Abstract

The overall performance of an all-optical packet switching system is usually determined by two criteria, i.e., switching latency and packet loss rate. In some real-time applications, however, in which packets arriving later than a timeout period are discarded as loss, the packet loss rate becomes the most dominant criterion for system performance. Here we focus on evaluating the performance of all-optical packet switches in terms of the packet loss rate, which normally arises from the insufficient hardware or the degradation of an optical signal. Considering both aspects, we propose what we believe is a new analysis model for the packet loss rate that reflects the complicated interactions between physical impairments and system-level parameters. On the basis of the estimation model for signal quality degradation in a multihop path we construct an equivalent analysis model of a switching network for evaluating an average bit error rate. With the model constructed we then propose an integrated model for estimating the packet loss rate in three architectural examples of multihop packet switches, each of which is based on a different switching concept. We also derive the bounds on the packet loss rate induced by bit errors. Finally, it is verified through simulation studies that our analysis model accurately predicts system performance.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1650–1667 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Misawa, M. Tsukada, “Broadcast-and-select photonic ATM switch with frequency division multiplexed output buffers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1769–1777 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Blumenthal, K. Y. Chen, J. Ma, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, “Demonstration of a deflection routing 2 × 2 photonic switch for computer interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 169–173 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. R. Prucnal, “Optically processed self-routing, synchronization, and contention resolution for 1-D and 2-D photonic switching architectures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 600–612 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. W. Seo, B. Y. Yu, P. R. Prucnal, “Bit-level packet-switching all-optical multihop shuffle networks with deflection routing,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3142–3146 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Karol, “Queueing in optical packet switches,” in Multigigabit Fiber Communications, L. G. Kazovsky, K. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE1787, 192–203 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Haas, “The staggering switch: an electronically controlled optical packet switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 925–936 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. Kabacinski, “Mixed tree-benes and tree-clos architectures for large photonic switching networks,” in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Thermoelectrics (ICT) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), Vol. 2, pp. 294–298.
  10. A. Jajszczyk, “A class of directional-coupler-based photonic switching networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 599–603 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1048–1051 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Yao, M. O’Mahony, “Impact of gain saturation on size limitations of semiconductor laser amplifier (SLA) based switching structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Yang, J. G. Yao, “Impact of crosstalk induced beat noise on the size of semiconductor laser amplifier based optical space switch structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, Calif., 1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. H. I. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, S. W. Seo, S. S. Lee, “Design and analysis of an ATM switch based on a distributed network: weaved GSN,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), pp. 1172–1177.
  19. S. Bassi, M. Decina, P. Giacomazzi, A. Pattavina, “Multistage shuffle networks with shortest path and deflection routing for high performance ATM switching: the open-loop shuffleout,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2881–2889 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. A. Tobagi, “Fast packet switch architectures for broadband integrated services digital networks,” Proc. IEEE 78, 133–167 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis of 100Gb/s demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 194–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Misawa, M. Tsukada, “Broadcast-and-select photonic ATM switch with frequency division multiplexed output buffers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1769–1777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Seo, B. Y. Yu, P. R. Prucnal, “Bit-level packet-switching all-optical multihop shuffle networks with deflection routing,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3142–3146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

J. Yao, M. O’Mahony, “Impact of gain saturation on size limitations of semiconductor laser amplifier (SLA) based switching structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, J. G. Yao, “Impact of crosstalk induced beat noise on the size of semiconductor laser amplifier based optical space switch structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1650–1667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Bassi, M. Decina, P. Giacomazzi, A. Pattavina, “Multistage shuffle networks with shortest path and deflection routing for high performance ATM switching: the open-loop shuffleout,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2881–2889 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

Z. Haas, “The staggering switch: an electronically controlled optical packet switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 925–936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Jajszczyk, “A class of directional-coupler-based photonic switching networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 599–603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Prucnal, “Optically processed self-routing, synchronization, and contention resolution for 1-D and 2-D photonic switching architectures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 600–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

D. J. Blumenthal, K. Y. Chen, J. Ma, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, “Demonstration of a deflection routing 2 × 2 photonic switch for computer interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 169–173 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1048–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

F. A. Tobagi, “Fast packet switch architectures for broadband integrated services digital networks,” Proc. IEEE 78, 133–167 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, N.Y., 1997).

Bachmann, M.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, S.

S. Bassi, M. Decina, P. Giacomazzi, A. Pattavina, “Multistage shuffle networks with shortest path and deflection routing for high performance ATM switching: the open-loop shuffleout,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2881–2889 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bendelli, G.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benoi?t, J.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1650–1667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Blumenthal, K. Y. Chen, J. Ma, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, “Demonstration of a deflection routing 2 × 2 photonic switch for computer interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 169–173 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Böttle, D.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouley, J. C.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brillouet, F.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. Y.

D. J. Blumenthal, K. Y. Chen, J. Ma, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, “Demonstration of a deflection routing 2 × 2 photonic switch for computer interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 169–173 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chiaroni, D.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cinato, P.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Decina, M.

S. Bassi, M. Decina, P. Giacomazzi, A. Pattavina, “Multistage shuffle networks with shortest path and deflection routing for high performance ATM switching: the open-loop shuffleout,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2881–2889 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Durhuus, T.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eilenberger, G.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, R. J.

D. J. Blumenthal, K. Y. Chen, J. Ma, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, “Demonstration of a deflection routing 2 × 2 photonic switch for computer interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 169–173 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gabriagues, J. M.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gambini, P.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gavignet, P.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giacomazzi, P.

S. Bassi, M. Decina, P. Giacomazzi, A. Pattavina, “Multistage shuffle networks with shortest path and deflection routing for high performance ATM switching: the open-loop shuffleout,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2881–2889 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1048–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Green, P. E.

P. E. Green, Fiber Optic Networks (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

Haas, Z.

Z. Haas, “The staggering switch: an electronically controlled optical packet switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 925–936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, W.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, J. B.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jajszczyk, A.

A. Jajszczyk, “A class of directional-coupler-based photonic switching networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 599–603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H. Y.

H. I. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, S. W. Seo, S. S. Lee, “Design and analysis of an ATM switch based on a distributed network: weaved GSN,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), pp. 1172–1177.

Joerpensen, C.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jourdan, A.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kabacinski, W.

W. Kabacinski, “Mixed tree-benes and tree-clos architectures for large photonic switching networks,” in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Thermoelectrics (ICT) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), Vol. 2, pp. 294–298.

Kalman, R. F.

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1048–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karol, M. J.

M. J. Karol, “Queueing in optical packet switches,” in Multigigabit Fiber Communications, L. G. Kazovsky, K. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE1787, 192–203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, S.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis of 100Gb/s demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 194–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1048–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. I.

H. I. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, S. W. Seo, S. S. Lee, “Design and analysis of an ATM switch based on a distributed network: weaved GSN,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), pp. 1172–1177.

Lee, S. S.

H. I. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, S. W. Seo, S. S. Lee, “Design and analysis of an ATM switch based on a distributed network: weaved GSN,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), pp. 1172–1177.

Lefèvre, R.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

D. J. Blumenthal, K. Y. Chen, J. Ma, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, “Demonstration of a deflection routing 2 × 2 photonic switch for computer interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 169–173 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martinson, T.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Masetti, F.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, A.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, A.

A. Misawa, M. Tsukada, “Broadcast-and-select photonic ATM switch with frequency division multiplexed output buffers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1769–1777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis of 100Gb/s demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 194–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, M.

J. Yao, M. O’Mahony, “Impact of gain saturation on size limitations of semiconductor laser amplifier (SLA) based switching structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pattavina, A.

S. Bassi, M. Decina, P. Giacomazzi, A. Pattavina, “Multistage shuffle networks with shortest path and deflection routing for high performance ATM switching: the open-loop shuffleout,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2881–2889 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prucnal, P. R.

S. W. Seo, B. Y. Yu, P. R. Prucnal, “Bit-level packet-switching all-optical multihop shuffle networks with deflection routing,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3142–3146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1650–1667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Prucnal, “Optically processed self-routing, synchronization, and contention resolution for 1-D and 2-D photonic switching architectures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 600–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Puleo, M.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswami, R.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, Calif., 1998).

Ratovelomanana, F.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Renaud, M.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis of 100Gb/s demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 194–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, J. R.

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1650–1667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Blumenthal, K. Y. Chen, J. Ma, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, “Demonstration of a deflection routing 2 × 2 photonic switch for computer interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 169–173 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S. W.

S. W. Seo, B. Y. Yu, P. R. Prucnal, “Bit-level packet-switching all-optical multihop shuffle networks with deflection routing,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3142–3146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. I. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, S. W. Seo, S. S. Lee, “Design and analysis of an ATM switch based on a distributed network: weaved GSN,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), pp. 1172–1177.

Sivarajan, K. N.

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, Calif., 1998).

Stubkjaer, K.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis of 100Gb/s demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 194–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tobagi, F. A.

F. A. Tobagi, “Fast packet switch architectures for broadband integrated services digital networks,” Proc. IEEE 78, 133–167 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tsukada, M.

A. Misawa, M. Tsukada, “Broadcast-and-select photonic ATM switch with frequency division multiplexed output buffers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1769–1777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, K.

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis of 100Gb/s demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 194–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vodjdani, N.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, P.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wünstel, K.

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, J. G. Yao, “Impact of crosstalk induced beat noise on the size of semiconductor laser amplifier based optical space switch structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, M. O’Mahony, “Impact of gain saturation on size limitations of semiconductor laser amplifier (SLA) based switching structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. G.

S. Yang, J. G. Yao, “Impact of crosstalk induced beat noise on the size of semiconductor laser amplifier based optical space switch structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. R. Prucnal, “Optically processed self-routing, synchronization, and contention resolution for 1-D and 2-D photonic switching architectures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 600–612 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (4)

D. J. Blumenthal, K. Y. Chen, J. Ma, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, “Demonstration of a deflection routing 2 × 2 photonic switch for computer interconnects,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 169–173 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Kalman, L. G. Kazovsky, J. W. Goodman, “Space division switches based on semiconductor optical amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 1048–1051 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, M. O’Mahony, “Impact of gain saturation on size limitations of semiconductor laser amplifier (SLA) based switching structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Yang, J. G. Yao, “Impact of crosstalk induced beat noise on the size of semiconductor laser amplifier based optical space switch structures,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 7, 176–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

F. Masetti, J. Benoi̇t, F. Brillouet, J. M. Gabriagues, A. Jourdan, M. Renaud, D. Böttle, G. Eilenberger, K. Wünstel, M. Schilling, D. Chiaroni, P. Gavignet, J. B. Jacob, G. Bendelli, P. Cinato, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, T. Martinson, P. Vogel, T. Durhuus, C. Joerpensen, K. Stubkjaer, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, J. C. Bouley, R. Lefèvre, M. Bachmann, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, A. McGuire, F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, “High speed, high capacity ATM optical switches for future telecommunication transport networks,” IEEE Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 979–998 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (2)

S. Bassi, M. Decina, P. Giacomazzi, A. Pattavina, “Multistage shuffle networks with shortest path and deflection routing for high performance ATM switching: the open-loop shuffleout,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 42, 2881–2889 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Jajszczyk, “A class of directional-coupler-based photonic switching networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 599–603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Z. Haas, “The staggering switch: an electronically controlled optical packet switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 925–936 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchiyama, T. Morioka, S. Kawanishi, H. Takara, M. Saruwatari, “Signal-to-noise ratio analysis of 100Gb/s demultiplexing using nonlinear optical loop mirror,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 194–201 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Misawa, M. Tsukada, “Broadcast-and-select photonic ATM switch with frequency division multiplexed output buffers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1769–1777 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

F. A. Tobagi, “Fast packet switch architectures for broadband integrated services digital networks,” Proc. IEEE 78, 133–167 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, “Photonic packet switches: architectures and experimental implementations,” Proc. IEEE 82, 1650–1667 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. I. Lee, H. Y. Jeong, S. W. Seo, S. S. Lee, “Design and analysis of an ATM switch based on a distributed network: weaved GSN,” in Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE Global Communications Conference (Globecom) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), pp. 1172–1177.

W. Kabacinski, “Mixed tree-benes and tree-clos architectures for large photonic switching networks,” in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Thermoelectrics (ICT) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, N.Y., 1998), Vol. 2, pp. 294–298.

M. J. Karol, “Queueing in optical packet switches,” in Multigigabit Fiber Communications, L. G. Kazovsky, K. Liu, eds., Proc. SPIE1787, 192–203 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: a Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, Calif., 1998).

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, N.Y., 1997).

P. E. Green, Fiber Optic Networks (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993).

Cited By

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of switching system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of n × n all-optical SE.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Equivalent analysis model of switching network.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of (n r , n b , n i , n o ) SE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Two possible cases of corrupted bits: (a) consecutive bit errors, (b) at most one bit error per packet.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

N × N Crossbar and illustration of loads offered to the (i, j)th SE.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

N × N Open-loop shuffleout with routing example (N = 8, K = 5).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

N × N Weaved GSN composed of K GSN planes (N = 8, K = 2, k = 2, k′ = 2).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

State transition diagram of jth GSN.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Model for SE in jth GSN and (b) state transition diagram of optical buffer at each SE.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Number of SE traversals versus switch size.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Q factor due to ASE versus switch size when ρ = 0.8.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Q factor due to crosstalk versus switch size when ρ = 0.8.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Q factor due to crosstalk versus switch size when C r = 30 dB.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Q factor due to timing jitter versus switch size when σ = 1.0 ps.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Packet loss probability of the crossbar when C r = 30 dB, σ = 1.0 ps, and ρ = 0.8.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Packet loss probability of the open-loop shuffleout when C r = 20 dB, σ = 2.0 ps, and ρ = 0.8.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Packet loss probability of the weaved GSN when C r = 25 dB, σ = 1.0 5 ps, and ρ = 0.8.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Notation

Equations (50)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G=G0 exp-G-1GPoutPsat,
PSIGi=Pini=0LinLoutLsplGPSIGi-1i=1,, j,
Sspν=pnspG-1hν,
PASEi=0i=0LinLoutLsplGPASEi-1+LoutSspνΔνi=1,, j,
PXTi=0i=0LinLoutLsplGPXTi-1+12k=1n-1kPXi=kCr LinLoutLsplGPtoti-1i=1,, j,
σi=iσ.
P¯SIG=j=1K PSIGHjμjj=1K μj,
P¯ASE=j=1K PASEHjμjj=1K μj,
P¯XT=j=1K PXTHjμjj=1K μj,
RINτ=j=1KRINHj, τμjj=1K μj.
Ī=Īp+ΔĪ,
σ12=σSIGASE2+σSIGXT2+σASEASE2+σXTXT2+σRIN2+σT2,
σ02=σASEASE2+σXTXT2+σT2,
BER=½ erfcQ/2,
Q=RP¯SIG/σ0+σ1.
η/Lζη.
η/Lζ.
ζη.
BERPLeBERL.
PLeη/L1/pη/LL/Nη/LL/N=BER,
PLeη/pηL/N=BERL.
PL=1-1-PLeρj=1K μj.
ρhy=N-y+1/Nρ,
ρvx=1-1-ρ/NN-x.
Proutek=1-ρvk+12 ρvk1-ρN+12ρNk-1.
Pj=x, y|x+y=j+1,
μj=ρN2k=1j ProutekjNρN2k=j-N+1N Proutekj>N.
PXi=1=1jk=1j-i+1 ρvk+k=1i-1 ρhk  jN12N-jk=j-N+1N ρvk  j>N j-iN-112N-jk=j-N+1j-i+1 ρvk+k=j-N+1i-1 ρhk  j>N j-i<N-1,
PXi=0=1-PXi=1,
PL=1-1/ρ1-1-ρ/NN.
ρ1,d=½log2N-dρ1dlog2N-1½log2N-1ρd=0.
μj=1-ρj,0+¾ ρj,0ρj,0.
PXi=1=d=0log2N-1 ρi,d,
PXi=0=1-PXi=1,
ρi+1,d=Proutei, d+1ρi,d+10dlog2 N-2k=0log2N-1 Pdefi, kρi,kd=log2 N-1,
Proutei, d=1-k=1d ρi,k+34 ρi,d+k=1d-112 ρi,k,
Pdefi, d=12k=1d-1 ρi,k+14 ρi,d1dlog2 N-114 ρi,0d=0,
Hj=i=1jEhi+Ebij+j,
ρj+1=ρj-μj,
hi,j=1-βj-γc,jhi-1,j+γc,jhi,j+βjhi+k-1,j+1-γc,j  1ik1-γdc,jhi-1,j+γdc,jhi,j+1-γdc,jk+1ik+k-1.
θ01,j=πj21-αj2ρj+2πj21-αjαjρj+πj21-αj2×1-ρj+2πj1-αj1-πjρj½1-δj2.
θ10,j=1-πj21-ρj+21-πjπjαj1-ρj+1-πj2ρj+2πj1-αj1-πj1-ρj+2πjαj1-πjρj+2πj21-αjαj1-ρj×δj2+2δj1-δj+½1-δj2.
λj=θ01,j/θ01,j+θ10,j
ρj+1=πj21-αj2ρjλj+2πj21-αjαjρjλj+πj2+1-αj21-ρjλj+ρj1-λj+2πj1-αj1-πjρjλj¼1-δj3.
βju=⅟₃₂1-δj3λj2πj+ρj+λjπj21-αj2ρj+ρj2πj+ρj+λjπ21-αj2λj+2πj1-αj2πj+ρj+λjπj1-αjρjλj.
PXi=3=4πi2ρiλi2πi+ρi+λi,
PXi=2=3πi2πi+ρi+λi21-πiρiλi+πiρi1-λi+πi1-ρiλi,
PXi=1=22πi+ρi+λiπi21-ρi1-λi+2πi1-πiρi1-λi+2πi1-πi×1-ρiλi+1-πi2ρiλi,
PXi=0=12πi+ρi+λi2πi1-πi1-ρi×1-λi+1-πi2ρi1-λi+21-πi21-ρiλi.
PLe=1-1-BERL,BERL,  BERL  1.

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