Abstract

Tm3+-doped tellurite glass is investigated as a host for a broadband amplifier at 1.47 µm. The Tm3+ fluorescence spectrum, lifetime, and cross section in tellurite glass are compared with those in fluorozirconate glasses. The advantages of a Tm3+–tellurite amplifier, especially when it is employed in combination with an Er3+–tellurite 1.55-µm amplifier, are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, “Highly efficient 1.064 µm upconversion pumped 1.47 µm thulium doped fluoride fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1684–1685 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, I. Aggarwal, “An efficient 1.46 µm thulium fiber laser via a cascade process,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 29, 303–306 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Shen, M. Naftaly, A. Jha, “Broadband 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” presented at the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide Glasses, 6–10 September, 1998, Sheffield, UK.
  8. M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.
  9. M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Nakai, Y. Noda, T. Tani, Y. Mimura, T. Sudo, S. Ohno, “980 nm-pumped Er-doped tellurite-based fiber amplifier,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. M. Baney, K. Emura, J. M. Wiesenfeld, eds. Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 82–85.
  12. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneider, L.-R. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, “The structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).
  17. J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 µm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60-61, 145–149 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (4)

J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, “Highly efficient 1.064 µm upconversion pumped 1.47 µm thulium doped fluoride fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1684–1685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 µm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60-61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, I. Aggarwal, “An efficient 1.46 µm thulium fiber laser via a cascade process,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 29, 303–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.

R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, I. Aggarwal, “An efficient 1.46 µm thulium fiber laser via a cascade process,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 29, 303–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Alcala, R.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, I. Aggarwal, “An efficient 1.46 µm thulium fiber laser via a cascade process,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 29, 303–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, L.

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cases, R.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, I. Aggarwal, “An efficient 1.46 µm thulium fiber laser via a cascade process,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 29, 303–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, A. Jha, “Broadband 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” presented at the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide Glasses, 6–10 September, 1998, Sheffield, UK.

A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, “The structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Jinno, M.

J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, C. K.

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneider, L.-R. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Kani, J.

J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Komukai, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, Y.

T. Nakai, Y. Noda, T. Tani, Y. Mimura, T. Sudo, S. Ohno, “980 nm-pumped Er-doped tellurite-based fiber amplifier,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. M. Baney, K. Emura, J. M. Wiesenfeld, eds. Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 82–85.

Miyajima, Y.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Naftaly, M.

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, A. Jha, “Broadband 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” presented at the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide Glasses, 6–10 September, 1998, Sheffield, UK.

A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, “The structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Nakai, T.

T. Nakai, Y. Noda, T. Tani, Y. Mimura, T. Sudo, S. Ohno, “980 nm-pumped Er-doped tellurite-based fiber amplifier,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. M. Baney, K. Emura, J. M. Wiesenfeld, eds. Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 82–85.

Nishida, Y.

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Noda, Y.

T. Nakai, Y. Noda, T. Tani, Y. Mimura, T. Sudo, S. Ohno, “980 nm-pumped Er-doped tellurite-based fiber amplifier,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. M. Baney, K. Emura, J. M. Wiesenfeld, eds. Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 82–85.

Oguchi, K.

J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Ohno, S.

T. Nakai, Y. Noda, T. Tani, Y. Mimura, T. Sudo, S. Ohno, “980 nm-pumped Er-doped tellurite-based fiber amplifier,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. M. Baney, K. Emura, J. M. Wiesenfeld, eds. Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 82–85.

Oikawa, K.

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, “Highly efficient 1.064 µm upconversion pumped 1.47 µm thulium doped fluoride fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1684–1685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneider, L.-R. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, J.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, S.

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Shen, S.

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, A. Jha, “Broadband 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” presented at the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide Glasses, 6–10 September, 1998, Sheffield, UK.

A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, “The structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

Shimizu, M.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 µm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60-61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 µm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60-61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Spector, N.

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, S.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Sudo, T.

T. Nakai, Y. Noda, T. Tani, Y. Mimura, T. Sudo, S. Ohno, “980 nm-pumped Er-doped tellurite-based fiber amplifier,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. M. Baney, K. Emura, J. M. Wiesenfeld, eds. Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 82–85.

Sugawa, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tani, T.

T. Nakai, Y. Noda, T. Tani, Y. Mimura, T. Sudo, S. Ohno, “980 nm-pumped Er-doped tellurite-based fiber amplifier,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. M. Baney, K. Emura, J. M. Wiesenfeld, eds. Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 82–85.

Terunuma, Y.

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 µm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60-61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 µm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60-61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. R.

R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, “Highly efficient 1.064 µm upconversion pumped 1.47 µm thulium doped fluoride fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1684–1685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Yamamoto, T.

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M.

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. Spector, R. Reisfeld, L. Boehm, “Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+ (4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 49–53 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, H. Ono, K. Kobayashi, T. Kanamori, Y. Ohishi, “Broadband and gain-flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier constructed using a gain equaliser,” Electron. Lett. 34, 370–371 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Noise broadband tellurite-based Er3+-doped fibre amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 34, 887–888 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Percival, J. R. Williams, “Highly efficient 1.064 µm upconversion pumped 1.47 µm thulium doped fluoride fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1684–1685 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Kani, T. Sakamoto, M. Jinno, T. Kanamori, M. Yamada, K. Oguchi, “1470 nm band wavelength division multiplexing transmission,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1118–1119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Komukai, T. Yamamoto, T. Sugawa, Y. Miyajima, “Upconversion pumped thulium-doped fluoride fiber amplifier and laser operating at 1.47 µm,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 31, 1880–1889 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Allen, L. Esterowitz, I. Aggarwal, “An efficient 1.46 µm thulium fiber laser via a cascade process,” IEEE J Quantum Electron. 29, 303–306 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, M. Shimizu, T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, S. Sudo, “1.4-µm-band gain characteristics of a Tm-Ho-doped ZBLYAN fiber amplifier pumped in the 0.8-µm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 983–985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, G. H. Sigel, “1.47, 1.88 and 2.8 µm emissions of Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” J. Lumin. 60-61, 145–149 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, “Tellurite glass: a new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

T. Nakai, Y. Noda, T. Tani, Y. Mimura, T. Sudo, S. Ohno, “980 nm-pumped Er-doped tellurite-based fiber amplifier,” Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, D. M. Baney, K. Emura, J. M. Wiesenfeld, eds. Vol. 25 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 82–85.

R. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” in Handbook of Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneider, L.-R. Eyring, eds. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), Chap. 58, pp. 1–90.
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, S. Shen, M. Naftaly, “The structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B (to be published).

S. Shen, M. Naftaly, A. Jha, “Broadband 1.5 µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” presented at the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide Glasses, 6–10 September, 1998, Sheffield, UK.

M. Yamada, H. Ono, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, Y. Ohishi, “Ultra-broadband and gain-flattened EDFA’s for WDM signals,” in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications, A. Willner, M. Zervas, S. Sasaki, eds., Vol. 16 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper MB1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of Tm3+.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized emission spectra of Tm3+ in (solid curve) tellurite bulk glass (dotted curve) multimode tellurite fiber, and (dashed curve) ZBLAN bulk glass and of (solid curve) Er3+ in tellurite bulk glass.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of Tm3+ in (dashed curve) tellurite glass and in (solid curve) ZBLAN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fluorescence decay of Tm3+ in tellurite glass at 1.47 µm. The solid line is single exponential fit to the data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Losses in tellurite glass: (a) UV absorption edge, (b) IR absorption edge. The fitting parameters are given in Table 2. (c) V curve of losses, calculated from the fitting parameters.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Isochronal differential scanning calorimetry scan of tellurite glass (10°/min), showing T g , T x , and T m . exo, exothermic.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Spectroscopic Parameters of Tm3+-Doped Tellurite and ZBLAN Glasses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Intrinsic Loss Parameters in Tellurite Glass

Equations (2)

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τmp-1=Wmp=W0exp-αΔE,
α=αUV+αIR+αR=AUV expλUV/λ+AIR exp-λIR/λ+R/λ4.

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