Abstract

The optical biaxial nature of crystals in the potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) family result in anisotropic transmission that depends on the polarization direction of the transmitted radiation with respect to the fundamental crystal axes. Knowledge of the polarization-dependent crystal transmission is important for all wavelength-conversion applications and in particular is the only limitation on possible combinations of wavelengths when one uses the quasi-phase-matching techniques recently developed for the KTP family materials. In this study, polarized transmission spectra of KTiOPO4 (KTP), RbTiOPO4, RbTiOAsO4 (RTA), and KTiOAsO4 were measured over the 0.3–6-µm wavelength range with a spectrophotometer and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. Seven crystal samples were studied, including four samples of KTP crystals of different origins. Variations in spectral transmission on the short- and long-wavelength edges, as well as visible-wavelength transmission and OH- absorption properties, are presented and discussed. The transmission of one sample of KTP and of RTA was also measured before and after periodic electric field poling.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. T. Cheng, L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the arsenate isomorphs of KTP,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 43–53 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Chen, W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216–1218 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. F. Bordui, R. Blachman, R. G. Norwood, “Improved optical transmission of KTiOPO4 crystals through cerium-doping and oxygen annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1369–1371 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. I. Fenimore, K. L. Schepler, D. Zelmon, S. Kück, U. B. Ramabadran, P. B. Richter, D. Small, “Rubidium titanyl arsenate difference-frequency generation and validation of new Sellmeier coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1935–1940 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. N. Satyanarayan, H. L. Bhat, M. R. Srinivasan, “Effect of thermal annealing on the dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3241–3245 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1519–1521 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, G. Arvidsson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Karlsson, M. Olson, G. Arvidsson, F. Laurell, U. Bäder, A. Borsutzky, R. Wallenstein, S. Wickström, M. Gustafsson, “Nanosecond optical parametric oscillator based on large-aperture periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Opt. Lett. 24, 330–332 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3474–3476 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. S. Webb, P. F. Moulton, J. L. Kasinski, R. L. Burnham, G. L. Loiacono, R. L. Stolzenberger, “High-average-power KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1161–1163 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, B. Jones, “Infrared study of OH- defects in KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5371–5380 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Hellström, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, “First-order type II quasi-phase-matched UV generation in periodically poled KTP,” Opt. Lett. 24, 978–980 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390–2394 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, “Nature of the infrared spectrum in the band-edge region of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 560–561 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, “Influence of water vapor on the susceptibility to electric-field damage of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 799–801 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. International Organization for Standardization, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements, 1st ed. (ISO, Geneva, 1995), Chap. 6.

1999

1998

1997

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3474–3476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, G. Arvidsson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Satyanarayan, H. L. Bhat, M. R. Srinivasan, “Effect of thermal annealing on the dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3241–3245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. I. Fenimore, K. L. Schepler, D. Zelmon, S. Kück, U. B. Ramabadran, P. B. Richter, D. Small, “Rubidium titanyl arsenate difference-frequency generation and validation of new Sellmeier coefficients,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1935–1940 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

Q. Chen, W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, “Influence of water vapor on the susceptibility to electric-field damage of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 799–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, B. Jones, “Infrared study of OH- defects in KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5371–5380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Bordui, R. Blachman, R. G. Norwood, “Improved optical transmission of KTiOPO4 crystals through cerium-doping and oxygen annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1369–1371 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 µm in KTP pumped at 1.064 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, A. A. Ballman, “Crystal growth of KTiOPO4 isomorphs from tungstate molybdate fluxes,” J. Cry. Growth 110, 697–703 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, “Nature of the infrared spectrum in the band-edge region of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 560–561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3 and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2231–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216–1218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390–2394 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

J. D. McMullen, “Optical parametric interaction in isotropic materials using a phase-corrected stack of nonlinear dielectric plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3076–3081 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Aguiló, M.

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alford, W. J.

Arisholm, G.

Arvidsson, G.

Bäder, U.

Ballman, A. A.

L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, A. A. Ballman, “Crystal growth of KTiOPO4 isomorphs from tungstate molybdate fluxes,” J. Cry. Growth 110, 697–703 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3 and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2231–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, H. L.

M. N. Satyanarayan, H. L. Bhat, M. R. Srinivasan, “Effect of thermal annealing on the dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3241–3245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, A. A. Ballman, “Crystal growth of KTiOPO4 isomorphs from tungstate molybdate fluxes,” J. Cry. Growth 110, 697–703 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, H. Vanherzeele, “Potassium titanyl phosphate: properties and new applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 622–633 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216–1218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Cheng, L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the arsenate isomorphs of KTP,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 43–53 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blachman, R.

P. F. Bordui, R. Blachman, R. G. Norwood, “Improved optical transmission of KTiOPO4 crystals through cerium-doping and oxygen annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1369–1371 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bordui, P. F.

P. F. Bordui, R. Blachman, R. G. Norwood, “Improved optical transmission of KTiOPO4 crystals through cerium-doping and oxygen annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1369–1371 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Borsutzky, A.

Bosenberg, W. R.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, L. H.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216–1218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. L.

Byer, R. L.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390–2394 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabré, R.

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. K.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1519–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, A. A. Ballman, “Crystal growth of KTiOPO4 isomorphs from tungstate molybdate fluxes,” J. Cry. Growth 110, 697–703 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Cheng, L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the arsenate isomorphs of KTP,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 43–53 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. T.

L. T. Cheng, L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the arsenate isomorphs of KTP,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 43–53 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. K.

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, “Influence of water vapor on the susceptibility to electric-field damage of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 799–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, B. Jones, “Infrared study of OH- defects in KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5371–5380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Díaz, F.

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, C. E. Huang, B. Q. Hu, R. C. Eckardt, Y. X. Fan, R. L. Byer, R. S. Feigelson, “Second harmonic generation and accurate index of refraction measurements in flux-grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2390–2394 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eger, D.

D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Englander, A.

D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Englender, A.

G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Fan, Y. X.

Feigelson, R. S.

Fejer, M. M.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fenimore, D. I.

Ferretti, A.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216–1218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Findling, Y.

G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gavaldà, J.

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gehr, R. J.

Gettemy, D. J.

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3 and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2231–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, M.

Harker, W. C.

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3 and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2231–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hellström, J.

Henriksson, P.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, G. Arvidsson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W. Y.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216–1218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. Q.

Hu, Z. W.

G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. E.

Jacco, J. C.

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, “Nature of the infrared spectrum in the band-edge region of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 560–561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jones, B.

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, B. Jones, “Infrared study of OH- defects in KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5371–5380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, H.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1519–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, M. Olson, G. Arvidsson, F. Laurell, U. Bäder, A. Borsutzky, R. Wallenstein, S. Wickström, M. Gustafsson, “Nanosecond optical parametric oscillator based on large-aperture periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Opt. Lett. 24, 330–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Hellström, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, “First-order type II quasi-phase-matched UV generation in periodically poled KTP,” Opt. Lett. 24, 978–980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3474–3476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, G. Arvidsson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kasinski, J. L.

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 µm in KTP pumped at 1.064 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kück, S.

Laurell, F.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1519–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, M. Olson, G. Arvidsson, F. Laurell, U. Bäder, A. Borsutzky, R. Wallenstein, S. Wickström, M. Gustafsson, “Nanosecond optical parametric oscillator based on large-aperture periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Opt. Lett. 24, 330–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, J. Hellström, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, “First-order type II quasi-phase-matched UV generation in periodically poled KTP,” Opt. Lett. 24, 978–980 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3474–3476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, G. Arvidsson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lindholm, G.

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3 and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2231–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, D. N.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Loiacono, G. L.

Loiacono, G. M.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, “Nature of the infrared spectrum in the band-edge region of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 560–561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McGee, T.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McMullen, J. D.

J. D. McMullen, “Optical parametric interaction in isotropic materials using a phase-corrected stack of nonlinear dielectric plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3076–3081 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P. A.

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, “Influence of water vapor on the susceptibility to electric-field damage of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 799–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, B. Jones, “Infrared study of OH- defects in KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5371–5380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Myers, L. E.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nikolov, V.

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. G.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Bordui, R. Blachman, R. G. Norwood, “Improved optical transmission of KTiOPO4 crystals through cerium-doping and oxygen annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1369–1371 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Olson, M.

Oron, M. B.

D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pasiskevicius, V.

Pierce, J. W.

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramabadran, U. B.

Richter, P. B.

Risk, W. P.

Q. Chen, W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rosenman, G.

G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, X.

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Satyanarayan, M. N.

M. N. Satyanarayan, H. L. Bhat, M. R. Srinivasan, “Effect of thermal annealing on the dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3241–3245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schepler, K. L.

Schmitt, R. L.

Scripsick, M.

R. Stoltzenberger, M. Scripsick, “Recent advancements in the periodic poling and characterization of RTA and its isomorphs,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 23–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siklar, A.

G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Small, D.

Smith, A. V.

Solans, X.

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solé, R.

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, M. R.

M. N. Satyanarayan, H. L. Bhat, M. R. Srinivasan, “Effect of thermal annealing on the dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3241–3245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stoltzenberger, R.

R. Stoltzenberger, M. Scripsick, “Recent advancements in the periodic poling and characterization of RTA and its isomorphs,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 23–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stolzenberger, R. A.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stolzenberger, R. L.

Thomas, P. A.

G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Urenski, P.

G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanherzeele, H.

Wallenstein, R.

Wang, S.

Webb, M. S.

Wickström, S.

Zelmon, D.

Zola, J. J.

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zussman, A.

D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. C. Jacco, G. M. Loiacono, “Nature of the infrared spectrum in the band-edge region of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 560–561 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, “Influence of water vapor on the susceptibility to electric-field damage of KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 799–801 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1519–1521 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3474–3476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, W. Y. Hsu, “Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216–1218 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Bordui, R. Blachman, R. G. Norwood, “Improved optical transmission of KTiOPO4 crystals through cerium-doping and oxygen annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1369–1371 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Loiacono, D. N. Loiacono, J. J. Zola, R. A. Stolzenberger, T. McGee, R. G. Norwood, “Optical properties and ionic conductivity of KTiOAsO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 895–897 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Q. Chen, W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4 using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, G. Arvidsson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. J. Gettemy, W. C. Harker, G. Lindholm, N. P. Barnes, “Some optical properties of KTP, LiIO3 and LiNbO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2231–2237 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Kato, “Parametric oscillation at 3.2 µm in KTP pumped at 1.064 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1137–1140 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. N. Satyanarayan, H. L. Bhat, M. R. Srinivasan, “Effect of thermal annealing on the dielectric properties of KTiOPO4 single crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3241–3245 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McMullen, “Optical parametric interaction in isotropic materials using a phase-corrected stack of nonlinear dielectric plates,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3076–3081 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Morris, M. K. Crawford, B. Jones, “Infrared study of OH- defects in KTiOPO4 crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5371–5380 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Cry. Growth

L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, A. A. Ballman, “Crystal growth of KTiOPO4 isomorphs from tungstate molybdate fluxes,” J. Cry. Growth 110, 697–703 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

R. Solé, X. Ruiz, R. Cabré, J. Gavaldà, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Nikolov, X. Solans, “KTP single crystals grown from neodymium modified fluxes,” J. Cryst. Growth 167, 681–685 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Opt. Soc. America B

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, J. W. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodically poled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, Y. Findling, P. Urenski, A. Englender, P. A. Thomas, Z. W. Hu, “Periodically poled KTiOAsO4 crystals for optical parametric oscillation,” J. Phys. D 32, L49–L50 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

D. Eger, M. B. Oron, M. Katz, A. Zussman, A. Englander, G. Rosenman, A. Siklar, “Frequency doubling in periodically-poled-flux-grown KTP of short period length,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 16–22 (1999).
[CrossRef]

International Organization for Standardization, Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements, 1st ed. (ISO, Geneva, 1995), Chap. 6.

L. T. Cheng, L. K. Cheng, J. D. Bierlein, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the arsenate isomorphs of KTP,” in Growth, Characterization, and Applications of Laser Host and Nonlinear Crystals II, B. H. Chai, ed., Proc. SPIE1863, 43–53 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Stoltzenberger, M. Scripsick, “Recent advancements in the periodic poling and characterization of RTA and its isomorphs,” in Laser Material Crystal Growth and Nonlinear Materials and Devices, L. E. Myers, K. I. Schaffers, eds., Proc. SPIE3610, 23–35 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measurement system setup for (a) 0.3–2.7-µm wavelength transmission measurement with the spectrophotometer and (b) 2–6-µm wavelength transmission measurement with the FTIR spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission window for KTP1 and KTA in the E//z polarization direction. The propagation lengths were 10.0 mm for KTP1 and 10.05 mm for KTA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission window for RTP and RTA in the E//z polarization direction. The propagation lengths were 11.2 mm for RTP and 10.0 mm for RTA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

UV-to-visible wavelength transmission in KTP1. The propagation lengths were 3.0 mm in the E//x polarization direction and 10.0 mm in the E//y and E//z polarization directions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

UV-to-visible wavelength spectra for power absorption coefficient α in all KTP samples for each polarization direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

UV-to-visible wavelength transmission spectra for samples KTP2, RTP, RTA, and KTA in each polarization direction. The propagation length for each sample and polarization direction can be found in Table 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

IR band-edge transmission for all KTP samples in the E//z polarization direction. The propagation length for sample HKTP was 5 mm; it was approximately 10 mm for samples KTP1, KTP2, and KTP3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

IR band-edge transmission for samples KTP2, RTP, RTA, and KTA in all polarization directions. The propagation length for each sample and polarization direction can be found in Table 1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured distribution of absorption lines in all KTP samples caused by hydrogen trapped in the crystal lattice. The propagation length for each sample and propagation direction can be found in Table 1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Difference between OH- defect absorption lines in the E//y polarization direction in sample KTP1 before (dashed curve) and after (solid curve) periodic poling.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured distribution of absorption lines in the RTP, RTA, and KTA samples caused by hydrogen trapped in the crystal lattice. The propagation length for each sample and polarization direction can be found in Table 1.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Transmission measurement uncertainty spectrum u s (λ) for the spectrophotometer measurement system with a 1-mm aperture diameter and t = 2 coverage factor.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Combined power absorption coefficient uncertainty spectrum u αc(λ) for the spectrophotometer measurement system. Equation (5) and data for sample KTP3 in the E//z direction were used for the calculation.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Combined transmission measurement uncertainty spectrum u Tc (λ) for the FTIR spectrometer measurement system. Equation (6) and data for sample KTA in the E//z direction were used for the calculation.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Crystal Sample Dimensions Parallel to the Respective Crystal Axes and Propagation Lengths for each Polarization Direction

Tables Icon

Table 2 KTP Power Absorption Coefficients α for SHG Wavelengths of the 1.064- and 0.946-µm Laser Lines in Nd:YAGa

Tables Icon

Table 3 RTP, RTA, and KTA Power Absorption Coefficients α for SHG Wavelengths of the 1.064- and 0.946-µm Laser Lines in Nd:YAGa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Transmission Cutoff Wavelengths Defined at α = 2 cm-1 a

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Tλ=Sλ-BλRλ.
Tmz=Tz cos2 θ+Ty sin2 θ=Tz+Ty-Tzsin2 θ,
Tmz=Tz+ΔTyzθ2=Tz+ΔTmz,
usλ=tσλ,
uαcλ=αTλ2uss2λ+αl2ul21/2=1Tλl2uss2λ+lnTλl22ul21/2,
uTcλ=TλSλ2+TλBλ2+TλRλ21/2usf2λ=2R2λ+Sλ-BλR2λ21/2usf2λ,

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