Abstract

We describe the spectral design and manufacture of the narrow-bandpass filters and 6–18-µm broadband antireflection coatings for the 21-channel High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder. A method of combining the measured spectral characteristics of each filter and antireflection coating, together with the spectral response of the other optical elements in the instrument, to obtain a predicted system throughput response is presented. The design methods that are used to define the filter and coating spectral requirements, choice of filter materials, multilayer designs, and deposition techniques are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Dials, J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “A description of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 84–91 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. J. Scaddan, “The infrared optical system of ISAMS,” in Applications of Infrared Technology, T. L. Williams, ed., Proc. SPIE918, 125–130 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. F. Gray, “Design and performance of the optical system of ISAMS,” in Instrumentation for Optical Remote Sensing from Space, J. W. Lear, M. Monfils, S. L. Russak, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE589, 89–95 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. T. Werrett, G. D. Peskett, “The pressure modulators, closed cycle coolers and detector cooling systems in ISAMS,” in Instrumentation for Optical Remote Sensing from Space, J. W. Lear, M. Monfils, S. L. Russak, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE589, 96–103 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. Seeley, “Design and disposition of infrared optical multilayer coatings for the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS),” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 52–62 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. P. Chrisp, “Pressure modulator infrared radiometer (PMIRR) optical system for Mars Observer,” in Optical Systems for Space Applications, H. Lutz, G. Otrio, eds., Proc. SPIE810, 44–51 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. J. McCleese, J. T. Schofield, R. Zurek, J. V. Martonchik, R. D. Haskins, D. A. Paige, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, J. R. E. Locke, M. F. Chrisp, W. Willis, F. W. Taylor, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars using infrared pressure modulation and filter radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4232–4245 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. F. Gray, I. A. Tosh, M. E. Caldwell, T. Richards, “Optical design of the HIRDLS radiometer,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 113–124 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Hartley, M. B. Reine, R. Papinstick, D. Grise, W. King, B. Denley, “A multispectral HgCdTe detector subsystem for remote sensing in the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 92–101 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, G. J. Hawkins, “High-performance infrared filters for the HIRDLS 21-channel focal plane detector array,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 516–532 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, M. T. Gardner, G. T. Babcock, “An ultra-wide passband (5–30µm) filter for FTIR studies of Photosystem II,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 297–306 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, “Multilayer filters and coatings for the region 4–40µm: new material combinations,” in Infrared Techniques, Proc. IERE22, 125–141 (1971).
  14. C. Jacobs, “Dielectric square bandpass design,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1039–1042 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, A. Whatley, “Filters for ν2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736–2745 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band filters containing PbTe, 4–40µm,” in Contemporary Infrared Sensors and Instruments, H. Kaplan, F. M. Zweibaum, eds., Proc. SPIE246, 83–94 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. J. Hawkins, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, “Spectral characterization of cooled filters for remote sensing,” in Recent Developments in Infrared Components and Subsystems, C. T. Elliott, ed., Proc. SPIE915, 71–78 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. S. Seeley, G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, “Performance model for cooled IR filters,” J. Phys. D 21, 71–74 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “Spectral design and verification of HIRDLS filter and antireflection coatings using an integrated system performance approach,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 102–112 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and their Antireflection Coatings (Hilger, London, 1985).
  22. C. Cole, J. W. Bowen, “Synthesis of broadband antireflection coatings for spaceflight infrared optics,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeuman, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 506–510 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, M. T. Gardner, G. T. Babcock, “An ultra-wide passband (5–30µm) filter for FTIR studies of Photosystem II,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. S. Seeley, G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, “Performance model for cooled IR filters,” J. Phys. D 21, 71–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

1976 (1)

1973 (1)

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Babcock, G. T.

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, M. T. Gardner, G. T. Babcock, “An ultra-wide passband (5–30µm) filter for FTIR studies of Photosystem II,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, J. J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dials, J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “A description of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 84–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, G. J. Hawkins, “High-performance infrared filters for the HIRDLS 21-channel focal plane detector array,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 516–532 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “Spectral design and verification of HIRDLS filter and antireflection coatings using an integrated system performance approach,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 102–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, J. W.

C. Cole, J. W. Bowen, “Synthesis of broadband antireflection coatings for spaceflight infrared optics,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeuman, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 506–510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, M. E.

P. F. Gray, I. A. Tosh, M. E. Caldwell, T. Richards, “Optical design of the HIRDLS radiometer,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 113–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. C.

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chrisp, M. F.

Chrisp, M. P.

M. P. Chrisp, “Pressure modulator infrared radiometer (PMIRR) optical system for Mars Observer,” in Optical Systems for Space Applications, H. Lutz, G. Otrio, eds., Proc. SPIE810, 44–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cole, C.

C. Cole, J. W. Bowen, “Synthesis of broadband antireflection coatings for spaceflight infrared optics,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeuman, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 506–510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Denley, B.

J. M. Hartley, M. B. Reine, R. Papinstick, D. Grise, W. King, B. Denley, “A multispectral HgCdTe detector subsystem for remote sensing in the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 92–101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dials, M. A.

M. A. Dials, J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “A description of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 84–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diner, D. J.

Dudhia, A.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. S.

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, A. Whatley, “Filters for ν2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736–2745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, “Multilayer filters and coatings for the region 4–40µm: new material combinations,” in Infrared Techniques, Proc. IERE22, 125–141 (1971).

Gardner, M. T.

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, M. T. Gardner, G. T. Babcock, “An ultra-wide passband (5–30µm) filter for FTIR studies of Photosystem II,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gille, J. C.

M. A. Dials, J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “A description of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 84–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gray, P. F.

P. F. Gray, I. A. Tosh, M. E. Caldwell, T. Richards, “Optical design of the HIRDLS radiometer,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 113–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Gray, “Design and performance of the optical system of ISAMS,” in Instrumentation for Optical Remote Sensing from Space, J. W. Lear, M. Monfils, S. L. Russak, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE589, 89–95 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grise, D.

J. M. Hartley, M. B. Reine, R. Papinstick, D. Grise, W. King, B. Denley, “A multispectral HgCdTe detector subsystem for remote sensing in the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 92–101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hartley, J. M.

J. M. Hartley, M. B. Reine, R. Papinstick, D. Grise, W. King, B. Denley, “A multispectral HgCdTe detector subsystem for remote sensing in the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 92–101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haskins, R. D.

Hawkins, G.

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. Seeley, “Design and disposition of infrared optical multilayer coatings for the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS),” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 52–62 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, G. J.

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, M. T. Gardner, G. T. Babcock, “An ultra-wide passband (5–30µm) filter for FTIR studies of Photosystem II,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Seeley, G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, “Performance model for cooled IR filters,” J. Phys. D 21, 71–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, G. J. Hawkins, “High-performance infrared filters for the HIRDLS 21-channel focal plane detector array,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 516–532 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “Spectral design and verification of HIRDLS filter and antireflection coatings using an integrated system performance approach,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 102–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Hawkins, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, “Spectral characterization of cooled filters for remote sensing,” in Recent Developments in Infrared Components and Subsystems, C. T. Elliott, ed., Proc. SPIE915, 71–78 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hunneman, R.

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, M. T. Gardner, G. T. Babcock, “An ultra-wide passband (5–30µm) filter for FTIR studies of Photosystem II,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Seeley, G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, “Performance model for cooled IR filters,” J. Phys. D 21, 71–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, A. Whatley, “Filters for ν2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736–2745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, G. J. Hawkins, “High-performance infrared filters for the HIRDLS 21-channel focal plane detector array,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 516–532 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Hawkins, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, “Spectral characterization of cooled filters for remote sensing,” in Recent Developments in Infrared Components and Subsystems, C. T. Elliott, ed., Proc. SPIE915, 71–78 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “Spectral design and verification of HIRDLS filter and antireflection coatings using an integrated system performance approach,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 102–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band filters containing PbTe, 4–40µm,” in Contemporary Infrared Sensors and Instruments, H. Kaplan, F. M. Zweibaum, eds., Proc. SPIE246, 83–94 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. Seeley, “Design and disposition of infrared optical multilayer coatings for the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS),” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 52–62 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, “Multilayer filters and coatings for the region 4–40µm: new material combinations,” in Infrared Techniques, Proc. IERE22, 125–141 (1971).

Jacobs, C.

King, W.

J. M. Hartley, M. B. Reine, R. Papinstick, D. Grise, W. King, B. Denley, “A multispectral HgCdTe detector subsystem for remote sensing in the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 92–101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, R. J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liddell, H. M.

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Locke, J. R. E.

Martonchik, J. V.

McCleese, D. J.

Morris, P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nightingale, T. J.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paige, D. A.

Palmer, C. W. P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Papinstick, R.

J. M. Hartley, M. B. Reine, R. Papinstick, D. Grise, W. King, B. Denley, “A multispectral HgCdTe detector subsystem for remote sensing in the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 92–101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peskett, G. D.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Werrett, G. D. Peskett, “The pressure modulators, closed cycle coolers and detector cooling systems in ISAMS,” in Instrumentation for Optical Remote Sensing from Space, J. W. Lear, M. Monfils, S. L. Russak, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE589, 96–103 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reine, M. B.

J. M. Hartley, M. B. Reine, R. Papinstick, D. Grise, W. King, B. Denley, “A multispectral HgCdTe detector subsystem for remote sensing in the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 92–101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richards, T.

P. F. Gray, I. A. Tosh, M. E. Caldwell, T. Richards, “Optical design of the HIRDLS radiometer,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 113–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, C. D.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Savage, J. A.

J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and their Antireflection Coatings (Hilger, London, 1985).

Scaddan, R. J.

R. J. Scaddan, “The infrared optical system of ISAMS,” in Applications of Infrared Technology, T. L. Williams, ed., Proc. SPIE918, 125–130 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schofield, J. T.

Seeley, J.

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. Seeley, “Design and disposition of infrared optical multilayer coatings for the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS),” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 52–62 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seeley, J. S.

J. S. Seeley, G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, “Performance model for cooled IR filters,” J. Phys. D 21, 71–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, A. Whatley, “Filters for ν2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736–2745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band filters containing PbTe, 4–40µm,” in Contemporary Infrared Sensors and Instruments, H. Kaplan, F. M. Zweibaum, eds., Proc. SPIE246, 83–94 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, “Multilayer filters and coatings for the region 4–40µm: new material combinations,” in Infrared Techniques, Proc. IERE22, 125–141 (1971).

G. J. Hawkins, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, “Spectral characterization of cooled filters for remote sensing,” in Recent Developments in Infrared Components and Subsystems, C. T. Elliott, ed., Proc. SPIE915, 71–78 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, F. W.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McCleese, J. T. Schofield, R. Zurek, J. V. Martonchik, R. D. Haskins, D. A. Paige, R. A. West, D. J. Diner, J. R. E. Locke, M. F. Chrisp, W. Willis, F. W. Taylor, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars using infrared pressure modulation and filter radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4232–4245 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosh, I. A.

P. F. Gray, I. A. Tosh, M. E. Caldwell, T. Richards, “Optical design of the HIRDLS radiometer,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 113–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Venters, P.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Werrett, S. T.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Werrett, G. D. Peskett, “The pressure modulators, closed cycle coolers and detector cooling systems in ISAMS,” in Instrumentation for Optical Remote Sensing from Space, J. W. Lear, M. Monfils, S. L. Russak, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE589, 96–103 (1985).
[CrossRef]

West, R. A.

Whatley, A.

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, A. Whatley, “Filters for ν2 band of CO2: monitoring and control of layer deposition,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2736–2745 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band filters containing PbTe, 4–40µm,” in Contemporary Infrared Sensors and Instruments, H. Kaplan, F. M. Zweibaum, eds., Proc. SPIE246, 83–94 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Whitney, J. G.

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dials, J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “A description of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 84–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “Spectral design and verification of HIRDLS filter and antireflection coatings using an integrated system performance approach,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 102–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willis, W.

Zurek, R.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, M. T. Gardner, G. T. Babcock, “An ultra-wide passband (5–30µm) filter for FTIR studies of Photosystem II,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39, 297–306 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

F. W. Taylor, C. D. Rodgers, J. G. Whitney, S. T. Werrett, J. J. Barnett, G. D. Peskett, P. Venters, J. Ballard, C. W. P. Palmer, R. J. Knight, P. Morris, T. J. Nightingale, A. Dudhia, “Remote sensing of atmospheric structure and composition by pressure modulator radiometry from space: the ISAMS experiment on UARS,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,799–10,814 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

J. S. Seeley, G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, “Performance model for cooled IR filters,” J. Phys. D 21, 71–74 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

J. S. Seeley, H. M. Liddell, T. C. Chen, “Extraction of Tschebysheff design data for the lowpass dielectric multilayer,” Opt. Acta 20, 641–661 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

J. A. Savage, Infrared Optical Materials and their Antireflection Coatings (Hilger, London, 1985).

C. Cole, J. W. Bowen, “Synthesis of broadband antireflection coatings for spaceflight infrared optics,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeuman, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 506–510 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “Spectral design and verification of HIRDLS filter and antireflection coatings using an integrated system performance approach,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 102–112 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Dials, J. C. Gille, J. J. Barnett, J. G. Whitney, “A description of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 84–91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Scaddan, “The infrared optical system of ISAMS,” in Applications of Infrared Technology, T. L. Williams, ed., Proc. SPIE918, 125–130 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, “Multilayer filters and coatings for the region 4–40µm: new material combinations,” in Infrared Techniques, Proc. IERE22, 125–141 (1971).

J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, A. Whatley, “Temperature-invariant and other narrow-band filters containing PbTe, 4–40µm,” in Contemporary Infrared Sensors and Instruments, H. Kaplan, F. M. Zweibaum, eds., Proc. SPIE246, 83–94 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Hawkins, J. S. Seeley, R. Hunneman, “Spectral characterization of cooled filters for remote sensing,” in Recent Developments in Infrared Components and Subsystems, C. T. Elliott, ed., Proc. SPIE915, 71–78 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Gray, “Design and performance of the optical system of ISAMS,” in Instrumentation for Optical Remote Sensing from Space, J. W. Lear, M. Monfils, S. L. Russak, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE589, 89–95 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Werrett, G. D. Peskett, “The pressure modulators, closed cycle coolers and detector cooling systems in ISAMS,” in Instrumentation for Optical Remote Sensing from Space, J. W. Lear, M. Monfils, S. L. Russak, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE589, 96–103 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Hawkins, R. Hunneman, J. Seeley, “Design and disposition of infrared optical multilayer coatings for the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS),” in Optoelectronic Technologies for Remote Sensing from Space, C. S. Bowyer, J. S. Seeley, eds., Proc. SPIE868, 52–62 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Chrisp, “Pressure modulator infrared radiometer (PMIRR) optical system for Mars Observer,” in Optical Systems for Space Applications, H. Lutz, G. Otrio, eds., Proc. SPIE810, 44–51 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Gray, I. A. Tosh, M. E. Caldwell, T. Richards, “Optical design of the HIRDLS radiometer,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 113–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hartley, M. B. Reine, R. Papinstick, D. Grise, W. King, B. Denley, “A multispectral HgCdTe detector subsystem for remote sensing in the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument,” in Infrared Spaceborne Remote Sensing VI, M. Strojnik, B. F. Andresen, eds., Proc. SPIE3437, 92–101 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Hunneman, J. J. Barnett, G. J. Hawkins, “High-performance infrared filters for the HIRDLS 21-channel focal plane detector array,” in Space Optics 1994: Space Instrumentation and Spacecraft Optics, E. Sein, J. J. Schulte-in-den-Baeumen, T. M. Dewandre, eds., Proc. SPIE2210, 516–532 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

HIRDLS instrument optical layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature-dependent refractive-index dispersion characteristics of PbTe, Ge, CdTe, ZnSe, ZnS, and BaF2 at 300 and 50 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Shift in center wave number (in percent) with an angle of incidence for equivalent L- and H-spaced three-cavity bandpass filter designs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Channel 19 (7.10-µm) [A] cold filter measurement in f/7.9 illumination at 65 K and [B] corrected measurement profile calculated for the highly converging f/1.5 ray count distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Channel 19 (7.10-µm) [A] warm filter calculation in parallel illumination at 300 K, and [B] corrected calculation for the slowly converging f/7 ray count distribution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Overlay of measured HIRDLS warm (301 K) band definition filters (5.9–20 µm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Overlay of measured HIRDLS cold (65 K) ghost suppression filters (5.9–20 µm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured ZnSe DW and Ge lens antireflection coatings (5–40 µm).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Overlay of the measured passband profile for each element at the N2O channel 1 wavelength at 17.47 µm, together with the calculated instrument end-to-end throughput. (Corrected for operating temperature and illumination conditions.)

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Predicted instrument end-to-end passband throughput profiles (5.9–20 µm).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured N2O aerosol channel 1 (17.4-µm) blocking performance and instrument end-to-end throughput (2.5–40 µm).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 HIRDLS Warm and Cold Bandpass Filter Designsa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Warm and Cold Filter Passbands

Tables Icon

Table 3 Antireflection Coating Designsa

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