Abstract

A simple and sensitive mode-mismatched thermal lens (TL) technique with a pulsed top-hat beam excitation and a near-field detection scheme is developed to measure in situ the thermoelastic and the thermooptical responses of ultraviolet (UV) dielectric coatings as well as bulk materials under excimer laser (193- or 248-nm) irradiations. Owing to its high sensitivity, the TL technique can be used for measurements at fluences far below the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). We report on the measurement of both linear and nonlinear absorption of the UV dielectric coatings and bulk materials as well as the investigation of time-resolved predamage phenomena, such as laser conditioning of highly reflective dielectric coatings and irradiation-induced changes of a coating’s various properties. The pulsed TL technique is also a convenient technique for accurate measurement of the LIDT of dielectric coatings and for distinguishing different damage mechanisms: thermal-stress-induced damage or melting-induced damage.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Sauerbrey, Electrooptics Handbook, R. W. Waynant, M. N. Ediger, eds., Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994), Chap. 3.
  2. J. S. Horwitz, H.-U. Krebs, K. Murakami, M. Stuke, eds., Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Laser Ablation, Appl. Phys. A Suppl.69 (1999).
  3. E. Welsch, D. Ristau, “Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7239–7253 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, R. M. Gilgenbach, “Laser beam deflection as a probe of laser ablation of materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435–2437 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Li, E. Welsch, “Probe-beam diffraction in a pulsed top-hat beam thermal lens with a mode-mismatched configuration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5241–5249 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Li, S. Martin, E. Welsch, “Pulsed top-hat beam thermal-lens measurement for ultraviolet dielectric coatings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1398–1400 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. K. Kuo, M. Munidasa, “Single-beam interferometry of a thermal bump,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5326–5331 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, S. T. Gu, “Laser-induced surface thermal lensing for thin film characterization,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 294–303 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, “Absorption behavior of optical coatings for high-average-power laser applications,” Appl. Opt. 39, 650–658 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Li, E. Welsch, “Configuration optimization and sensitivity comparison among thermal lens, photothermal deflection and interference detection techniques,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 594–603 (1999).
  13. B. C. Li, “Three-dimensional theory of pulsed photothermal deformation,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 482–487 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. V. Buntsents, S. G. Dmitriev, O. G. Shagimuratov, “Instantaneous profiles of quasistatic deformations and displacements of solid surfaces during local laser irradiation,” Phys. Solid State 38, 552–557 (1996).
  15. S. E. Bialkowski, A. Chartier, “Diffraction effects in single- and two-laser photothermal lens spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6711–6721 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Li, S. Martin, E. Welsch, “Thermoelastic influence of substrate on damage threshold of ultraviolet dielectric coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 145–153 (2000).
  17. E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color-center formation in ultraviolet-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).
  18. R. K. Brimacombe, R. S. Taylar, K. E. Leopold, “Dependence of the nonlinear transmission properties of fused silica fibers on excemer laser wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4035–4040 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–624 (1999).
  20. O. Apel, K. Mann, “Scatter and absorption losses from DUV optics: a comparative study,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 460–469 (2000).
  21. E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5613–5619 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Microstructure and radiation interactions of optical interference coatings for 193 nm applications,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macloed, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 159–165 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Changes in optical interference coatings exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 83–95 (1999).

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

1997 (3)

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Bialkowski, A. Chartier, “Diffraction effects in single- and two-laser photothermal lens spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6711–6721 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color-center formation in ultraviolet-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).

S. V. Buntsents, S. G. Dmitriev, O. G. Shagimuratov, “Instantaneous profiles of quasistatic deformations and displacements of solid surfaces during local laser irradiation,” Phys. Solid State 38, 552–557 (1996).

E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5613–5619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1990 (2)

P. K. Kuo, M. Munidasa, “Single-beam interferometry of a thermal bump,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5326–5331 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Li, “Three-dimensional theory of pulsed photothermal deformation,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 482–487 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, R. M. Gilgenbach, “Laser beam deflection as a probe of laser ablation of materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435–2437 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Brimacombe, R. S. Taylar, K. E. Leopold, “Dependence of the nonlinear transmission properties of fused silica fibers on excemer laser wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4035–4040 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anton, B.

Apel, O.

O. Apel, K. Mann, “Scatter and absorption losses from DUV optics: a comparative study,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 460–469 (2000).

K. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–624 (1999).

Bialkowski, S. E.

Blaschke, H.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Microstructure and radiation interactions of optical interference coatings for 193 nm applications,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macloed, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 159–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Changes in optical interference coatings exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 83–95 (1999).

Brimacombe, R. K.

R. K. Brimacombe, R. S. Taylar, K. E. Leopold, “Dependence of the nonlinear transmission properties of fused silica fibers on excemer laser wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4035–4040 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Buntsents, S. V.

S. V. Buntsents, S. G. Dmitriev, O. G. Shagimuratov, “Instantaneous profiles of quasistatic deformations and displacements of solid surfaces during local laser irradiation,” Phys. Solid State 38, 552–557 (1996).

Chartier, A.

Chow, R.

Dmitriev, S. G.

S. V. Buntsents, S. G. Dmitriev, O. G. Shagimuratov, “Instantaneous profiles of quasistatic deformations and displacements of solid surfaces during local laser irradiation,” Phys. Solid State 38, 552–557 (1996).

Ettrich, K.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eva, E.

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color-center formation in ultraviolet-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).

E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5613–5619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–624 (1999).

Gilgenbach, R. M.

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, R. M. Gilgenbach, “Laser beam deflection as a probe of laser ablation of materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435–2437 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Görtler, A.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Changes in optical interference coatings exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 83–95 (1999).

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Microstructure and radiation interactions of optical interference coatings for 193 nm applications,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macloed, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 159–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. T.

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, S. T. Gu, “Laser-induced surface thermal lensing for thin film characterization,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 294–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hacker, E.

Heber, J.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Changes in optical interference coatings exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 83–95 (1999).

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Microstructure and radiation interactions of optical interference coatings for 193 nm applications,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macloed, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 159–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heffelfinger, D. M.

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, R. M. Gilgenbach, “Laser beam deflection as a probe of laser ablation of materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435–2437 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Henking, R.

Kaiser, N.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5613–5619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Microstructure and radiation interactions of optical interference coatings for 193 nm applications,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macloed, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 159–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Changes in optical interference coatings exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 83–95 (1999).

Kozlowski, M.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, P. K.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kuo, M. Munidasa, “Single-beam interferometry of a thermal bump,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5326–5331 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, S. T. Gu, “Laser-induced surface thermal lensing for thin film characterization,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 294–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leinhos, U.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Changes in optical interference coatings exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 83–95 (1999).

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Microstructure and radiation interactions of optical interference coatings for 193 nm applications,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macloed, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 159–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leopold, K. E.

R. K. Brimacombe, R. S. Taylar, K. E. Leopold, “Dependence of the nonlinear transmission properties of fused silica fibers on excemer laser wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4035–4040 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

B. Li, S. Martin, E. Welsch, “Pulsed top-hat beam thermal-lens measurement for ultraviolet dielectric coatings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1398–1400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, E. Welsch, “Probe-beam diffraction in a pulsed top-hat beam thermal lens with a mode-mismatched configuration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5241–5249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, E. Welsch, “Configuration optimization and sensitivity comparison among thermal lens, photothermal deflection and interference detection techniques,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 594–603 (1999).

B. Li, S. Martin, E. Welsch, “Thermoelastic influence of substrate on damage threshold of ultraviolet dielectric coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 145–153 (2000).

Li, B. C.

B. C. Li, “Three-dimensional theory of pulsed photothermal deformation,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 482–487 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. S.

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, S. T. Gu, “Laser-induced surface thermal lensing for thin film characterization,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 294–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mademann, D.

Mann, K.

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color-center formation in ultraviolet-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).

E. Eva, K. Mann, N. Kaiser, B. Anton, R. Henking, D. Ristau, P. Weissbrodt, D. Mademann, L. Raupach, E. Hacker, “Laser conditioning of LaF3/MgF2 dielectric coatings at 248 nm,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5613–5619 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Apel, K. Mann, “Scatter and absorption losses from DUV optics: a comparative study,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 460–469 (2000).

K. Mann, O. Apel, E. Eva, “Characterization of absorption and scatter losses on optical components for ArF excimer lasers,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 614–624 (1999).

Martin, S.

B. Li, S. Martin, E. Welsch, “Pulsed top-hat beam thermal-lens measurement for ultraviolet dielectric coatings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1398–1400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, S. Martin, E. Welsch, “Thermoelastic influence of substrate on damage threshold of ultraviolet dielectric coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 145–153 (2000).

Munidasa, M.

Raupach, L.

Ristau, D.

Sauerbrey, R.

R. Sauerbrey, Electrooptics Handbook, R. W. Waynant, M. N. Ediger, eds., Optical and Electro-Optical Engineering Series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994), Chap. 3.

Schäfer, D.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sell, J. A.

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, R. M. Gilgenbach, “Laser beam deflection as a probe of laser ablation of materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435–2437 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shagimuratov, O. G.

S. V. Buntsents, S. G. Dmitriev, O. G. Shagimuratov, “Instantaneous profiles of quasistatic deformations and displacements of solid surfaces during local laser irradiation,” Phys. Solid State 38, 552–557 (1996).

Stolz, C.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taylar, R. S.

R. K. Brimacombe, R. S. Taylar, K. E. Leopold, “Dependence of the nonlinear transmission properties of fused silica fibers on excemer laser wavelength,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4035–4040 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Thielsch, R.

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Microstructure and radiation interactions of optical interference coatings for 193 nm applications,” in Advances in Optical Interference Coatings, C. Amra, A. Macloed, eds., Proc. SPIE3738, 159–165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Heber, R. Thielsch, H. Blaschke, N. Kaiser, U. Leinhos, A. Görtler, “Changes in optical interference coatings exposed to 193-nm excimer laser radiation,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 83–95 (1999).

Thomsen, M.

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen-Schmidt, P.

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ventzek, P.

J. A. Sell, D. M. Heffelfinger, P. Ventzek, R. M. Gilgenbach, “Laser beam deflection as a probe of laser ablation of materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2435–2437 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weissbrodt, P.

Welsch, E.

B. Li, E. Welsch, “Probe-beam diffraction in a pulsed top-hat beam thermal lens with a mode-mismatched configuration,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5241–5249 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Li, S. Martin, E. Welsch, “Pulsed top-hat beam thermal-lens measurement for ultraviolet dielectric coatings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1398–1400 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, K. Ettrich, H. Blaschke, P. Thomsen-Schmidt, D. Schäfer, N. Kaiser, “Investigation of the absorption induced damage in ultraviolet dielectric thin films,” Opt. Eng. 36, 504–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Welsch, D. Ristau, “Photothermal measurements on optical thin films,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7239–7253 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Li, S. Martin, E. Welsch, “Thermoelastic influence of substrate on damage threshold of ultraviolet dielectric coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1999, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3902, 145–153 (2000).

B. Li, E. Welsch, “Configuration optimization and sensitivity comparison among thermal lens, photothermal deflection and interference detection techniques,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1998, G. J. Exarhos, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, K. L. Lewis, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE3578, 594–603 (1999).

Wu, Z. L.

R. Chow, J. R. Taylor, Z. L. Wu, “Absorption behavior of optical coatings for high-average-power laser applications,” Appl. Opt. 39, 650–658 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, M. Thomsen, P. K. Kuo, Y. Lu, C. Stolz, M. Kozlowski, “Photothermal characterization of optical thin film coatings,” Opt. Eng. 36, 251–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wu, P. K. Kuo, Y. S. Lu, S. T. Gu, “Laser-induced surface thermal lensing for thin film characterization,” in 27th Annual Boulder Damage Symposium: Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1995, H. E. Bennett, A. H. Guenther, M. R. Kozlowski, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2714, 294–303 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

E. Eva, K. Mann, “Calorimetric measurement of two-photon absorption and color-center formation in ultraviolet-window materials,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 143–149 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of mode-mismatched surface TL technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical top-hat profile of the excimer irradiation beam at the sample surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical single-shot TL signal recorded with a HR coating sample irradiated with a fluence slightly higher than the damage threshold at 248 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Maximum amplitude (squares) and decay time (circles) of the TL signal as a function of fluence, for a pure copper plate irradiated at 248 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement of the quartz bulk at 193 nm. (a) TL signals at 0.97 (bottom) and 1.95 J/cm2 (top), (b) the relative absorption as a function of fluence.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Laser conditioning of HR LaF3/MgF2 multilayer on CaF2 substrate sample at different fluences below the LIDT, at 193 nm. Filled circles, relative absorption; open circles, decay time of the TL signal; inset, TL signal of the first shot at 0.49 J/cm2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

TL signal amplitude versus laser fluence for HR LaF3/MgF2 multilayer on CaF2 substrate sample at 193 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

TL signals at fluences above the LIDT and optical images of the corresponding damaged sites for a HR HfO2/SiO2 coating deposited on quartz [(a) and (b)] and copper [(c) and (d)] substrates, respectively. Image (b) is at the fluence of 5.02 J/cm2, and image (d) is at the fluence of 1.69 J/cm2.

Equations (3)

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hmax  0ldz 0 αzIz, tdt  AcF,
d=Aπa2/λ,
Smax=B2π/λ2hmax,

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