Abstract

The luminescence of AgBr and AgBrCl crystals doped with Pr3+ rare-earth ions was investigated in the visible and infrared spectral ranges. We measured the excitation, emission, and absorption spectra as well as the kinetic parameters over a broad temperature range. The strong influence of the silver halide composition on Pr3+ ions spectroscopic properties was revealed. We calculated useful optical parameters for Pr:AgBr crystals by using the Judd–Ofelt approximation. Good agreement between the theoretical and the measured parameters was obtained.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “The visible and infrared luminescence of activated silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Mater. 8, 21–29 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Infrared luminescence of neodymium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2417–2419 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Gal, A. Katzir, “Silver halide optical fibers for medical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827–1835 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).
  5. L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, A. Katzir, “Optical properties of silver halide crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Luminescence properties of praseodymium- and erbium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7708–7711 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. Weber, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 171, 283–292 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross section in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Reisberg, M. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare-earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, N. Uhle, “Long wavelength optical phonons in AgBrxCl1–x mixed crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169–175 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Williams, “Theoretical basis for solid-state luminescence,” in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids, P. Goldberg, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966).

1997

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “The visible and infrared luminescence of activated silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Mater. 8, 21–29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Luminescence properties of praseodymium- and erbium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7708–7711 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, A. Katzir, “Optical properties of silver halide crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. Gal, A. Katzir, “Silver halide optical fibers for medical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827–1835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross section in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, N. Uhle, “Long wavelength optical phonons in AgBrxCl1–x mixed crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169–175 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. J. Weber, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 171, 283–292 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1962

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Barkay, N.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Bootz, B.

B. Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, N. Uhle, “Long wavelength optical phonons in AgBrxCl1–x mixed crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169–175 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bunimovich, D.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Luminescence properties of praseodymium- and erbium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7708–7711 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “The visible and infrared luminescence of activated silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Mater. 8, 21–29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Infrared luminescence of neodymium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2417–2419 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, A. Katzir, “Optical properties of silver halide crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gal, D.

D. Gal, A. Katzir, “Silver halide optical fibers for medical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827–1835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Katzir, A.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “The visible and infrared luminescence of activated silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Mater. 8, 21–29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Luminescence properties of praseodymium- and erbium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7708–7711 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Infrared luminescence of neodymium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2417–2419 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, A. Katzir, “Optical properties of silver halide crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Gal, A. Katzir, “Silver halide optical fibers for medical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827–1835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Kristianpoller, N.

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, A. Katzir, “Optical properties of silver halide crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross section in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Levite, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Margalit, E.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Moser, F.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Nagli, L.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Luminescence properties of praseodymium- and erbium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7708–7711 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “The visible and infrared luminescence of activated silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Mater. 8, 21–29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Infrared luminescence of neodymium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2417–2419 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, A. Katzir, “Optical properties of silver halide crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Paiss, I.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Reisberg, L.

L. Reisberg, M. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare-earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

Sa’ar, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Schnitzer, I.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Shmilevich, A.

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, A. Katzir, “Optical properties of silver halide crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uhle, N.

B. Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, N. Uhle, “Long wavelength optical phonons in AgBrxCl1–x mixed crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169–175 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Von Der Osten, W.

B. Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, N. Uhle, “Long wavelength optical phonons in AgBrxCl1–x mixed crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169–175 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M.

L. Reisberg, M. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare-earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 171, 283–292 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Williams, F.

F. Williams, “Theoretical basis for solid-state luminescence,” in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids, P. Goldberg, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966).

Zur, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross section in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. Gal, A. Katzir, “Silver halide optical fibers for medical applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 1827–1835 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Nagli, D. Bunimovich, A. Shmilevich, N. Kristianpoller, A. Katzir, “Optical properties of silver halide crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5737–5741 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “The visible and infrared luminescence of activated silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Mater. 8, 21–29 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 171, 283–292 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

B. Bootz, W. Von Der Osten, N. Uhle, “Long wavelength optical phonons in AgBrxCl1–x mixed crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi B 66, 169–175 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. Williams, “Theoretical basis for solid-state luminescence,” in Luminescence of Inorganic Solids, P. Goldberg, ed. (Academic, New York, 1966).

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levite, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics II, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

L. Reisberg, M. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare-earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room temperature absorption spectrum of a Pr:AgBr crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminescence excitation spectra of a Pr:AgBr crystal with 4 × 1020 - cm-3 Pr3+ ions (dashed curves) and a Pr:AgCl0.77Br0.23 crystal with 2 × 1019 - cm-3 Pr3+ ions (solid curves) for IR luminescence bands in the 1500–2600-nm spectral range, measured at 20 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Luminescence spectrum of a Pr-doped AgBr crystal under 489-nm excitation at 20 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence of the relative emission intensity of the (a) Pr:AgBr crystal at 489-nm excitation and (b) Pr:AgCl0.77Br0.23 crystal at 591-nm excitation. The symbols represent the experimental values for Pr:AgBr: ●, 550 nm; ◇, 648 nm; ○, 1630 nm; □, 2550 nm; , decay time; and for Pr:AgCl0.77Br0.23: ■, 1648 nm; △, 2520 nm. The dashed curves represent the best fit to the Arrhenius equation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy-level diagram for Pr3+ ions in AgBr crystals showing absorption (left) and luminescence (right) transitions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Direct multiphonon transitions model and (b) configuration coordinate diagram of the luminescence center.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reduced Matrix Elements of U(i), Mean Wavelengths 〈λ〉, and Absorption Transition Intensities in Pr:AgBr Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectroscopic Parameters of Pr:AgCl0.77Br0.23 Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 3 Transition Rates, Branching Ratios, and Quantum Efficiencies for Pr:AgBr Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 4 Judd–Ofelt Parameters for Pr:AgBr Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 5 Reduced Matrix Elements, Mean Wavelengths of the Luminescence Bands of U(i), and Calculated Transition Intensities for Luminescence Transitions for Pr:AgBr Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 6 Luminescence Quenching, Activation Energies, and Radiative and Nonradiative Probabilities for Two Crystals

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ScalcJ, J=i=2,4,6 Ωi|S, L, JUiS, L, J|2,
SmeasJ, J=3ch2J+18π3N0λe29nn2+22  αλdλ,
AJJ=64π4e23h2J+1λ3nn2+229 ScalcJ, J,
τrad=1/J AJJ,  β=τradAJJ.
η=11+expω0/kTexpω0/kT-1pi, piω0=ΔEi.
I=I01+Aqi/Ari exp-Ui/kT,

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