Abstract

The aspheric plate at the center of curvature of a spherical primary is replaced by a small aspheric corrector at a minified pupil located inside a reimaging camera. The correctors are identical for each reimaging camera because the spherical aberration of the primary sphere is identical and symmetrical for all field positions. The magnitude of the field aberrations is evaluated over a range of primary focal ratios and minified pupil diameters. The major term is the increased field angle through the minified aspheric corrector. The field and chromatic aberrations in such a camera are compared with the equivalent full-aperture Schmidt corrector. Field-of-view partitioning enables each subfield to be designed for specific observational requirements, such as multiple-fiber spectrography or CCD imaging. Field partitioning is shown to be a powerful means for the replacement of the large aspheric corrector of a Schmidt telescope by a multiplicity of small reimaging subsystems. The cost to fill the typical wide field of a Schmidt telescope with reimaging modules is approximately 1% the cost of a Schmidt aspheric plate.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, “A new configuration for spectroscopic survey telescope,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 105–108.
  2. S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, T.-Q. Chu, X. Chu, X. Cui, Y.-N. Wang, “Special configuration of a very large Schmidt telescope for extensive astronomical spectroscopic observation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5155–5161 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, Q.-Q. Hu, “Two telescope configurations for China,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 341–351 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).
  5. L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, “The Penn State SST: very large telescopes, their instrumentation and programs,” Int. Astron. Union Coll. 79, 851–860 (1982).
  6. L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, F. B. Ray, C. Sneden, A Progress Report on the SST: Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 105–108.
  7. I. S. Bowen, “Schmidt cameras,” in Telescopes, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, eds. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1960), pp. 44–61.
  8. A. B. Meinel, “Aspheric field correctors for large telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 118, 335–344 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. B. Meinel, “Aspheric field correctors for astronomical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 811 (1953).
  10. A. B. Meinel, “Cost-scaling laws applicable to very large optical telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 18, 645–647 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1982 (1)

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, “The Penn State SST: very large telescopes, their instrumentation and programs,” Int. Astron. Union Coll. 79, 851–860 (1982).

1979 (1)

A. B. Meinel, “Cost-scaling laws applicable to very large optical telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 18, 645–647 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1953 (2)

A. B. Meinel, “Aspheric field correctors for large telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 118, 335–344 (1953).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Meinel, “Aspheric field correctors for astronomical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 811 (1953).

Bowen, I. S.

I. S. Bowen, “Schmidt cameras,” in Telescopes, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, eds. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1960), pp. 44–61.

Chu, T.-Q.

Chu, X.

Cui, X.

Hu, Q.-Q.

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, Q.-Q. Hu, “Two telescope configurations for China,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 341–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.-T.

D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).

Meinel, A. B.

A. B. Meinel, “Cost-scaling laws applicable to very large optical telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 18, 645–647 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Meinel, “Aspheric field correctors for large telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 118, 335–344 (1953).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Meinel, “Aspheric field correctors for astronomical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 811 (1953).

Ramsey, L. W.

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, “The Penn State SST: very large telescopes, their instrumentation and programs,” Int. Astron. Union Coll. 79, 851–860 (1982).

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, F. B. Ray, C. Sneden, A Progress Report on the SST: Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 105–108.

Ray, F. B.

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, F. B. Ray, C. Sneden, A Progress Report on the SST: Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 105–108.

Sneden, C.

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, F. B. Ray, C. Sneden, A Progress Report on the SST: Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 105–108.

Su, D.-Q.

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, T.-Q. Chu, X. Chu, X. Cui, Y.-N. Wang, “Special configuration of a very large Schmidt telescope for extensive astronomical spectroscopic observation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5155–5161 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, Q.-Q. Hu, “Two telescope configurations for China,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 341–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, “A new configuration for spectroscopic survey telescope,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 105–108.

D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).

Wang, S.-G.

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, T.-Q. Chu, X. Chu, X. Cui, Y.-N. Wang, “Special configuration of a very large Schmidt telescope for extensive astronomical spectroscopic observation,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5155–5161 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, “A new configuration for spectroscopic survey telescope,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 105–108.

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, Q.-Q. Hu, “Two telescope configurations for China,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 341–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-N.

Weedman, D. W.

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, “The Penn State SST: very large telescopes, their instrumentation and programs,” Int. Astron. Union Coll. 79, 851–860 (1982).

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, F. B. Ray, C. Sneden, A Progress Report on the SST: Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 105–108.

Yang, S.-M.

D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).

Yang, S.-Y.

D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).

Zhang, H.-Y.

D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).

Zhu, Q.-C.

D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).

Zou, W.-Y.

D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (1)

A. B. Meinel, “Aspheric field correctors for large telescopes,” Astrophys. J. 118, 335–344 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Int. Astron. Union Coll. (1)

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, “The Penn State SST: very large telescopes, their instrumentation and programs,” Int. Astron. Union Coll. 79, 851–860 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

A. B. Meinel, “Aspheric field correctors for astronomical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 811 (1953).

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. B. Meinel, “Cost-scaling laws applicable to very large optical telescopes,” Opt. Eng. 18, 645–647 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, “A new configuration for spectroscopic survey telescope,” in Proceedings of the ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 105–108.

L. W. Ramsey, D. W. Weedman, F. B. Ray, C. Sneden, A Progress Report on the SST: Very Large Telescopes and Their Instrumentation, M. H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 105–108.

I. S. Bowen, “Schmidt cameras,” in Telescopes, G. P. Kuiper, B. M. Middlehurst, eds. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., 1960), pp. 44–61.

S.-G. Wang, D.-Q. Su, Q.-Q. Hu, “Two telescope configurations for China,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 341–351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D.-Q. Su, S.-T. Jiang, W.-Y. Zou, S.-M. Yang, S.-Y. Yang, H.-Y. Zhang, Q.-C. Zhu, “Experiments system of thin-mirror active optics,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes III, L. D. Barr, ed., Proc. SPIE628, 498–503 (1986).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic geometry for a Schmidt without an aspheric at its center of curvature but with optical path error compensation at a minified pupil inside a reimaging subsystem.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: SOBSA image in the Petzval surface of R/2. Right: Minimum image spread after refocusing by a slight change in the radius of curvature of the focal surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Arrangement of partitioned fields of view (FOV) to fill the large field of a typical Schmidt telescope. Note that the diameters of the partitioning subsystem are in general larger than the diameter of the reimaged pupil.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Basic geometry of a reimaging subsystem in which the input field of view is set by the size of a CCD array and is independent of D/d. Note that the aspheric correctors are identical for each subsystem independent of their location in the field of view because only the spherical aberration of the spherical primary requires correction. FNO, f-number.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the aberrations at the edge of a 25-µm pixel CCD partitioned field of view as a function of the diameter of the reimaged pupil compared with the aberrations of a 4-m F/1.72 Schmidt telescope at the edge of a 34-cm-diameter field of view (ϕ = 0.025 rad).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Field lens diameter of 1.5 times the minified pupil diameter. In general the pupil in a lens has a considerably smaller diameter than the largest lens element, the size depending on the field of view.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Relationship between aberration and reimaged pupil diameter for two values of the relative diameters of the field lens to the minified pupil diameter. FOV’s, field of view.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dependence of the diameter of the angular field of view as a function of the telescope focal ratio on the reimaging camera focal ratio. Note that the result is independent of the camera focal ratio.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Configuration for a reimaging module to reimaging a field of objects onto a star aperture plate for feeding a multiplicity of objects to a spectrograph.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Configuration for a vertical siderostat telescope where the aspheric corrector for the primary spherical mirror is located at the focus. FOV, field of view.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear and Angular Aberration Diameters for CCD Use

Tables Icon

Table 2 Linear and Angular Aberrations for Optical Fiber Use

Tables Icon

Table 3 Field of View versus Primary Focal Ratio F

Tables Icon

Table 4 Field of View versus Primary Focal Ratio F = F

Equations (21)

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OPD=Du4-au2/512F3,
F3=d/DF3.
OPD=du4-au2/512n-1d/DF3.
Ψ=D/dϕ.
δβ=SOBSA=4nx3+x3+2nxy2+xy2-anx-ax/2f sin2 Ψ/128nF3,
δγ=TOBSA=2nx2y+x2y+y3-ay/2f sin2 Ψ/128nF3.
N=πV/2p2=πDFϕ/2p2.
S=sDF.
S=SF/F=sDF.
p=sDF/2,
W=Np=sNDF.
W=WF/F=sNDF.
Ψ=W/2f=sNDF/2f.
δε=f sin2 Ψ/96d/DF3,
δε=Fd sin2ϕD/d/96nF3,
δα=δε/fe=δ/DF,
δε=f sin2 Ψ/96nF3.
ϕ=W/2f=7.42 cm/4000 cm=0.00186 rad,
Ψ=ϕD/d.
δ-δ=fn-n/256n-1F3,
Cr/CS=1/D2.6/aNd2.6,

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