Abstract

Considering the large variety of applications for optical glass waveguide gratings, the effective production method of embossing for micropatterning, and the unique advantages of InP-based materials, we expect that hybridization of embossed optical glass waveguide gratings and InP substrates will inevitably lead to new applications in integrated optics. We present our preliminary results of research toward the development of solgel-derived glass waveguide gratings made by embossing on InP. Theoretically, the dependence of the stop-band FWHM and transmission contrast of the grating filter on the grating length, and the relationship between the Bragg grating’s reflective wavelength and the dopant concentration in the solgel waveguide, are obtained. Experimentally, using organically modified silane, we solve the problem of mismatching of SiO2 and InP, and successfully fabricate an embossed glass grating with a second-order Bragg reflection wavelength of 1580 nm and a FWHM of 0.7 nm fabricated upon a solgel waveguide on an InP substrate.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Shacham-Diamond, N. Moriya, G. Bahir, “Electronic properties of metal/sol-gel SiO2/indium-phosphide capacitor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1314–1316 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, “Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3–SiO2 planar waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428–430 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Gruss, K. T. Tam, T. Tamir, “Blazed dielectric gratings with high beam-coupling efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 523–525 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Wagatsuma, H. Sakaki, S. Saito, “Mode conversion and optical filtering of obliquely incident waves in corrugated waveguide filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 632–635 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. I. Najafi, M. Fallahi, “Circular grating surface emitting lasers,” in Nanofabrication Technologies and Device Integration, W. Karthe, ed., Proc. SPIE2213, 178–186 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Nishihara, Y. Handa, T. Suhara, J. Koyama, “Direct writing of optical gratings using a scanning electron microscope,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2342–2345 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, “High-efficiency blazed grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303–305 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. F. Grant, “Glass integrated optical devices on silicon for optical communications,” in Glass Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, ed., Vol. CR53 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 55–80.
  9. J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C. Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, M. N. Amenise, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning of thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 447–450 (1992).
  11. K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, “Maskless photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893–2895 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34, 321–339 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Liu, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Yun, “Experimental and theoretical study of the cracking behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 film on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 341–343 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. I. Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1992).
  15. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959), pp. 50–60.

2000 (1)

J. Liu, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Yun, “Experimental and theoretical study of the cracking behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 film on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 341–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, “Maskless photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893–2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34, 321–339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, “Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3–SiO2 planar waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428–430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning of thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 447–450 (1992).

1991 (1)

Y. Shacham-Diamond, N. Moriya, G. Bahir, “Electronic properties of metal/sol-gel SiO2/indium-phosphide capacitor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1314–1316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Gruss, K. T. Tam, T. Tamir, “Blazed dielectric gratings with high beam-coupling efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 523–525 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

K. Wagatsuma, H. Sakaki, S. Saito, “Mode conversion and optical filtering of obliquely incident waves in corrugated waveguide filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 632–635 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1976 (1)

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, “High-efficiency blazed grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303–305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aizenberg, J.

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, “Maskless photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893–2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. P.

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C. Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, M. N. Amenise, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, T.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, “High-efficiency blazed grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303–305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, “High-efficiency blazed grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303–305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bahir, G.

Y. Shacham-Diamond, N. Moriya, G. Bahir, “Electronic properties of metal/sol-gel SiO2/indium-phosphide capacitor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1314–1316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benatsou, M.

M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, “Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3–SiO2 planar waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428–430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959), pp. 50–60.

Bouazaoui, M.

M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, “Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3–SiO2 planar waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428–430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Breen, T. L.

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, “Maskless photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893–2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capoen, B.

M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, “Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3–SiO2 planar waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428–430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y. C.

J. Liu, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Yun, “Experimental and theoretical study of the cracking behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 film on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 341–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chisham, J. E.

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C. Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, M. N. Amenise, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

S. I. Najafi, M. Fallahi, “Circular grating surface emitting lasers,” in Nanofabrication Technologies and Device Integration, W. Karthe, ed., Proc. SPIE2213, 178–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34, 321–339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grant, M. F.

M. F. Grant, “Glass integrated optical devices on silicon for optical communications,” in Glass Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, ed., Vol. CR53 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 55–80.

Gruss, A.

A. Gruss, K. T. Tam, T. Tamir, “Blazed dielectric gratings with high beam-coupling efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 523–525 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Handa, Y.

Koyama, J.

Krug, H.

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning of thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 447–450 (1992).

Lam, Y. L.

J. Liu, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Yun, “Experimental and theoretical study of the cracking behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 film on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 341–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. Y.

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C. Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, M. N. Amenise, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Yun, “Experimental and theoretical study of the cracking behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 film on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 341–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Merl, N.

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning of thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 447–450 (1992).

Moriya, N.

Y. Shacham-Diamond, N. Moriya, G. Bahir, “Electronic properties of metal/sol-gel SiO2/indium-phosphide capacitor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1314–1316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

S. I. Najafi, M. Fallahi, “Circular grating surface emitting lasers,” in Nanofabrication Technologies and Device Integration, W. Karthe, ed., Proc. SPIE2213, 178–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C. Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, M. N. Amenise, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Namba, S.

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, “High-efficiency blazed grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303–305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

Paul, K. E.

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, “Maskless photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893–2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

K. Wagatsuma, H. Sakaki, S. Saito, “Mode conversion and optical filtering of obliquely incident waves in corrugated waveguide filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 632–635 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

K. Wagatsuma, H. Sakaki, S. Saito, “Mode conversion and optical filtering of obliquely incident waves in corrugated waveguide filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 632–635 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning of thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 447–450 (1992).

Shacham-Diamond, Y.

Y. Shacham-Diamond, N. Moriya, G. Bahir, “Electronic properties of metal/sol-gel SiO2/indium-phosphide capacitor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1314–1316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

Tam, K. T.

A. Gruss, K. T. Tam, T. Tamir, “Blazed dielectric gratings with high beam-coupling efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 523–525 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

A. Gruss, K. T. Tam, T. Tamir, “Blazed dielectric gratings with high beam-coupling efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 523–525 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wagatsuma, K.

K. Wagatsuma, H. Sakaki, S. Saito, “Mode conversion and optical filtering of obliquely incident waves in corrugated waveguide filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 632–635 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959), pp. 50–60.

Yun, Z. S.

J. Liu, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Yun, “Experimental and theoretical study of the cracking behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 film on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 341–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

J. Liu, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Yun, “Experimental and theoretical study of the cracking behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 film on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 341–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. Liu, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. Zhou, Z. S. Yun, “Experimental and theoretical study of the cracking behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 film on InP substrates,” Appl. Phys. A 70, 341–343 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. E. Paul, T. L. Breen, J. Aizenberg, “Maskless photolithography: embossed photoresist as its own optical element,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2893–2895 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoyagi, Y. Aoyagi, S. Namba, “High-efficiency blazed grating couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 303–305 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shacham-Diamond, N. Moriya, G. Bahir, “Electronic properties of metal/sol-gel SiO2/indium-phosphide capacitor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1314–1316 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Benatsou, B. Capoen, M. Bouazaoui, “Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived Er3+:Al2O3–SiO2 planar waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 428–430 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Gruss, K. T. Tam, T. Tamir, “Blazed dielectric gratings with high beam-coupling efficiencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 523–525 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Wagatsuma, H. Sakaki, S. Saito, “Mode conversion and optical filtering of obliquely incident waves in corrugated waveguide filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 632–635 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

H. Krug, N. Merl, H. Schmidt, “Fine patterning of thin sol-gel films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147 & 148, 447–450 (1992).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34, 321–339 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. I. Najafi, ed., Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1992).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1959), pp. 50–60.

S. I. Najafi, M. Fallahi, “Circular grating surface emitting lasers,” in Nanofabrication Technologies and Device Integration, W. Karthe, ed., Proc. SPIE2213, 178–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Grant, “Glass integrated optical devices on silicon for optical communications,” in Glass Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Devices, S. I. Najafi, ed., Vol. CR53 of SPIE Critical Review Series (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 55–80.

J. E. Chisham, M. P. Andrews, C. Y. Li, S. I. Najafi, “Gratings fabrication by ultraviolet light imprinting and embossing in a sol-gel silica glass,” in Functional Photonic and Fiber Devices, M. N. Amenise, S. Najafi, eds., Proc. SPIE2695, 52–56 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Waveguiding upon an ORMOSIL waveguide on InP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index and thickness of the solgel-derived ORMOSIL film versus Ti molar ratio.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic apparatus for embossing upon a solgel-derived glass film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM image of the embossed grating upon a solgel film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the stop-band FWHM and the filter transmission contrast (T max - T min)/(T max + T min) on the grating length.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Grating-resonance wavelength versus grating period and Ti molar ratio in a solgel guiding layer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Second-order Bragg reflection spectrum of the solgel waveguide grating on InP.

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