med. 20, 253–267 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigues, L. M.

S. P. Robinson, F. A. Howe, L. M. Rodrigues, M. Stubbs, J. R. Griffiths, “Magnetic resonance imaging techniques for monitoring changes in tumor oxygenation and blood flow,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 8, 198–207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Röhrborn, H. J.

F. Steinberg, H. J. Röhrborn, T. Otto, K. M. Scheufler, C. Streffer, “NIR reflection measurements of hemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 in healthy tissue and tumors,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 69–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, B.

A. M. Siegel, J. A. Marota, J. Mandeville, B. Rosen, D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical tomography of rat brain function,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 252–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruben, J.

R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 399–404 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaffer, U.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Scheufler, K. M.

F. Steinberg, H. J. Röhrborn, T. Otto, K. M. Scheufler, C. Streffer, “NIR reflection measurements of hemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 in healthy tissue and tumors,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 69–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlenger, K.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Scott, O.

L. Gray, A. Conger, M. Ebert, S. Hornsey, O. Scott, “The concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radio-therapy,” Br. J. Radiol. 26, 638–648 (1953).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick, E. M.

E. M. Sevick, B. Chance, J. Leigh, S. Nioka, M. Maris, “Quantitation of time- and frequency-resolved optical spectra for the determination of tissue oxygenation,” Anal. Biochem. 195, 330–351 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, A. M.

A. M. Siegel, J. A. Marota, J. Mandeville, B. Rosen, D. A. Boas, “Diffuse optical tomography of rat brain function,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 252–261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simonetti, A. W.

B. P. J. van der Sanden, A. Heerschap, A. W. Simonetti, P. J. F. W. Rijken, H. P. W. Peters, G. Stuben, A. J. van der Kogel, “Characterization and validation on noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44, 649–658 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sostman, H. D.

H. D. Sostman, S. Rockwell, A. L. Sylva, D. Madwed, G. Cofer, H. C. Charles, R. Negro-Villar, D. Moore, “Evaluation of BA 1112 rhabdomyosarcoma oxygenation with microelectrodes, optical spectrometry, radiosensitivity, and MRS,” Magn. Reson. Med. 20, 253–267 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steen, R. G.

R. G. Steen, K. Kitagishi, K. Morgan, “In vivo measurement of tumor blood oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy: immediate effects of pentobarbital overdose or carmustine treatment,” J. Neuro-Oncol. 22, 209–220 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, F.

F. Steinberg, H. J. Röhrborn, T. Otto, K. M. Scheufler, C. Streffer, “NIR reflection measurements of hemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 in healthy tissue and tumors,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 69–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Streffer, C.

F. Steinberg, H. J. Röhrborn, T. Otto, K. M. Scheufler, C. Streffer, “NIR reflection measurements of hemoglobin and cytochrome aa3 in healthy tissue and tumors,” Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 428, 69–77 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stubbs, M.

S. P. Robinson, F. A. Howe, L. M. Rodrigues, M. Stubbs, J. R. Griffiths, “Magnetic resonance imaging techniques for monitoring changes in tumor oxygenation and blood flow,” Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 8, 198–207 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stuben, G.

B. P. J. van der Sanden, A. Heerschap, A. W. Simonetti, P. J. F. W. Rijken, H. P. W. Peters, G. Stuben, A. J. van der Kogel, “Characterization and validation on noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44, 649–658 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartz, H. M.

J. A. O’Hara, F. Goda, K. J. Liu, G. Bacic, P. J. Hoopes, H. M. Swartz, “The pO2 in a murine tumor after irradiation: an in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry study,” Radiat. Res. 144, 222–229 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sylva, A. L.

H. D. Sostman, S. Rockwell, A. L. Sylva, D. Madwed, G. Cofer, H. C. Charles, R. Negro-Villar, D. Moore, “Evaluation of BA 1112 rhabdomyosarcoma oxygenation with microelectrodes, optical spectrometry, radiosensitivity, and MRS,” Magn. Reson. Med. 20, 253–267 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

Thiel, A.

R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 399–404 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, R.

Tittel, F. K.

H. Liu, A. H. Hielscher, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Jacques, B. Chance, “Influence of blood vessels on the measurement of hemoglobin oxygenation as determined by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 22, 1209–1217 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Kogel, A. J.

B. P. J. van der Sanden, A. Heerschap, A. W. Simonetti, P. J. F. W. Rijken, H. P. W. Peters, G. Stuben, A. J. van der Kogel, “Characterization and validation on noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44, 649–658 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. J. A. Bernsen, P. F. J. W. Rijken, T. Oostendorp, A. J. van der Kogel, “Vascularity and perfusion of human gliomas xenografted in the athymic nude mouse,” Br. J. Cancer 71, 721–726 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Sanden, B. P. J.

B. P. J. van der Sanden, A. Heerschap, A. W. Simonetti, P. J. F. W. Rijken, H. P. W. Peters, G. Stuben, A. J. van der Kogel, “Characterization and validation on noninvasive oxygen tension measurements in human glioma xenografts by 19F-MR relaxometry,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 44, 649–658 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Der Zee, P.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. Van Der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884–1889 (1993).
[PubMed]

Vaupel, P.

M. Höckel, K. Schlenger, B. Aral, M. Mitze, U. Schaffer, P. Vaupel, “Association between tumor hypoxia and malignant progression in advanced cancer of the uterine cervix,” Cancer Res. 56, 4509–4515 (1996).
[PubMed]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1988).

Villringer, A.

R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 399–404 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, K.

R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 399–404 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, S. A.

S. A. Vinogradov, L.-W. Lo, W. T. Jenkins, S. M. Evans, C. Koch, D. F. Wilson, “Noninvasive imaging of the distribution of oxygen in tissues in vivo using near-infrared phosphors,” Biophys. J. 70, 1609–1617 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watabe, H.

H. Watabe, M. Itoh, V. Cunningham, A. A. Lammertsma, P. Bloomfield, M. Mejia, T. Fujiwara, A. K. P. Johes, T. Johes, T. Nakamura, “Noninvasive quantification of rCBF using positron emission tomography,” J. Cerebr. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 311–319 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

M. Ferrari, Q. Wei, L. Carraresi, R. A. De Blasi, G. Zaccanti, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of the human forearm,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol. 16, 141–153 (1992).

Wenzel, R.

R. Wenzel, H. Obrig, J. Ruben, K. Villringer, A. Thiel, J. Bernarding, U. Dirnagl, A. Villringer, “Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 399–404 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. F.

S. A. Vinogradov, L.-W. Lo, W. T. Jenkins, S. M. Evans, C. Koch, D. F. Wilson, “Noninvasive imaging of the distribution of oxygen in tissues in vivo using near-infrared phosphors,” Biophys. J. 70, 1609–1617 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worden, K.

Wyatt, J. S.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, P. Van Der Zee, C. Elwell, J. S. Wyatt, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Measurement of hemoglobin flow and blood flow by near-infrared spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Physiol. 75, 1884–1889 (1993).
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S. Hunjan, D. Zhao, A. Constantinescu, E. W. Hahn, P. P. Antich, R. P. Mason, “Tumor oximetry: an enhanced dynamic mapping procedure using fluorine-19 echo planar magnetic resonance imaging,” Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (to be published).

H. Y. Ma, Q. Xu, J. R. Ballesteros, V. Ntziachristors, Q. Zhang, B. Chance, “Quantitative study of hypoxia stress in piglet brain by IQ phase modulation oximetry,” in Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue III, B. Chance, R. R. Alfano, B. J. Tromberg, eds., Proc. SPIE3597, 642–649 (1999).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of a one-channel, NIR, frequency-domain IQ instrument for tumor oxygenation measurement. PMT, photomultiplier tube for detecting light; IQ, in-phase and quadrature demodulator for retrieving amplitude and phase information; Low Pass, low-pass filter. The 5-mm-diameter fiber bundles deliver and detect the laser light through the tumor in transmittance geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of a drift test of the NIR instrument by use of a tissue phantom. The thicker solid curve represents relative changes in the oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, i.e., ΔHbO2, and the thinner solid curve represents relative changes in the total hemoglobin concentration, i.e., ΔHb t . ΔHbO2 and ΔHb t were calculated by use of Eqs. (8) and (9), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Results obtained with the NIR instrument from a 4.5-cm3 rat breast tumor while the breathing gas was switched from 33% O2 to carbogen. The thicker solid curve represents ΔHbO2, the thinner solid curve represents ΔHb t , and the dashed curve with the filled circles represents arterial saturation. (b) The unsmoothed data and the fitted curves: The solid curves represent the best fits to the ΔHbO2 data at the rising portion. The best fit to the two exponential terms is 0.143{1 - exp[-(t - 12.5)/0.18]} + 0.36{1 - exp[-(t - 12.5)/27.8]}, with R = 0.98, whereas the best fit with one exponential term is expressed as 0.322{1 - exp[-(t - 12.5)/5.1]}, with R = 0.81.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Results obtained with the NIR instrument from a 5.9-cm3 rat breast tumor while the breathing gas was switched from 33% O2 to carbogen. (b) The solid curves show the best fits to the HbO2 data at the rising portion. In this case a double exponential with values of 0.09{1 - exp[-(t - 9.8)/0.8]} + 0.16{1 - exp[-(t - 9.8)/3.0]}, with R = 0.98, and a single exponential with a value of 0.250{1 - exp[-(t - 9.8)/2.00]}, with R = 0.97, provided similarly good fits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Relative changes in the HbO2 detected with the NIR instrument from a rat breast tumor (6.7 cm3) while the breathing gas was alternated between air (21% O2) and carbogen. The best fits to the HbO2 data by use of both the double-exponential and the single-exponential expressions for (b) the first and (c) the second respiratory challenges are shown. The fitted equations that were obtained from (b) are 0.232{1 - exp[-(t - 19.5)/0.18]} + 0.368{1 - exp[-(t - 19.5)/6.93]}, with R = 0.98, and 0.550{1 - exp[-(t - 19.5)/2.80]}, with R = 0.89, respectively. The fitted equations that were obtained from (c) were 0.321{1 - exp[-(t - 67)/0.332]} + 0.233{1 - exp[-(t - 67)/9.47]}, with R = 0.99, and 0.485{1 - exp[-(t - 67)/1.38]}, with R = 0.81, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of KCl-induced cardiac arrest on the values of HbO2 and Hb t of a breast tumor (5.3 cm3), while the rat was breathing air.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Influence of respiratory challenges (switching from air to carbogen) on the values of HbO2 and Hb t of a large rat prostate tumor (8.2 cm3). (b) The best-fitted equations are 0.090{1 - exp[-(t - 12)/0.265]} + 0.064{1 - exp[-(t - 12)/6.02]}, with R = 0.96, and 0.140{1 - exp[-(t - 12)/1.13]}, with R = 0.82, for the double-exponential and the single-exponential expressions, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Variations in S a O2, ΔHbO2, and Hb t of which the latter two were detected with the NIR instrument, from a large rat prostate tumor (10.8 cm3) during respiratory challenge. (b) The solid curves represent the best fits to the ΔHbO2 data at the rising portion during carbogen inhalation. The fitted equations are 0.004{1 - exp[-(t - 21.5)/0.3]} + 0.38{1 - exp[-(t - 21.5)/15.6]} and 0.37{1 - exp[-(t - 21.5)/14.8]} for the double-exponential and the single-exponential expressions, respectively, with R = 0.97 for both.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic diagram showing (1) a tumor model with two vascular perfusion regions, (2) the source and the detector fibers and their geometry with respect to the tumor model, and (3) the light patterns that propagate in the tumor tissue. A represents a portion of the detected signal, which interrogates the well-perfused region, and B represents another portion of the detected signal, which passes mainly through the poorly perfused region. We have assumed that the total detected signal is the sum of A and B.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of the Vascular Oxygen Dynamics

Equations (26)

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It=2A sinωt+θsinωt=A cosθ-A cosωt+θpasslow Idc=A cosθ,
Qt=2A sinωt+θcosωt=A sinθ+A sinωt+θpasslow Qdc=A sinθ,
θ=tan-1Qdc/Idc,
A=Idc2+Qdc21/2,
ΔHb=Hbtransient-Hbbaseline=HbO2λ1logAbAtλ2-HbO2λ2logAbAtλ1LHbλ2 HbO2λ1-Hbλ1 HbO2λ2,
ΔHbO2=HbO2transient-HbO2baseline=Hbλ2logAbAtλ1-Hbλ1logAbAtλ2LHbλ2 HbO2λ1-Hbλ1 HbO2λ2,
ΔHb=7.34 logAb/At758-6.17 logAb/At782L,
ΔHbO2=-10.92 logAb/At758+14.80 logAb/At782L,
ΔHbt=ΔHbO2+Hb=-3.58 logAb/At758+8.63 logAb/At782L,
dCtdt=fCa-Cv,
dCtdt=fCa-Ctλ.
Ctt=λCa01-exp-ft/λ.
ddtΔHbO2vasculature=fΔHbO2artery-ΔHbO2vasculatureγ.
ΔHbO2vasculaturet=γH01-exp-ft/γ.
ΔHbO2vasculaturet=γ1H01-exp-f1t/γ1+γ2H01-exp-f2t/γ2=A11-exp-f1t/γ1+A21-exp-f1t/γ2,
γ1γ2=A1A2,  f1f2=A1/A2τ1/τ2.
μaλ1=Hbλ1Hb + HbO2λ1HbO2,
μaλ2=Hbλ2Hb + HbO2λ2HbO2,
ΔHb=Hbtransient - Hbbaseline=HbO2λ1Δμaλ2-HbO2λ2Δμaλ1Hbλ2 HbO2λ1-Hbλ1 HbO2λ2,
ΔHbO2=HbO2transient - HbO2baseline=Hbλ2Δμaλ1-Hbλ1Δμaλ2Hbλ2 HbO2λ1-Hbλ1 HbO2λ2,
ΔODλ=ODλ transient - ODλ baseline=logIb/Itλ=ΔμaλLλ,
Δμaλ=logIb/Itλ/Lλ.
L=32 d μsμa1/2,
ΔLL=-1Δμa2μa.
μa758-μa7822μa758
μaλ transient-μaλ baseline2μaλ baseline

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